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Full text of "History of Cumberland and Adams counties, Pennsylvania.|bContaining history of the counties; their townships, towns, villages, schools, churches, industries, etc.; portraits of early settlers and prominent men; biographies; history of Pennsylvania, statistical and miscellaneous matter, etc., etc"

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Gettysburg College 


Presented by 

John B. Keith »37 


Mrs. C. Harold Johnson 

in memory of 
their father 

Atty. John D. Keith 
Class of 1899 







v \m -,* 

»•%' \v •• 





Containing History of the Counties, Their Townships, Towns, 

Villages, Schools, Churches, Industries, Etc.; Portraits of 

Early Settlers and Prominent men; Biographies; 

History of Pennsylvania, Statistical and 

Miscellaneous Matter, etc., etc. 











IN presenting the Historj of Cumberland and Llama Ooontiea bo its pa 
3] the publishers bave to acknowledge, with gratitude, the encour 
,1 and Buppori their enterpi i assist- 

"ut the many unforesei n 
ae1 with La the production of a work of su ide To procure 

the materials tor ite epilation, official records bave been carefully exam 

ievrepaper til. arched; manuscripts, letters and memoranda have 

• interviewed; and the wholi 
, l has l u so collated and systematized as to render it easy of refer 

11.' who expects to find the work entirely free from errors or defects has 
little knowledge of the difficulties attending the preparation of a wi 
kind, and should indulgently bear in mind that "it is much easier 

ct." ' It is, th.-r.-r. mc. trusted thai the History will 
I , N the public in thai generous spirit which is gratified at honesl 
and conscientious effort. 

The publishers have been fortunate in securing the services of a staff of 
g historians, who have been materially assisted bj th 
and of the various professions, by the public of] 
and „, is of both counties, of whom personal mention would 

^ladlv here be made, did apace pe: 

The book has been divided into" three parts The outline history of the 
Stat.- in Part I, is from the pen of Prof. Samuel P 

.ill... Penn. The genen ; Cumberland County, in Part II, 

rritten, tor the most part, by P. A. Durant and J. Fraise Richard 
Chapter YH1 ("B Bar") and the sketch 

i I County, in the same part, being pre 
i Bellman. Part DI contain the History of Adams Conn 
hroniclesofwbichwereuiitt.n bj H. C. Brad 
LngChapter X ("Natural Historj of Adams County") and Chapter XX 

on"), which are from the pen of Aaron Sheely, of Gettysl 
whil.- the i I" 1 Boroughs of Adams Cot <<■■ Part III, 

have been treated of bj M I The Biographical p.partment of 

each county is of special interest, and those of whom portrait* have been in 
I are found among the n - 1 the twocounties. 

The volume, which is one of generou placed in the 

la of the public with the belief that it will be found to be a valuabli 
ri but ion to local literal 1 1 


/ <-//„ Lt 4,,r 





[ej 1824 85. William Van Hulsl 
M limit, 1626-33. David Pi 


. ! R II ->ir William B 
Peter Minuit, ndaer, 

IW1-M. Johi 3tny- 

.lohn I «*-83 

i i i: [XL— John Paul Ja< q 

ran Van Dyok. 
man, 1668-63. Alex. 
ri'IIiuoyossa. II 33-85 

ill v I- 1 ! . 1664-67 Rob- 

ert Seedhai 

ihn Parr, 1668-78. Anthony 
1678-74 Petei ' 

: 11 V.— Sir Edmund Andros, U 
Kdmund Cantwell, 1674 76 John Collier, 

latopher Billop, 1677-81 41-60 

CM IPTEB vi. William Markham, II 

William Penn, 1682-81 51 61 


nissioners, 1666-88. John Blackwell, 

t\. William 
Markham. 169 Fli idler, 

William Markham. II 

: K VIII -William Penn, 1699 1701. 
Andrew Kami I n ird 3hip- 

■ I harles 

i'ai. i' 
CHAPTEB IX.— Sir William Keith, 1717-26. 

Patrick loi i ' Logan 

17. Anthony 

Palmer, 1747 IE Jami t Hamilton 1748-54 

CHAPTEB X.— Bobert II Morris, 1754 58 W I 

Ham L76i 8 James Hamilion, 


CHAPTEB M John Perm. 1768 II, .Tames 
Hamilton, 1771 Rii hard Penn, 1771 78. 
John Penn, it?:: 76 98-104 

CHAPTEB XII.— Thomas Wharton, Jr., 1777- 
78. Gi aBeea,1778 

-81. William Moon • ' lohn 1 1 
son. i min Franklin, 1785-88 

EB Xm.— Thomas Uifflln, 1788-99. 
Thomas MoKi ■ vder, 

1808-1 ' in Findlay, 1817-20 roeepfa 
Helster.l ohn 

Jon oh B 
183549 HI 1-1 

CHAPTER XIV.— David 1889-45. 
-hunk, 1846 lv William F. 
Johnston, 1848 12 William Blgler, 1862-55. 
John Pollock 1855-68. William F. Packer, 
1868 hi Andrew ' r. I urtin, 1861 67. .Tohn 
w Geary. 1867-78 John F llariranft, 
1873 7s Henry F. Ho 
i: Patttson, 1882-86 12! 181 

. nal.rial Tabic 132 



I R L— DBS) KI1T1VI. 8 7 

iby — i leology— Topography, etc. 


"Loulher If anor," etc.— Taxes paid from 

oun In the 

North Valley— Taxabli inty in 

VOA Animals and 

Fish— Customs and Habits— Formation of 
Townships and Boroughs— Lai d- 

CHAPTER in— i Nhi an History 41-66 

and Indian War— Pontlac's War. 

■ HAJPTEB iv.-ii.i-.n Org ikizatioi 68 77 


: ml. I 

ini;s -In- 

Roada— RaU- 

i II.M'II.U V.— MlMlAl'.v 77-108 


Cumberland Couiity ia the Revolution— 
The Whisky Insurrection— The War of 1812 
—The Mexican War. 

CHAPTER VI.— Military (Continued) 109-130 

Carlisle Barracks— Cumberland County in 
the War of the Rebellion. 

CHAPTER VII.— Courts 130-138 

County Officials— Members of Congress, 
Senators and Assemblymen. 

CHAPTER VIII.— Bench and Bar 138-170 

Provincial Period— From the Revolution 
Until the Adoption of the Constitution of 
1790— Constitutional Period. 

CHAPTER IX.— Medical . .......170-187 

Biographical— Physicians in Cumberland 
County since 1879— Physicians in Cumber- 
land County Registered in Office of Protho- 
notary at Carlisle— Cumberland County 
Medical Society. 

CHAPTER X— The Press .188-196 

Of Carlisle— Of Shippenshurg— Of Me- 
cbanicsburg— Of Newville— Of Mount Holly. 

CHAPTER XI.— Educational 195-206 

Legal History— Early Schools— Dickinson 
College— Met/.gar Female Institute— Indian 
Industrial School— Cumberland Valley State 
Normal School— Teachers' Institute— Coun- 
ty Superintendents. 


Presbyterian Church— Episcopal Church 

— Methodist Church — Roman Catholic 
Church— Herman Reformed church— Luth- 
eran Church— Church of God — German 
Baptists— United Brethren— The Mennon- 
ites— Evangelical Association. 

CHAPTER XIII —Political 221-222 

Slavery in Cumberland County, etc. 

CHAPTER XIV.— Agricultural .....225-228 

Cumberland County Agricultural society 
—Grangers' Picnic-Exhibition, Williams' 
CHAPTER XV.— The Formation of Town- 
ships, etc 228-22'.' 

The First Proprietary Manor— Formation 
of Townships— Organization of Boroughs. 

CHAPTER XVI.— Borough of Carlisle....229-218 
Its Inception — Survey — First Things- 
Meeting of Captives— Revolutionary Period 
—War of 1812— Growth of the Town, etc.— 
The Borough in 1846— McClintook Riot- 
War of the Rebellion— Situation, Public 
Buildings, etc. — Churches — Cemeteries — 
Schools, Institutes and College— Newspapers 
—Manufacturing Establishments, etc.— Gas 
and Water Company— Societies— Conclusion. 

CHAPTER XVII.^Borough of Mechanics- 

buro 249-256 

Its Beginning— Growth— William Arm- 
strong— Population— War of the Rebellion 

— Schools and Educational Institutes- 
Churches — Newspapers — Public Hall and 
Market House— Banking Institutions— Gas 
and Water Company— Societies— Conclusion. 

CHAPTER XVIII.— Borough of Shippens- 

B0Kli 257-268 

Its First Settlement— Early Reminiscences 
—List of Original Land Purchasers— Early 
Hotels in Shippenshurg— Churches— Cem- 
eteries — Schools — Newspapers — Bank — 

CHAPTER XIX. — Borough of 

TOWN ■ 21IS-209 

Locality— Origin of Name— Churches- 
Societies— Miscellaneous. 


CHAPTER XX.— Cook Township 269-270 

Formation — Topography — Roads — Pine 
Grove Furnace and Laurel Forge— George 
Stevenson— Postoffice and Railroad. 

CHAPTER XXI.— Dickinson Township 270-275 

Formation — Topography — Railroads- 
Original Settlers, Early Land-Owners and 
Settlers— Negro Kidnaping— Hotel, etc.— 
Churches— Schools, etc. 

CHAPTER XXII. — East PenhsbobOUOH 
Township and Borough of Camp Hill 

Origin— Name— Boundary— Early History 
—Villages — Miscellaneous — Borough -of 
Camp Hill — Location, etc. — Name, etc. — 
Church and Cemetery. 

CHAPTER XXIII.— Frankford Township 


Formation — Boundary — Topography — 
Earliest Settlers— The Butler Family— Vil- 

CHAPTER XXIV.— Hampden TOWNSHIP...286-290 

Formation — Boundary — Topography — 

Early Settlers— Mills, Bridges, etc.— The 

Indians— Paxtou Manor in Hampden — 

Churches— Hamlets— Miscellaneous. 


Borough of Nkwburg 290 198 

Formation — Topography — Early Settle- 
ment—The Bradys— Hopewell Academy — 
Miscellaneous — Borough of Newburg— 
Location— The Village in 1819, 1S45 and 
1886— "The Sunny Side Female Seminary." 

CHAPTER XXVI.— Lower Allen Township 
and Borough of New Cumberland...29k-3»6 

Formation, Locality, Boundary, etc. — In- 
dians — Early Settlers— Character of Soil, etc. 
— Lisburn — Milltown — Churches — Ceme- 
teries— Schools— Miscellaneous— Borough 
of New Cumberland— Location — Origin 
— Early Incidents and Industries — Incorpo- 
ration— Railro ids, etc. — New Cumberland 
of To-day— Churches— Miscellaneous. 

CHAPTER XXVII.— Middlesex Township 


Formation, Boundary and Topography- 
Railroad— Early Settlers — Middlesex — Car- 
lisle Springs— Miscellaneous. 

CHAPTER XXVIII.— Mifflin Township..307-312 
Formatiou, Boundary and Topography — 
Indian Trail and Vill.ig. — First Settlement 
—The William- .n M •.» hmI other Early 
Incidents — Block Houses — Capt. Samuel 
Brady-First Settlers Along Big Run- 
Early Roads, Viewers, etc.— Sulphur Spring!, 
etc.— Churches— Miscellaneous. 

CHAPTER XXIX.— Monroe Township 316 317 

Formation — Boundary — Topography — 
First Settlers— Churches and Cemetery — 
Schools, Industries, etc. — Villages. 

CHAPTER XXX.— Newton Township and 

Borough of Nevvvillk 317-327 

Formation — Boundary — Topography — 
General Description— Indian Pack Trail- 
Fort Carnahan— Early Settlers— The Sharp 
Family— Other Pioneers— Villages— Miscel- 
laneous — Borough of Newville — Loca- 
tion — Incorporation — First Settlement — 
First Sale of Lots— First Hotels. Stores, etc. 
Incorporation, etc. — An Historical Charac- 
ter — Churches— Cemetery — Educational In- 
stitutions — Newspapers — Banks— Fire De- 

CHAPTER XXXI.— North Middlkton Town- 

Origin — Boundary — Description — Early 
Settlers— "Heads of Families"— The Cave- 
Meeting House Springs— The Grave-yard at 
Meeting House Springs — Miscellaneous. 


i iidus- 
P or Settlers— VII- 

OHAF1 I B EXXTIl --n \ i n -n:is. i 

^111 1- 

Formation — Boundary, 

UK' I.' 

iwo- New Kin 
— Km - 

• TV— 

■ ins. 

c H utfi: \\\iv - [ rWH- 

l bar- 


—Middle Spring Chun raro— 

Mi. II 


CHAPTE1 -.i in Mil i i 

Hoi i v Bpbiw 


Earh i:. i.m.i . .in . i in i v Bettlemenl 
anil l i ii — In- 

, .it , ■ i. Churchi 




ill U'I'Kl: \ WVI1. v .ii 


[te Origin— 




i *05 


Borough of 442 

Bhiremmnatown, Borough of *86 

Cook Co* ashlp 458 

ship 469 

East Penneborougb Township and liorough of 

1 1 ill 465 

Frank for i Township 476 

I township 479 

Hopewell Tow nsbip ai & I 

Lower Allen rowiahl] I Borough of New 

Cumberland 492 

Middlesex Township 498 


i OH DShlp 

i|. 517 

North Hlddleton Townshl) 525 


Silver Sprit o3s 

Southampton Townabi] 546 

South Mi. 1. 11. ion Township and Borough of 

Mount Holly Springs 649 

I pper All , 562 

Weal Pennsborougb Township 574 


.Mil, i . W 123 

Ahl, Daniel V 268 

Ahl.John A 188 

Ahl, Peter A 868 

Ahl, Thomas W 213 

Bottler, Abraham 48 

□ever, George 293 

Coyle, Janus 283 

lam W.,M. I) 83 

Gorges, S, I' 58 

'■ii William E 23 

Heiontii, D 78 

Herman. A. .1., M. |i 103 

Mutton. .lohn 

Kauttinan, Levi 273 

l: .A. M . M. Ii 63 

Manning, II 243 


Miller, Capt ™\ E i 


Moore, i A I 

Moser, lion. II G Part 1, 

M.illin. A. F ! 


w. ■ 

Plank, A. W.. 

■ apt i: II 

i:. i. i I' ! 

lion. W. F 

: . M. I) 

Snyder, Bimon I 

Stewart, Alex.M.D 

i: ii 

When Parti, 

Wing, ttev ' onwayF 




CHAPTER L— Introductory a " 

CHAPTER II —The Indians • : 7-1'' 

French aud Indian War— Mary Jamison, 
The Indian Queen— Hance Hamilton— Mc- 
Cord's Fort— Associated Companies in York 
'County in 1756. 

CHAPTER ni.— The Mason and Dixon Line 

"German, Scotch 1 rish and Jesuit Immigra- 
tion in 1734 — Lord Baltimore and William 
Penn— Border Troubles— Temporary Divid- 
ing Line— Mason aud Dixon-Their Survey 
—Thomas Cresap— " Diggcs' Choice — Zacn- 
ary Butcher. 

CHAPTER IV.— First Settler .....14-17 

Andrew Shriver-Extracts from Hon. 
Ahraham Shriver's Memoir— Early Settlers 
—French Huguenots— Their Settlement in 

CHAPTER V.— Second Arrivals 17-23 

Penn's Purchase— "Manor of Maske"— Sur- 
Te y — Obstructions — Compromise — " Car- 
roll's Delight"— List of Early Settlers on 
the Manor, and Warrantees— " Old Hill" 
Church— Presbyterian Congregation in 
Cumberland Township. 

CHAPTER VI.— The " Little Conewago Setj 
tlement" :■"■■■■"/ :"",m'i 

" Digges'Choice "—Land Purchases in 1734, 
1738 and 1742— Records of 1752. 

2: 1-24 

CHAPTER VII.— Early Marriages 24-31 

Rev. Alexander Dobbin— His son, James- 
Record of Marriages during Kev. Alex. Dob- 
bin's Entire Pastorate, 1774 to 1808. 

CHAPTER VIII.— The Revolution 31-36 

Adams (York) County in the Struggle- 
First Company from Pennsylvania-The In- 
dependent Light Infantry Company— Flying 
Camp— Roster of Officers, Adams (York) 

CHAPTER IX.— Erection of County 36-43 

Date of its Creation— Boundary Line, Area 
and Population— James Gettys — Selection of 
County Seat— Taxes Levied— County Build- 

CHAPTER X.— Natural History of Adams 

County *^ 5 * 

Geology— Mineralogy— The South Moun- 
tain—The " Barrens "—Destruction of For- 
ests— Streams— Elevations— Scenery— Trees 
and Shrubs— Fish— Birds. 

CHAPTER XL— Roads .........55-56 

Turnpikes— Railroads— Baltimore & Han- 
over Railroad— Gettysburg & Harrisburg 
Road— The Old " Tape Worm " Line. 

CHAPTER XII.— Customs and Manners 57-71 

Distinct Streams of Immigrants— Industry 
and Religion— Getting a start— Their Com- 

CHAPTER XIII.— Sketches and Etchings...71-78 
The McCleans — The Mcl'bersons — Gen. 
Reed— Dr. Crawford— Col. Slagle— t'ol.Grier 
—Victor King — Judge Black— Thaddeus 
Stevens— Patrick McSherry — Col. Hance 
Hamilton— The Gulps— William McClellan 
— Capt. Bettinger— James Cooper. 


CHAPTER XIV.— War of 1812 .........78-84 

Adams County Regiments— The Feder- 
alists and Democrats—" Friends of Peace 
Meetings— Toasts— Close of War. 

CHAPTER XV .-Civil War ...„...........84-87 

Recruiting in Adams county— The Mili- 
tary Companies and Their Regiments— Corp. 
Skelly Post, No. 9, G. A. R. 

CHAPTER XVI.— Officials ......87-97 

Members of Congress— Senators and As- 
semblymen—County Officials. 

CHAPTER XVII.— Bench and Bar 98-103 

First Court—" Circuit Riders "—Visiting 
Attorneys-Jonathan F. Haight, First Res- 
ident Attorney— Lawyers from 1801 to 1885. 

CHAPTER XVIII.— Political 103-115 

The Revolution— Party Spirit— Jefferson 
and Hamilton— First County Convention- 
Republicans, Democrats and Federals— 
Hon William McSherrv— Political factions 
—Elections— Federalists and Republicans 
("Democrats")— A "Cockade" Row— Fed- 
eral-Republicans and Democrats — The 
Centinel— Elections to 1814. 

CHAPTER XIX.— Postoffices 116-121 

Petition to Postmaster General in 1795 — 
Postmasters in County, Past and Present. 

CHAPTER XX.— Education 121-135 

Pioneer Schools— Pioneer Teachers— 
PioneerSchoolhouses— Christ Church School 
—East Berlin School— Gettysburg Classical 
School— Gettysburg Industrial School- 
English School in Gettysburg— Gettysburg 
Academy— Gettysburg Female Institute- 
Gettysburg Female Academy— Theological 
Seminary— Gettysburg Gymnasium— Penn- 
sylvania College— New Oxford College and 
Medical Institute— Hunterstown English 
and Classical Academy— Catholic Schools— 
The Free School System— The County Sup- 
erintendency— Educational Meetings— Con- 
clusion— Tabular Statements. 

CHAPTER XXL— Societies 135-13T 

Debating Societies— The Gettysbury Sen- 
timental Society— Poluglassic Society— The 
Gettysburg Debating and Sentimental 

CHAPTER XXII.— Newspapers 138-145 

The Centinel— Interesting Items— Necrol- 
ogy— The. Slur and. Sentinel— The Compiler— The 
Century— York Springs Cornet— Weekly Visitor 
Weekly Ledger— Crystal Palace— Liulestown 
Press— Littleslown Hews— The Courier— Littles- 
town Era— New Oxford Item— Intelligencer— 
Wochenblatt— Yellow Jacket— Record. 

CHAPTER XXIIL— Old Time Reminiscences 

'"citizens in Gettysburg Between 1817 and 
1829— Interesting Items. 

CHAPTER XXIV.— Battle of Gettysburg 

"ijee's Northward Movement in 1863 — 
Rallying the Forces— The Battle— The Re- 
sult, Lee's Defeat— At Meade's Headquarters 
—Numerical strength of the Two Armies 
—Effects Following the Battle— National 
CHAPTER XXV.— Borough of Gettysburg 

"'Hance Hamilton and Richard McAllister 
—James Gettys— Old Plat of the Town— 


Inery ■ burohee- 6. a. EL 

CH LPTEB XX\ -"» -ii 

01 it, rradltlon Is at 

Fault— Praollceoi Medicine in Early Hays— 

■ UD IDtl M< ■ 

Presenl Llcena L Pracl 
CHAPT1 K wvii — Bbrwk k Township un> 


1 .r of the Rebellion -Ballwaj 

and i 
—Location, > f 

eul Valuation, I7D9 < Hliclala, 

i >octe* 

(II LPTER \W Ml Bon n: T0WW8H1 

i - Topography — Qoologlca] 


I and 
len Postoffice— Table liuck— Texas— 

OHAPTEfi \ \l X.— CosowAOoTowKSHir am> 

Features— Blacken ake "i Ron 

Railroad- ami Pike S il u- 

ation, isol— Churches n^h- 

town — BOBOOOB "i McShkbeystowh — 
First E ectlon— Convent ^< ihoola— Associa- 

CHAPTEB XXX — Cumberland TOwk- 

Btreamaand Bills <}eologlcal Featun 
Indi.i i Pike 

di — Rallroada and i oad — 

< trlglnnl Lad eers— 

■■ Manor <-i Masks List ol 3quatt< 

• Military — 
Churches- Cemetei lea— Schools M 

OHAPTE R wxi —i KAitEun i 

.iphy — < rOOlOgicaJ I GAl ■ 

Domena— 4 !ensi 

Valuation, 1799— Mary lamlson 

— * lharcbea — At. 



Oaahiown ... 

— Buchanan Vs 

— Ofaaoiberlin'a— Mlace 

CHAPTER XWli — Fun doe Townsiiii 

—Irish Settlers -"Manor ol Maake 

Dixon" Mile- 
stones— Chorobes — Military. 

CHAPTER XXXin —Germany Towesiup 

AM) ! 

ly Merchants— Census- 
Railroad anil Pike 

offices— >chooi System—*' Diggee' ' hoice" 
•■-teed Valuation, OP 

□Bus— Village 
In r 

til snd newspapers— In< on oration— 
OnVuab— i hnrahes — i emel 

tun B 271-276 

- — Topography — Turnpike and 
dilation, 1811 
office— Borodob ■•*■ Eabi Bkrlik— Loca- 
tion, etc.— Census— Incorporation--* ijlicials 
— Iti History— churches and Schools — 
Societies, etc. 




! .IS 

Iroad — 
i arlj Lni [di i I Delight" -As- 

] ;iW— 


II XXXVI — 111.. in ind Town 


Streams - ropography < ensue— Bridge — 

CH vrri R XXXVE Hi i ■ ■ 


(3 V;il- 


oad "i ork sulphur Springs— 

..I . . 

i Door- 

■ "■ ■ 

< B \i- 1 1 i; \\\\ in Latihobjr Ton ffBBip 

i ■ ogles! 
. i. Me- 
chanics* tile Sol I Li ; i (pay- 
ment > ■ : 
and in-. Mill— Churches and Cemeteries— 
Miscall ■ 

B xxxix — L 

Stn tfsson 

1 ' : ; 

Fire B] Idge I ensus I irlglnal Settle- 


CHAPTER SI Min-m i en row an 
Streams- -Hills, Val ■ ■ ■ 

Feature! Iron and " ■>■<* M in. i ■. 
etc — !:<!■)■■ i;.. ii < . n i .--.'i i Sys- 
tem -Military— Ralli 

.i be 
Robot iidera- 

viiK> Dale— 


,312 in 

pi loo \ i' Ind 
— Brid i, 1799 


CHAPTER XI, n -Mm ntpli asahi I 


Topogra] : 
Bring LRallroac 

— Early Rem) ol 1 ract — 

• .1 Valuation, I8i <!iool 

Railroad and }•■ ■ 
White rial) "i Red Lands Mount Rook— 



iiv ' Hd Barn — Rs 

Brid i nsus — 


1 1 1 ihtown— Heroutford 

Boroi ly His- 

: . US — 


CBIAPTEB XLH Reading Tow trsBiP ...328-33$ 

.■[.-, — 
boo! ! 

i UTCbes— Hampton — 
Bonn I 

I H\rn. i: xi.V Stbabak row *SHIP 



Topography — Census — School Law — 
Bridges and Railroad— Assessed Valuation, 
180u — Military — Early Land Entries- 
Churches — Hunterstown — Churches and 
Cemeteries — New Chester — Plainview— 
Granite Hill. 

CHAPTER XLVI.— Tyrone Township 341-344 

Boundary — Topography — Bridges— Cen- 
sus—Assessment Valuation, 1801— School 

Law— Military— Old Mill— Heidlersburg— 
Churches— Miscellaneous. 

CHAPTER XLVII.— Union Township 344-346 

Topography — Geological Features — Or- 
ganization— Census— Bridges— German Emi- 
grants, 1735-52— Early Settlers— Laud Troub- 
les _ •• Digges' Choice"— Churches— Ceme- 
teries— Sell's Station— Church Station. 


Gettysburg, Borough of \ 

Berwick Township and Borough ol Abottstowu. ■: 

Butler Township i 

Conowago Township and Borough ot McSherrys- _ 

town : 

Cumberland Township 

Franklin Township ' 

Freedom Township ' 

Germany Township and Borough ol Littlestown ■ 
Hamilton Township and Borough of East Berlin 

Hainiltonban Township 

Highland Township 

Huntington Township and Borough of York 

Springs j» 

Latimore Township JJJ 

Liberty Township *« 

Menallen Township «» 

Mountjoy Township *»z 

Mountpleasant Township ■"•••■•"- ™ 

Oxford Township and Borough ol New Oxford.. 492 

Reading Towuship °03 

Straban Township ?'* 

Tyrone Township 'J* 

Union Township 514 


Ban, Smith -^ 

Bell.Maj Robert Iff 

Bonner, W. F 279 

Bream, William ™ 

Buehler. Samuel 11 " 

Byers, John G ?°» 

Cole, Francis ■„■;:: "a i,\ 

Coulson, Francis between 30s and . Ill 

Coulson. Catharine R between 308 and 311 

Diehl, Daniel $™ 

Diehl, Peter ;"» 

Durboraw, Samuel f;* 

Garretson. Israel '™ 

Gilliland, S. A 

Gitt, Joseph S 

Goldsborough C. E., M. D 

Griest, Jesse W 

Hersh, Janus 

Hendrix. J. W 

Himes. George 

Keudlehart, 1> 

Kitzmiller, J. A 

HcClellan, Col. J. H 

McPherson, Hon. Edward 

Martin, William A 139 

Miller, Ephraim ■?# 

Mumma, E W., M. D 209 

Myers, H. J 24? 

O.Bold, Vincent f« 

O'Neal, J. W. C ™* 

Picking, John 5S 

Rilev, P. H 4 J» 

Schick, J. L «* 

Schlosser, Amos '*» 

Seiss, R.S fs> 

Sell. Daniel *» 

Sheely, Noah fgp 

Shorb, Joseph I f« 

Slavbaugh, Jesse 17 » 

Stable. H. J °l 

Tipton, W. H 89 

Tyson, C. J ™ 

Welty, Henry A *" 

Wierman, Isaac E >>?» 

Wills, Judge David J9 

Wilson, N. G i°J 

Witherow, J. S «» 


, . . „ .. Parti 12-13 

Map of Cumberland and Adams Counties......... p art j 113 

Ma,, Showing Various Purchases from the ^ a S^'""^Tk'^X^Mt'^'r^i''SnmHwa Part I 118 

Diagram Showing Proportionate Annual Production of Anthracite Coal smce^SzO rart i 

Table Showing Amount of Anthracite Coal Produced n hi li LtMun in e s-J a 

Table Showing Vole for Governors of Pennsylvania since Organization of State lart 1 ^Mjj 

Relief Map of Cumberland Valley Part III 152 

Map of Gettysburg Battle-field 




"God, that has given it me through many difficulties, will, I believe, 
bless and make it the seed of a nation. I shall have a tender care to the 
government that it be well laid at first. ----- I do, therefore, 
desire the Lord's wisdom to guide me, and those that may be concerned 
with me, that we may do the thing that is truly wise and just." 




[htboduotory— Cobnelis Jahhwin Mey, 1684-86— William Van Hulst, 1625- 
86— Peter Mnrcrrr, 1686-88— David Petersen de Vkies, 1632-33— Wouter 
V \n Twtlleb, n;;j3-38. 

IX the early colonization upon the American continent, two motives were 
principally operative. One was the desire of amassing sudden wealth 
without great labor, which tempted adventurous spirits to go in soarchof gold, 
to trade valueless trinkets to the simple natives for rich furs and skills, and even 
to seek, amidst the wilds of a tropical forest, for the fountain whoso healing 
waters could restore to man perpetual youth. The other was the cherished 
purpose of escaping the unjust restrictions of Government, and the hated Ian 
of society against the worship of the Supreme Being according to the honest 
dictates of conscience, which incited the humble devotees of Christianity to 
forego the comforts of homo, in the midst of the best civilization of the age. 
■ ke for themselves a habitation on the shores of a new world, where they 
might erect altars and do homage to their God in such habiliments as they 
preferred, and utter praises in such note as seemed to them good. This pur- 
pose was also incited by a certain romantic temper, common to the race, es- 
peoially noticeable in youth, that invites to some uninhabited ] spot, and Ras- 
selas and Robinson Crusoe like to begin life anew. 

William Penn. the founder of Pennsylvania, had felt the heavy hand of 
persecution for religious opinion's sake. As a gentleman commoner at Ox- 
ford, ho had been fined, and finally expelled from that venerable seat of learn- 
ing for non-comformity to the established worship. At home, ho was whipped 
and turned out of doors by a father who thought to reclaim the son to the 
more certain path of advancement at a licentious court. He was sent to prison 
by the Mayor of Cork For seven months ho languished in the tower of Lon- 
don, and, finally, to complete his disgrace, ho was cast into Newgate with com- 
mon fblons. Upon the accession of James II, to the throne of England, over 
fourteen hundred persons of the Quaker faith were immured in prisons for a 
conscientious adherence to their religious convictions. To escape this harassing 
persecution, and find peace and quietude from this sore proscription, was the 
moving cause which led Penn and his followers to emigrate to America. 

Of all those who have been founders of States in near or distant ages, none 
have manifested so sincere and disinterested a spirit, nor have been so fair ex- 
emplars of the golden rule, and of tho Redeemer's sermon on the mount, as 
William Penn. In his preface to the frame of government of his colony, he 
says: " The end of government is first to terrif] ■ evi I doi lis : secondly, to cher- 
ish those who do well, which gives government a life beyond corruption, and 


ma kes it as durable in the world as ^en^e. ^^— 
seems to be a par c > rel gion . sel a hmg sa^d^ ^ ^ ^ 

For, lllt ^°° t ,^™r'^° ine power, that is both author and object of 
18 an emanation of ^me^vme P ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ 

Fh" oth Se ^ oS an compulsive in its operations; but that is only to 
evil doers government itself being otherwise as capable of kindness goodness 
and char ty g as a more private society They weakly err, who think there is no 
o^her use of government than correction, which as the coarsest part of it 
Dailv experience tells us, that the care and regulation of many other affairs 
Sore soft and daily necessary, make up much the greatest part of government. 
Simmers like clocks, go from the motion men give them and as govern 
mentsaTe made and moved by men, so by them are they ruined, too. Wheie- 
SS governments rather depend upon men thar i men .upor '^ernmen t. Let 
men be good, and the government cannot be bad. If it be ill, they will erne 
H Butlf men be bad, let the government be never so good, they will endeavor 
it. tfut it men ue o s * * * That, therefore, which makes a good 

descend not with worldly inheritances, must be carefully propagated by a vir- 
tuous edacatiTn of vouth, for which, after ages will owe more to the care and 
P rude ce Sounders anci the successive magistracy than to their parents .for 
pruaenLu u * * * We have, therefore, with reverence to God, 

X£S - SSS to men, to the bestof our skill, contrived and composed the 
Frame and Laws of this government, viz.: To support power in "verence 
wth tie people and to secure the people from the abuse of power that hey 
may be free L their just obedience, and the magistrates honorable for their 
fust administ/ation. For liberty without obedience is confusion, and obedi- 

^^X^^^L*™ arts of the great city , Penn's tastes were 
rural He hated the manners of the corrupt court and delighted m the home y 
labors and innocent employments of the farm. " The country," he said, is 
he philosopher's garden and library, in which he reads and contemplates the 
power wisdom and goodness of God. It ishis food as well as study, andgives 
h°m life as well as learning." And to his wife he said upon taking leave of 
Win thetr parting interview: " Let my chihirenbehusband me n and hous. 
wives It is industrious, healthy, honest, and of good report This leads to 
consider the works of God, and diverts the mind from being taken up with yam 
arts and inventions of a luxurious world. Of cities and towns of concourse 
bewaX The world is apt to stick close to those who have lived and gotwealth 
there A country life and estate I love best for my children , 

Having thus given some account at the outset of the spirit and purposes of 
the founder, and the motive which drew him to these shores, it will ben 
Place before proceeding with the details of the acquisition of territory, and 
the comm* of emigrants for the actual settlement under the name of Pennsyl- 
vmia to s°ay something of the aborigines who were found in possession of he 
sod when It visited g by Europeans, of the condition of the surface of the 
country, and of the previous attempts at settlements before the coming of Penn 
Thl surface of what is now known as Pennsylvania was at the time of the 
coming of the white men, one vast forest of hemlock, and pine, and beech 
and & unbroken, except by an occasional rocky barren upon theprn^ 
mountain side, or by a few patches of prairie, which had been reclamed oy 
annual burnings, and was used by the indolent and simple-minded nati ves fo 
the culture of a little maize and a few vegetables. The soil, by the annual 


accumulations of leaves and abundant growths of forest vegetation, was lnxu- 
!i(l tlic trees atood close, and of gigantic si/i>. The streams swarmed 
with fish, and t h<> foresl abounded with game. Where now are oities and 
hamlets tilhv.1 with huey populations intent upon the accumulation of wealth, 
tin' mastery of knowledge, the pursuits of pleasure, the deer browsed and 
ripped at the water's edge, and the pheasant drammed his monotonous note. 
Where now is the glowing furnace from which day and night tongues of ilame 
are bursting, and the busy water wheel sends the shuttle flashing through the 
loom, half-naked, dusky warriors fashioned their spears with rude implements 
of stone, and made themselves hooks out of the bonos of animals for alluring 
the finny tribe. Whore now are fertile fields, upon which the thrifty farmer 
turns his furrow, which his noighbor takes up and runs on until it reaches 
ie end of the broad State to the other, and where are flocks and herds, 
rejoicing in rich meadows, gladdened by abundant fountains, or reposing sit the 
heated noontide beneath ample shade, not a blow had been struck against the 
giants of the forest, the soil rested in virgin purity, the streams glided on in 
majesty, un vexed by wheel and unchoked by device of man. 

Where now the long train rushes on with the speed of the wind over 
plain and mead, across streams and under mountains, awakening the echoes of 
the hill's the long day through, and at the midnight hour screaming out its 
shrill whistle in fiery defiance, the wild native, with a fox skin wrapped about 
his loins and a few feathers stuck in his hair, issuing from his rude hut, trot- 
ted on in his forest path, followed by his squaw with her infant peering forth 
from the rough sling at her back, pointed his canoe, fashioned from the barks 
of the trees, across the deep river, knowing the progress of time only by the 
rising and setting sun, troubled by no meridians for its index, starting on his 
way when his nap was ended, and stopping for rest when a spot was reached 
that pleased his fancy. Where now a swarthy population toils ceaselessly deep 
down in the bowels of the earth, shut out trom the light of day in cutting out 
the material that feeds the fires upon the forge, and gives genial warmth to the 
lovers as they chat merrily in the luxurious drawing room, not a mine had 
been opened, and the vast beds of the black diamond rested unsunned beneath 
the superincumbent mountains, where they had been fashioned by the Creator's 
hand. Rivers of oil seethed through the impatient and uneasy gases and vast 
pools and lakes of this pungent, parti -colored fluid, hidden away from the 
C rveting eye of man, guarded well their own secrets. Not a derrick protruded 
its well-balanced form in the air. Not a drill, with its eager eating tooth de- 
siended into the flinty rock No pipe line diverted the oily tide in a silent, 
ceaseless current to the ocean's brink. Thecities of iron tanks, filled to burst- 
id no place amidst the forest solitudes. Oil exchanges, with their vex- 
its and calls, shorts and longs, bulls and bears, had not yet come to dis- 
turb the equanimity of the red man, as he smoked the pipe of peace at the 
council fire. Had he once seen the 6moke and soot of the new Birmingham of 
the West, or snuffed the odors of an oil refinery, he would willingly have for- 

his g lly heritage by the forest stream or the deep flowing river, and 

I for himself new hunting grounds in less favored regions. 
It was an unfortunate circumstance that at the coming of Europeans the 
territory now known as Pennsylvania was occupied by some of the most bloody 
and revengeful of the savage tribes. They were known astheLenni Lenapes, 
and held sway from the Hudson to the Potomac. A tradition was preserved 
among them, that in a remote age their ancestors had emigrated eastward from 
beyond the Mississippi, exterminating as they came the more civilized and 
peaceful peoples, the Mound-Builders of Ohio and adjacent States, and who 


were held among the tribes by whom they were surrounded as the progenitors, 
toe grandfathers^- oldest people. They came to be known by Europeans as 
the Delawares after the name of the river and its numerous branches along 
which Xey principally dwelt. The Monseys or Wolves, another of the 
Lenapes, dwelt upon the Susquehanna and its tributaries and, by their war- 
like disposition, won the credit of being the fiercest of their nation, and the 
guardians of the door to their council house from the North. 
^Occupying the greater part of the teritory now known as New York, were 
the five P nations-the Senacas, the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Cayugas and 
the Onondagas, which, from their hearty union acquired great strength and 
came to exercise a commanding influence. Obtaining firearms of the Dutch 
at Albany, they repelled the advances of the French from Canada and by 
their superiority in numbers and organization had overcome the Lenapes 
and held them for awhile in vassalage. The Tuscaroras a tribe which had 
been expelled from their home in North Carolina were adopted by the Fivefca- 
tions in 1712, and from this time forward these tribes were known to the English 
as the Six Nations, called by the Lenapes, Mingoes, and by the French, Iroquois. 
There was, therefore, properly a United States before the thirteen colonies 
achieved their independence. The person and character of these tribes were 
marked They were above the ordinary stature, erect, bold, and commanding, 
of great decorum in council, and when aroused showing native eloquence. In 
warlare thev exhibited all the bloodthirsty, revengeful, cruel instincts of the 
savage and for the attainment of their purposes were treacherous and crafty. 
The Indian character, as developed by intercourse with Europeans exhibits 
some traits that are peculiar. While coveting what they saw that pleased 
them, and thievish to the last degree, they were nevertheless generous lhis 
may be accounted for by their habits. " They held that, the game of the for- 
estf the dsh of the rivers, and the grass of the field were a common heritage, 
and free to all who would take the trouble to gather them and ridiculed the 
idea of fencing in a meadow." Bancroft says: " The hospitality of the Indian 
has rarely been questioned. The stranger enters his cabin, by day or by 
night, without asking leave, and is entertained as freely as a thrush or a 
blackbird, that regales himself on the luxuries of the fruitful grove. He 
will take his own rest abroad, that he may give up his own skm or mat of 
sed-e to his guest. Nor is the traveler questioned as to the purpose of his 
visit He chooses his own time freely to deliver his message. Penn, who, 
from frequent intercourse came to know them well, in his letter to the soc.ety 
of Free Traders, says of them: "In liberality they excel; nothing is too good 
for their friend. Give them a fine gun, coat or other thing, it may pass 
twenty hands before it sticks; light of heart, strong aflections, but soon spent. 
The most merry creatures that live; feast and dance perpetually They never 
have much nor want much. Wealth circulated like the blood. Al parts 
partake; and though none shall want what another hath, yet exact observers 
of property. Some Kings have sold, others presented me with several parcels 
of land. The pay or presents I made them, were not hoarded by the particu- 
lar owners, but the neighboring Kings and clans being present when the 
goods were brought out, the parties chiefly concerned consulted what and to 
whom they should give them. To every King, then, by the bands of a per- 
son for that work appointed is a proportion sent, so sorted and folded, and 
with that gravity that is admirable. Then that King subdivided it in like man- 
ner among his dependents, they hardly leaving themselves an equal share 
with one of their subjects, and be it on such occasions as festivals or at their 
common meals, the Kings distribute, and to themselves last. They care for 

HISTORY OP n:\NSYi. v.wi \. !'•' 

little because they want bat little, and the reason is a little contents them. In 
i in- they are sufficiently revenged on us They are also free from our pains. 
They are not disquieted with hills of lading and exchange, nor perplexed 
with ohaaoery suits and exchequer reckonings. We Bweat and toil to live; 

their pleasure feeds them; I mean their hunting, fishing and fowling, and 
this table is spread everywhere. They eat twice a day, morning and evening. 
Their seats and table are the ground. Since the Europeans came into these 
parts they are grown great lovers of Btrong liquors, rum especially, and for it 
exchange the richest of their skins and furs. If they are heated with liquor-, 
they are restless till they have enough to sleep. That is their cry, 'Some 
more and I will go to sleep; ' but when drunk one of the most wretched Bpec 
tacles in the world." 

On the 2Sth of August, lOO'.t, a little more than a century from the time 
of the first discovery of the New World by Columbus, Hendrick Hudson, an 
English navigator, then in the employ of the Dutch East India Company, hav- 
Ing been sent out in search of a northwestern passage to the Indies, discovered 
the mouth of a great bay, since known as Delaware Bay, which he entered and 
partially explored. But finding the waters shallow, and being satisfied that 
this was only an arm of the sea which received the waters of a great river, 
and not a passage to the western ocean, he retired, and, turning the prow of 
his little craft northward, on the 2d of September, he discovered the river 
which bears his name, the Hudson, and gave several days to its examination 
Not finding a passage to the West, which was the object of his search, he returned 
to Holland, bearing the evidences of his adventures, and made a full report of 
his discoveries in which he says, " Of all lands on which I ever set my foot, 
this is the best for tillage." 

A proposition had been made in the States General of Holland to form a 
West India Company with purposes similar to those of the East India Com- 
pany ; but the conservative element in the Dutch Congress prevailed, and while 
the Government was unwilling to undertake the risks of an enterprise for 
which it would be responsible, it was not unwilling to foster private enter- 
prise, and on the 27th of March, 1614, an edict was passed, granting the 
privileges of trade, in any of its possessions in tin- New World, during four 
voyages, founding its right to the territory drained by the Delaware and 
Hudson upon the discoveries by Hudson. Five vessels were accordingly 
tilted by a company composed of enterprising merchants of the cities of Am- 
a and Hoorn, which made speedy and prosperous voyages under com- 
mand of Cornelia Jacobson Mev, bringing back with them fine furs and rich 
which so excited cupidity that the States General was induced on the 
1 1th of October, 161 1. to authorize exclusive trade, for four voyages, extend 
ing through three years, in the newly acquired possessions, the edict designat- 
ing them as New Netherlands. 

One of the party of this first enterprise. Cornells Hendrickson, was left 
behind with a vessel called the Unrest, which had been built to supply the 
place of one accidentally burned, in which he proceeded to explore more fully 
the bay and river Delaware, of which he made report that was read before the 
General on the 19th of August, 1616. This report is curious as .lis 
closing the opinions of the first actual explorer in an official capacity: "He 
hath discovered for his aforesaid masters and directors certain lands, a bay, 
and three rivers, situate between thirty-eight and forty degrees, and did then 
trad.' with the inhabitants, said trade consisting of sables, furs, robes and 
other skins. He hath found the stud country full of trees, to wit, oaks, hick- 
orv ami pines, which trees were, in some places, covered with viues. Ho hath 


seen in said country bucks and does, turkeys and partridges. He hath found 
the climate of said country very temperate, judging it to be as temperate as 
this country, Holland. He also traded for and bought from the inhabitants 
the Minquas, three persons, being people belonging to this company which 
three persons were employed in the service of the Mohawks and Machicans, 
giving for them kettles, beads, and merchandise." 

This second charter of privileges expired in January, 1618, and during its 
continuance the knowledge acquired of the country and its resources promised 
so much of success that the States General was ready to grant broader privi- 
leges, and on the 3d of June, 1621, the Dutch West India Company was in_ 
corporated, to extend for a period of twenty-four years, With the right of 
renewal, the capital stock to be open to subscription by all nations, and 
" privileged to trade and plant colonies in Africa, from the tropic of Cancer 
to the Cape of Good Hope, and in America from the Straits of Magellan to the 
remotest north." The past glories of Holland, though occupying but an in- 
significant patch of Europe, emboldened its Government to pass edicts for the 
colonizing and carrying on. an exclusive trade with a full ha of the entire 
world, an example of the biting off of more than could be well chewed. But 
the licdit of this enterprising people was beginning to pale before the rising 
gloriel of the stern race in their sea girt isle across the channel Dissensions 
were arising among the able statesmen who had heretofore guided its affairs, 
and before the periods promised in the original charter of this colouring com- 
pany had expired, its supremacy of the sea was successfully resisted and its 
exclusive rights and privileges in the New World had to be relinquished. 

The principal object in establishing this West India Company was to 
secure a good dividend upon the capital stock, which was subscribed to by the 
rich old burgomasters. The fine furs and products of the forests, which had 
been taken back to Holland, had proved profitable. But it was seen that it 
this trade was to be permanently secured, in face of the active competition of 
other nations, and these commodities steadily depended upon, permanent set- 
tlements must be provided for. Accordingly, in 1623, a colony of about forty 
families, embracing a party of Walloons, protestant fugitives from Belgium 
sailed for the new province, under the leadership of Cornells Jacobson Mey and 
Joriz Tienpont. Soon after their arrival, Mey, who had been invested with 
the power of Director General of all the territory claimed by the Dutch, see- 
in^ no doubt, the evidences of some permanence on the Hudson^ determined 
to teke these honest minded and devoted Walloons to the South River or Del- 
aware, that he might also gain for his country a foothold there The testi- 
mony of one of the women, Catalina Tricho, who was of the party, is 
curious, and sheds some light upon this point. " That she came to this prov_ 
ince either in the year 1623 or 1624, and that four women came along w>th 
her in the same ship, in which Gov. Arien Jorissen came also over which four 
women were married at sea, and that they and their husbands stayed about 
three weeks at this place (Manhattan) and then they with eight seamen more 
went in a vessel by orders of the Dutch Governor to Delaware River, and 
there settled." Ascending the Delaware some fifty miles, Mey landed 
on the eastern shore near where now is the town of Gloucester, and built a 
fort which he called Nassau. Having duly installed his little colony, he re- 
turned to Manhattan; but beyond the building of the fort which served as a 
trading post, this attempt to plant a colony was futile; for these religious 
zealots" tiring of the solitude in which they were left, after a few months 
abandoned it, and returned to their associates whom they had left upon the 
Hudson Though not successful in establishing a permanent colony upon tne 


re, -hip- plied regularly between the fort and Manhattan, and tin* 
became the rallying point I >r the Indian-, who brought thither their oommodi 

trade. At about this time, L626, the island of Manhattan estimated 
to contain 22,000 acres, on which now stands the city of New lork with its 
busj population, surrounded by its forests of masts, was bought for the insig- 
nificant sum of sixty guilders, about $24, what would now pay for scarcely a 
square inch of Borne of that very soil. As as evidence of the thrift which had 
begun to mark the progress of the colony, it may be stated that the good ship 
" I'h.' Anns of Amsterdam," which bore Hie intelligence of this fortunate pur 
chase to the assemblj of the SIX in Holland, bore also in the language of 
CCalaghan, tin- historian of N'ew Netherland, tho "information that the col 
ony was in amost prosperous state, and that the women and the soil were 
both fruitful. To prove the latter fact, samples of the recent harvest, consist- 
ing of wheat, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, canary s I, were Bent forward, 

together with 8, 130 beaver skins, valued at over 45,000 guilders, or neany 
$19,000." It is accorded by another historian that this same Bhip bore also 
" B<33-| otter skins, eighty-one mink skins, thirty six wild cat, skins and thirty four 
rat skins, with a quantity of oak and hickory timber." From this it may be 
seen what the commodities were which formed tho subjects of trade. Doubt- 
less of wharf rats Holland had enough at home, but the oak and hickory tim- 
ber came at a time when there was sore need of it. 

Finding that the charter of privileges, enacted in 1621, did not give auffi 
cient encouragement and promise of security to actual settlers, further con- 
cessions were made in 1629, whereby " all such persons as shall appear and 
desire the same from the company, shall be acknowledged as Patroons [a sort 
of feudal lord] of Xew Netherlands who shall, within the space of four years 
next after they have given notice to any of the chambers of the company here, 
or to the Commander or Council there, undertake to plant a colony there of 
t'n'ty souls, upward of fifteen years old; one fourth part within one year, and 
within three years after sending the first, making together four years, the re- 
mainder, to the full number of fifty persons, to be shipped from henoe, on pain, 
in case of willful neglect, of being deprived of the privileges obtained." * * 
•• The Pat n ions, by virtue of their power, shall be permitted, at such places as they 
shall settle their colonies, to extend their limits four miles along the shore, or 
two miles on each side of a river, and so far into the country as the situation 
of the occupiers will permit." 

Stimulated by these flattering promises, Goodyn and Bloemmaert, two 
wealthy and influential citizens, through their agents — Heyser and Coster 
Beoured by purchase from the Indians a tract of land on the western shore, 
at the mouth of the Delaware, sixteen miles in length along the bay front, and 
extending sixteen miles back into the country, giving a square of 256 miles. 

< r |y n immediately gave notice to the company of their intention to plant a 

colony on their newly acquired territory as patroons Thej were joined by an 
experienced navigator, De Vries, and on the 12th of December, 1630, a vessel, 
tin' Walrus, miller command of De Vries, was dispatched with b company of 
-ettlers and a stock of cattle and farm implements, which arrived safely in 
• ie Delavt ire. !>■■ Vries landed about three leagues within the capes, "near 
the entrance of aline navigable stream, called the Hoarkill," where he pro- 

t i build a house, well surrounded with ides, which served 

the purpose of fort, lodging house, and trading post. The little settli 
which consisted of about thirty persons, was christened b) the high sounding 
title of Zwanendal - Valley of Swans, In the spring they prepared their fields 
and planted them, and De Vries returned to Holland, to make report of his 

11 !!;_'-. 


But a sad fate awaited the little colony at Zwanendal. la accordance with 
the custom of European nations, the commandant, on taking possession of the 
new purchase, erected a post, and affixed thereto a piece of tin on which was 
trJced the arms of Holland and a legend of occupancy. An India. jchieftam 
passing that way, attracted by the shining metal, and not understanding the 
ob ect°of the inscription, and not having the fear of their high mightinesses^ 
the States General of Holland before his eyes tore it down and Proceeded to 
make for himself a tobacco pipe, considering it valuable both by way of orna- 
ment and use. When this act of trespass was discovered ,t was regarded b> 
the doughty Dutchman as a direct insult to the great State of Holland, and 
so great° an ado was raised over it that the simple minded nat.ves became 
frightened, believing that their chief had committed a mortal offense, and m 
the strength and sincerity of their friendship immediately proceeded to d.s 
patch the offending chieftain, and bright the bloody emblems of their deed to 
the head of the colony. This act excited the anger of the relatives of the mm- 
dered man, and in accordance with Indian law, they awaited the chance to 
take revenge. O'Calaghan gives the following account of this bloody massa- 
cre which ensued: "The colony at Zwanendal consisted at this time of thirty - 
four persons. Of these, thirty- two were one day at work m the fields .while 
Commissary Hosset remained in charge of the house, where another of the Ret- 
tiers lay sick abed. A large bull dog was chained out of doors. On pretence 
of selling some furs, three savages entered the house and murdered Hosset 
and the sick man. They found it not so easy to dispatch the mastiff It was 
not until they had pierced him with at least twenty-five arrows that he was 
destroyed, the men in the fields were then set on, in an equally treacherous 
manner, under the guise of friendship, and every man of them slain. _ Ihus 
waa a worthless bit of tin the cause of the cutting off and utter extermination 
of the infant colony. . , . , . , 

De Vries was upon the point of returning to Zwanendal when he received 
intimation of disaster to the settlers. With a large vessel and a yacht, he set 
sail on the 24th of May, 1632, to carry succor, provided with the means ot 
prosecuting the whale fishery which he had been led to believe might be made 
very profitable, and of pushing the production of gram and tobacco. On ar- 
riving in the Delaware,' he fired a signal gun to give notice of his approach. 
The report echoed through the forest, but, alas! the ears which would have 
been gladened with the sound were heavy, and no answering salute came from 
the shore. On landing, he found his house destroyed, the palisades burned, 
and the skulls and bones of his murdered countrymen bestrewing the earth, 
sad relics of the little settlement, which had promised so fairly, and warning 
tokens of the barbarism of the natives. . 

De Vries knew that he was in no position to attempt to punish the guilt) 
parties, and hence determined to pursue an entirely pacific policy. At lis 
invitation, the Indians gathered in with their chief for a conference. Sitting 
down in a circle beneath the shadows of the somber forest, their Sachem in 
the centre, De Vries, without alluding to their previous acts of savagery, 
concluded with them a treaty of peace and friendship, and presented them in 
token of ratification, "some duffels, bullets, axes and Nuremburg trinkets 

In place of finding his colony with plenty of provjsions for the immediate 
needs of his party, he could get nothing, and began to be in want. He accord- 
ingly sailed up the river in quest of food. The natives were re *%££, 
their furs for barter, but they had no supplies of food with which they wished 
to part. Game, however, was plenty, and wild turkeys were brought in weigh- 
ing over thirty pounds. One morning after a frosty night, while the little 


craft was up the stream, the party was astonished to find the waters frozen 
over, and their ahip fast in the iee. Judging by the mild climate of their own 
ooontry, Eolland, they did not supposothis possible. For several weeks they 
were held fast without the power to move their floating home. Being in need 
of a better variety of food than he found it possible to obtain, De Vries sailed 
away with a part of his followers to Virginia, where he was hospitably enter- 
tained by the Governor, who sent a present of goats as a token of fiiendship to 
the Dutch Governor at Manhattan. Upon his return to the Delaware, De 
Vries found that the party he had left behind to prosecute the whale fishery 
had only taken a few small ones, and these so poor that the amount of oil ob- 
tained was insignificant He had been induced to embark in tho enterprise of 
a settlement here by the glittering prospect of prosecuting the whale fishery 
along the shore at a"great profit. Judging by this experience that the hope 
of great gains bom this source was groundless, and doubtless haunted by a 
superstitious dread of makingtheir homes amid the relics of the settlers of the 
previous year, and of plowing fields enriched by their blood who had been 
BO utterly out off, and a horror of dwelling amongst a peoploso revengeful and 
savage, De Vries gathered all together, and taking his entire party with him 
sailed away to Manhattan and thence home to Holland, abandoning utterly the 

The Dutch still however sought to maintain a foothold upon the Dela- 
ware, and a fierce contention having sprung up between the powerful patroons 
and the Director General, and they having agreed to settle differences by 
the company authorizing the purchase of the claims of the patroons, those upon 
the Delaware were bi >ld for 15,600 guilders. Fort Nassau was accordingly re i ic 
copied and manned with a small military force, and when a parly from Con- 
necticut Colony came, under one Holmes to make a settlement upon the Dela- 
ware, the Dutch at Nassau were found too strong to be subdued, and Holmes 
and his party were compelled to surrender, and were sent aa prisoners of war 
to Manhattan. 


8m William Keift, 1638-47— Peter MrxriT, 1638-41— Peter Hollandajjr, 1641-43— 
JOHH Pki.ntz. 164S-53— PbtBB Stvyvksa.nt, 1647-04— John Paitaooya, 1653-54— 
.Iohn Claude Kysiniui. 1654 56. 

AT this period, the throne of Sweden was occupied by Gnstavus Adolphus, 
a monarch of the most enlightened views and heroic valor. Seeing the 
activity of surrounding nations in sending <»ut colonies, he proposed to his 
people" to found a commonwealth in the New World, not for the mere purpose 
of gain by trade, Imt to set up a refuge for the oppressed, a place of religious 
liberty and happy homes thai should prove of advantage to "all oppressed 
Christendom." Accordingly, a company with ample privileges was incorpo 
rated by the Swedish Government, to which the King himself pledged $400,000 
of the royal treasure, and men of every rank and nationality were invited to 
join in the enterprise. Gnstavus desired not that his colony should depend 
upon serfs or slaves to do the rough work. "Slaves cost a great deal, lalx>r 
with reluctance, and soon perish from hard usage. The Swedish nation is 
laborious and intelligent, and surely we shall gain more by a free people with 
and children " 


In the meantime, the fruits of the reformation in Germany were menaced, 
and the Swedish monarch determined to unsheath his sword and lead his 
people to the aid of Protestant faith in the land where its standard had been 
successfully raised. At the battle of Liitzen, where for the cause which he had 
espoused, a signal victory was gained, the illustrious monarch in the flower 
of life received a mortal wound. Previous to the battle, and while engaged m 
active 'preparations for the great struggle, he remembered the interests of his 
contemplated colony in America, and in a most earnest manner commended 
the enterprise to the people of Germany. 

Oxenstiern, the minister of Gustavus, upon whom the weight of govern- 
ment devolved during the minority of the young daughter, Christina, declared 
that he was but the executor of the will of the fallen King, and exerted him- 
self to further the interests of a colony which he believed would be favorable to 
"all Christendom, to Europe, to the whole world." Four years however 
elapsed before the project was brought to a successful issue. Peter Minuit, 
who had for a time been Governor of New Netherlands, having been displaced 
sought employment in the Swedish company, and was given the command of 
thelirst colony Two vessels, the Key of Calmar and the Griffin, early in the 
vear 1638 with a company of Swedes and Fins, made their way across the 
Stormy Atlantic and arrived safely in the Delaware. They purchased of the 
Indians the lands from the ocean to the falls of Trenton, and at the mouth of 
Christina Creek erected a fort which they called Christina, after the name of 
the youthful Queen of Sweden. The soil was fruitful, the climate mild, and 
the scenery picturesque. Compared with many parts of Finland and Sweden 
it was a Paradise, a name which had been given the point at the entrance of 
the bay. As tidings of the satisfaction of the first emigrants were borne back 
to the fatheriand,°the desire to seek a home in the new country spread rap- 
idly, and the ships sailing were unable to take the many families seeking pas- 

dg The Dutch were in actual possession of Fort Nassau when the Swedes 
first arrived and though they continued to hold it and to seek the trade of the 
Indians, yet the artful Minuit was more than a match for them in Indian bar- 
ter William Keift, the Governor of New Netherland, entered a vigorous 
protest against the encroachments of the Swedes upon Dutch territory, m 
which he said " this has been our property for many years, occupied with 
forts and sealed by our blood, which also was done when thou wast in the 
service of New Netherland, and is therefore well known to thee." ButMmuit 
pushed forward the work upon his fort, regardless of protest, trusting to the 
respect which the flag of Sweden had inspired in the hands of Banner and 
Torstensen. For more than a year no tidings were had from Sweden, and no 
supplies from any source were obtained; and while the fruits of their labors 
were abundant there were many articles of diet, medicines and apparel, the 
lack of which they began to sorely feel. So pressing had the want become, 
that application had been made to the authorities at Manhattan for permission 
to remove thither with all their effects. But on the very day before that on 
which they were to embark, a ship from Sweden richly laden with provisions, 
cattle, seeds and merchandise for barter with the natives came joyfully to their 
relief, and this, the first permanent settlement on soil where now are the States 
of Delaware and Pennsvlvania, was spared. The success and prosperity of the 
colony during the first few years of its existence was largely due to tne skill 
and policy of Minuit, who preserved the friendship of the natives, avoided an 
open conflict with the Dutch, and so prosecuted trade that the Dutch Governor 
reported to his government that trade had fallen off 30,000 beavers. Minuit 



was at the head of the colony far about three years, and died in the midst 
of the people whom he had led 

Mnnut was succeeded in the government l>y I'eter Hollnndaer. who \v\ 
previously gone in charge of a company of emigrants, and who was now, in 
[641, commissioned. The goodly lands opon the Delaware were a constant 
attraction totheeyeof the adventurer; a party from Connecticut, onder the lead- 
ership of Roberi Cogawell, oame, and squatted without authority upon the Bite 
,.f the preeenl town of Salem, X. J. Another company had proceeded up the 
river, and, entering the Schuylkill, had planted themselves upon its hanks. 
The settlement of the Swedes, backed as it was by one of the most powerful 
nations of Europe, the Governor of New Netherland was not disposed to 
molest; but when these irresponsible wandering adventurers came Bailing past 
their forta and boldly planted themselves apon the most eligible sites and fer- 
tile lands in their territory, the Hutch determined to assume a hostile front, 
and to drive them away. Accordingly, Gen. Jan Jansen Van Ilpendam— his 
very name was enough" to frighten away the emigrants was sent with two 
vessels and a military force, who routed the party upon the Schuylkill. destroy- 
ing their fort and giving them a taste of the punishment that was likely to be 
meted out to them, if this experiment of trespass was repeated. The Swedes 
joined the Dutch in breaking up the settlement at Salem and driving away the 
New England intruders. 

In KH2, Hollandaer was succeeded in the government of the Swedish 
Colony by John Printz. whose instructions for the management of affairs were 
drawn with much care by the officers of the company in Stockholm. " He was. 
first of all. to maintain friendly relations with the Indians, and by the advan- 
tage of low price- hold their trade. His next care was to cultivate enough 
grain for the wants of the colonists, and when this was insured, turn his atten- 
tion to the culture of tobacco, the raising of cattle and sheep of a good species. 
the culture of the grape, and the raising of silk worms. The manufacture of 
salt by evaporation, and the search for metals and minerals were to bo prose 
outed, and inquiry into the establishment of fisheries, with a view to profit, 
especially the whale fishery, was to be made " It will be seen from these in- 
structions that the far sighted Swedish statesmen had formed an exalted con- 
ception of the resources of the new country, and had figured to themselves 
great possibilities from its future development. Visions of rich silk products, 
Of the precious metals and gems from its mines, flocks upon a thousand hills 
that should rival in the softness of their downy fleeces the best products of the 
Indian looms, and the luscious clusters of the vine that could make glad the 

palate of tl picure filled their imaginations. 

With two w-sels, the Stoork and Renown, Printz set sail, and arrived at 
hristina on the 15th of February, L643. He was bred to the profession 
of arms, and was doubtless selected with an eye to his ability to holding posses- 
sion of the land against the conflict that was likely to arise. He had been a 
Lieutenant of cavalry, and was withal a man of prodigious proportions, "who 
l." according to De Vriee, " upward of 100 pounds, and drank three 
drinks at everymeaL" He entertained exalted notionsof his dignity as Govern 
or of the colony, and prepared to establish himself in his new dominions with 

, f magnificence. He brought with him from Sweden the bricks 

used for the construction of his royal dwelling. Upon an inspection of 

the settlement, he detected the inherent weakness of the location of Fort 

Christina for commanding the navigation of the river, and selected the island 

nacnm for the site of anew fort, called New Gottenburg, which was 

speedily erected and made strong with huge hemlock logs. In the midst of 


the island, he built his royal residence, which was surrounded with trees and 
shubbery. He erected another fort near the mouth of Salem Creek, 
called Elsinborg, which he mounted with eight brass twelve-pounders, 
and garrisoned. Here all ships ascending the river were brought to, 
and required to await a permit from the Governor before proceeding 
to their destination. Gen. Van Ilpendam, who had been sent to drive 
away the intruders from New England, had remained after executing 
his commission as commandant at Fort Nassau; but having incurred the dis- 
pleasure of Director Keift, he had been displaced, and was succeeded by ^ An- 
dreas Hudde, a crafty and politic agent of the Dutch Governor, who had no. 
sooner arrived and become settled in his place than a conflict of authority 
sprang up between himself and the Swedish Governor. Dutch settlers secured 
a grant of land on the west bank of Delaware, and obtained possession by pur- 
chase from the Indians. This procedure kindled the wrath of Printz, who 
tore down the ensign o£ the company which had been erected in token of 
the power of Holland, and declared that he would have pulled down the 
colors of their High Mightinesses had they been erected on this the Swed- 
ish soil. That there might be no mistake about his claim to authority, the 
testy Governor issued a manifesto to his rival on the opposite bank, in which 
were these explicit declarations: 

" Andreas Hudde! I remind you again, by this written warning, to discon- 
tinue the injuries of which you have been guilty against the Royal Majesty 
of Sweden, my most gracious Queen; against Her Royal Majesty's rights pre- 
tensions, soil and land, without showing the least respect to the Royal Majes- 
ty's magnificence, reputation and dignity; and to do so no more, considering 
how little it would be becoming Her Royal Majesty to bear such gross violence 
and what great disasters might originate from it, yea, might be expected. 
* * All this I can freely bring forward in my own defense, to exculpate me 
from all future calamities, of which we give you a warning, and place rt at 
your account. Dated New Gothenburg, 3d September, stil, veteri 164b. 

It will be noted from the repetition of the high sounding epithets applied 
to the Queen, that Printz had a very exalted idea of his own position as the 
Vicegerent of the Swedish monarch. Hudde responded, saying m reply: The 
place we possess we hold in just deed, perhaps before the name of South River 
was heard of in Sweden." This paper, upon its presentation, Printz flung to 
the ground in contempt, and when the messenger, who bore it, demanded an 
answer, Printz unceremoniously threw him out doors, and seizing a gun would 
have dispatched the Dutchman had he not been arrested; and whenever any of 
Hudde's men visited Tinicum they were sure to be abused, and frequently came 
back " bloody and bruised." Hudde urged rights acquired by prior posses- 
sion, but Printz answered: " The devil was the oldest possessor in hell, yet he, 
notwithstanding would sometimes admit a younger one." A vessel which had 
come to the Delaware from Manhattan with goods to barter to the Indians, was 
brought to, and ordered away. In vain did Hudde plead the rights acquired 
by previous possession, and finally treaty obligations existing between the 
two nations. Printz was inexorable, and peremptorily ordered the skipper 
away, and as his ship was not provided with the means of fighting its way up 
past the frowning battlements of Port Elsinborg, his only alternative was to 
return to Manhattan and report the result to his employers. 

Peter Stuyvesant, a man of a good share of native talent and force of char- 
acter, succeeded to the chief authority over New Netherland in May, lb47. 
The affairs of his colony were not in an encouraging condition. The New 
England colonies were crowding upon him from the north and east, and the 


Swedes upon the s,,,th Biver wen occupying the territory which to Dutoh 
tor m any yean previous te the ooming of Christina's colony had claimed. 

Ymi.l the thickening plioationB, Stuyvesant had need of iill his ].._. 

anmmentand executive skill. Ho entered into negotiations with the Kew En 
6 ... r 1 in i. ..f .1,..;.. .1; iv,,.,iit i,w imttim> tin. van 

V pacific policy was also preserved toward the Swedes, Eudde was retained 
■I t)„. bead of Dutch affain upon the Delaware, and he was required to make 
full reports of everything that was transpiring there in order that a clear in- 
right mighl be gained of the policy likely to be pursued. Stuyvesant was en- 

tirelv too shrewd a politician for the choleric I'rintz. Ho recommended to the 
company to plant a Dutch colony on the Bite of Zwanendal at the mouth of 

the river another on the opp .site hank, which, if effectually dune, would n 

mand its navigation; and a third on the upper waters at Beversreede, which 
would intercept the intercourse of the native population. By this course of 
active col. ni/.in- '. Stuvvesant rigluh calculated that the Swedish power would 
be oiroumscribed, and finally, upon a favorable occasion, be crushed out 

Stuyvesant, that he might ascertain the nature and extent of the Swedish 

claims to tho country, and examine into the complaints that wen pouring in 

upon him of wrongs and indignities suffered by the Dutch at the hands oE the 

Swedish power, in 1651 determined to visit the Delaware in hisomoial capac- 

ity Ee evidently went in BomeBtate, and Printe, who was doubtless impressed 

w'ith the condecension of the Governor of all New Netherland in thus coming, 

il upon his good behavior. Stuyvesant, by his address, got completely 

u the blind side of the Swedish chief, maintaining the garb of friendship 

and brotherly good-will, and insisting that the di» ussion of rights should be 

carried on in a peaceful and friendly manner, for we are informed that they 

mutually promised " not to commit any hostile or vexatious acts against one 

another, but to maintain together till neighborly friendship and corrospond- 

aaoe, as good friends and allies aro bound to do." Priutz was thus, by this 

agreement, entirely disarmed and placed at a disadvantage; for the Dutch 

Governor took advantage of the armistice to acquire lands below Fort Chris- 

tina, where he proceeded to erect a fort only five miles away, which he named 

lasimir. This gave the Dutch a foothold upon the south bank, and 111 

nearer proximity to the ocean than Fort Christina. Fort Nassau was dia 

mantled and destroyed, as being no longer of use. In a conference with the 

Swedish Governor, Stuvvesant demanded to see documental proof of his right 

to exercise authority upon he Delaware, and the compass of the lands to 

which the Swedish Government laid claim. Printz prepared a statement in 

which he set out the '-Swedish limits wide enough." But Stuyvesant de- 

1 the documents, under the seal of the company, and characterized this 

writing as a "subterfuge," maintaining by d toumentary evidence, on his part, 

the Dutch West India Company's right to the soil. 

Printz was greal as a blusterer, and preserver of authority when personal 
abuse and kicks and cuffs could l>e resorted to without the fear of retaliation; 
but no match in statecraft for the wily Stuyvesant. To the plea of pn-ooou- 
pancy he had nothing to answer more than he had already done to Hudde's 
messenger respecting the government of Hades, and herein was the cause of 
the Swedes inherently weak. In numbers, too, tho Swedes were feeble com 
pared with the Dutch, who had ten times the population. But in diplomacy 
he had been entirely overreached. Fort Casiniir. by its location, rendered 


the rival Fort Elainborg powerless, and under plea that the mosquitoes had be- 
come troublesome there? it was abandoned. Discovering, doubtless that a cloud 
oHomp cations was thickening over him, which he would be unable with the 
forceTat his command to successfully withstand, he asked to be relieved, and, 
S awaiting an answer to his application, departed for Sweden leaving 
Hs son-in-law John Pappegoya, who had previously received marks of the 
royal favor, and been invested with the dignity of Lieutenant Governor, in 

^TrSweSompany had by this time, no doubt discovered that forcible 
opposition to Swedish occupancy of the soil upon Delaware was destined -«» - 
to come, and accordingly, as a precautionary measure, m November, 16M the 
Co lege'of Commerce sent John Amundson Beach, with the commiBsion o 
Captain in theNavv, to superintend the construction of .vessels Upon his 
aiSa he acquired lands suitable for the purpose of ship-building and set 
about laying his keels. He was to have supreme author tty over the naval force 
and waste act in conjunction with the Governor in protecting the interests , of 
the colony, but in such a manner that neither should decide anything without 

C0 T™!vh\She application of Printz to be relieved the company ap- 
pointed John Claude Rysingh, then Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce 
L V ce Director of New Sweden. He was instructed to fortify and extend 
the Swedish possessions, but without interrupting the friendship existing 
with the Engl sh or Dutch. He was to use his power of persuasion in indue- 
iuTthe latter to give up Fort Casimir, which was regarded as an intrusion 
S£ ^weliSn poLsstens, but without resorting to hostilities « , it was better 
to allow the Dutch to occupy it than to have it fall into the hands of the En- 
glish "who are the more powerful, and, of course, the most dangerous in that 
fiuntry" Thus early was the prowess of England foreshadowed. Go* 
RysSh arrived in the Delaware, on the last day of May, 1654, and immediately 
demanded the surrender of Fort Casimir. Adriaen Van Tienhoven, an aide- 
decamp on the staff of the Dutch commandant of the fort, was sent on board 
£e vZeTto demand of Gov. Rysingh by what right he claimed to *j- 
possess the rightful occupants; but the Governor was not disposed to discuss 
Le matter! and immediately landed a party and took possession without more 
opposition than wordy protests, the Dutch Governor saying, when called onto 
make defense, "What can I do? there is no powder." Rysingh, however, in 
Tustiucation of his course, stated to Teinhoven, after he had gained po«™n 
of the fort, that he was acting under orders from the crown of Sweden whose 
embassador at the Dutch Court, when remonstrating against be «t.on of Gov 
Stuyvesant in erecting and manning Fort Cas.mir had been assured by 
the State's General and° the offices of the West India Company, hat they had 
not authorized the erection of this fort on Swedish ^il saying i f om people 
are in your Excellency's way, drive them off" ' There upon. the ^edirii 
Governor slapped Van Teinhoven on the breast, and said, 'Go! tell yom Gov 
ernorLat.'" As the capture was made on Trinity Sunday, the name was 
changed from Fort Casimir to Fort Trinity. 

Thus were the instructions of the new Governor, ?. ot ^ ™ 80 * ^J^'^ 
to secure possession of the fort by negotiation, complied wi h but by a toiced 
interpretation. For, although he had not actually come to battle, for the very 
"ood'real that the Dutch had no powder and were not disposed .tc ^use 
their fists against fire arms, which the Swedes brandished freely, jet, in mak- 
in" his demand for the fort, he had put on the stern aspect of war. 
"Stuyvesant, on learning of the loss of Fort Cas.mir, sent a messenger to the 

IIISTnl.1 OF l'LA.V-l l.\ IMA. 29 

Delaware to invite Gov. Rysingh to come to Manhattan to bold friendlj oonfer 
enoe m on the Bubjeot o( their difficulties. This Rysingh refused to do, and the 
Dntch Governor, probabl) desiring instructions from the home Government be 
f, re prooeedingto extremities, made a voyage to tbe West Indies for the purpose 
of arranging favorable regulations of trade with the colonies, thougb without 
the instructions, or even the knowledge of the States-General. Cromwell, 
who was now at tin- head of tlu> English nation, by the policy of his agents, 
rendered this embass) of Stuyvesanl abortive 

As soon as information of the conduct of Rysingh at Zwanendal was 
known in Holland, the company lost no time in disclaiming the representa- 
tions which he had made of its willingness to have the fort turned over to the 
Swedes, and immediately took measures for restoring it and wholly dispossess- 
ing the Swedes of lands upon the Delaware. On the llithof November, Ibofi, 
the company ordered Stoyveaant "to exert, every nerve to avenge the insult, 
by not only replacing matters on the Delaware in their former position, but 
by driving the Swedes from every side of the river," though they subsequent 

ly modified this order in such manner as to allow the Swedes, after Fort Casi 
mil had been taken, "to hold the land on which Port Christina is built," with 
a garden to cultivate tobacco, beoause it appears that they had made the pur- 
chase with the previous knowledge of the company, thus manifesting a disin- 
clination to involve Holland in a war with Sweden. "Two armed ships were 
forthwith commissioned; 'the drum was beaten daily for volunteers' in the 
streets of Amsterdam; authority was sent out to arm and equip, and if 
eary to press into the company's service a sufficient number of ships for the 
expedition.' - In the meantime, Gov. Rysingh, who had inaugurated his 
reign by so bold a stroke of policy, determined to ingratiate himself into the 
favor of the Indians, who had been soured in disposition by the arbi- 
trary conduct of the passionate Printz. Ho accordingly sent out on all 
an invitation to the native tribes to assemble on a certain day, by their chiefs 
and principal men, at the seat of government on Tinicum Island, to brighten 
tbe chain of friendship and renew their pledges of faith and good neighbor- 

On the morning of the appointed day, ten grand sachems with their at 
tendants came, and with the formality characteristic of these native tribes, the 
council opened Many and bitter were the complaints made against the Swedes 
for wrongs suffered at their bands, "chief among which was that, many of 
their number had died, plainly pointing, though not explicitly saying it, to the 
giving of spirituous liquors as the cause." The new Governor had no answer 
to make to these complaints, being convinced, probably, that they were but too 
true. 'Without attempting to excuso or extenuate the past. Rysingh brought 
forward the numerous presents which he had taken with him from Sweden for 
the purpose. Tbe sight of the piled up goods produced a profound impression 
Upon the minds of the native chieftains. They sat apart for conference before, 
making any expression of their feelings. Naaman, the fast friend of the white 
man, and the most consequential of the warriors, according to Campanula, 
spoke: " Look," said he. "and see what they have brought to us." So say- 
ing, he stroked himself three times down the arm, which, among the Indians, 
was a token of friendship; afterward he thanked the Swedes on behalf of his 
people for the presents tiny had received, and said that friendship should be 
I more strictly between them than ever before; that the Swedes and 
the Indians in Gov. I'rint/.V time were as ono body and one heart, sinking his 
OS he spoke, and that thenceforward they should be as one head; in 
token of which he took hold of his head with both hands, and made a i 




^ nameT were read of those who were dead, they hung the* heads in 

""liter the first edition of feeling had subsided on the .part of ^ the Dutch 
Company at Amsterdam, the winter passed without anyth ng fmther bemg 
done than issuine the order to Stuyvesant to proceed against the Swedes, in 
fhe spiin- however, a thirty-six-gun brig was obtained from the burgomaster 
of Amsterdam which, with four other crafts of varying s.zes, was prepared for 
duty and Z. 'little fleet set sail for New Netherlands Orders were given for 
fmmedAte act or "though Director General Stuyvesant had not returned from 
he West lutes Upon the arrival of the vessel* at M-hat an, it was ^ 
nounced that « if any lovers of the prosperity and eecunty rfto piovinc o 
IMaw Netherland were inclined to volunteer, or to serve tor reasonable wage. , 
fhey fhould come forward," and whoever should lose a limb, orbematme^ 
assured of a decent compensation. The merchantmen were oidered toft n^ 
two of their crews, and the river boatmen were to be impressed. A Hh, pnet 
ure a grave question arose: " Shall the Jews be enliated? *™«™ 
in the negative; but in lieu of service adult male Jews weie ta ^ 61stT * ve 
stivers a head per month, to be levied by execution ^^f^/^de r eady for 
m-nwpsint had now arrived from his commercial trip, and made leacvy 101 
open n^the campaign 'in earnest. A day of prayer and ^ thanksgiving .vas held 
^beseech the favor of Heaven upon the fPn^^S 
ber, 1655, with a fleet of seven vessels and some 600 men, Stuyvesant ^iswu 
sail and steered for the Delaware. Arrived before For t Trim y (Casumi the 
Director sent Capt. Smith and a drummer to summon the fort, and orderea a 
S movement b'y a party of fifty picked men to cut <* ™g™^ w^h 
Fort Christina and the headquarters of Gov. Rysingh. ^ eD Sch ™ e ' ™ £"? 
mandant of the garrison, asked permission to communicate w^b £ sing^ 
Which was denied? and he was called on to prevent bloodshed. An ^ ter J^ 
m he valley midway between the fort and the Dutch batteries was held, when 
"chute" ked to send an open letter to Rysingh. ^his -as deni^ and f o r a 
third time the fort was summoned. Impatient of delay, ^J^^XancT 
parley, the great guns were landed and the Dutch force oide led to •*£"£* 
Schute again asked for a delay until morning, which was gumt ^ Jas the d 
was now well spent and the Dutch would be unable to make the necessary 
prlpSirns terpen before morning. Early on the Wto-^Stotow-J 
on board the Dutch flagship, the balance and agreed to term of ™ d « 
very honorable to his flag. He was permitted to send to Sweden, by the msi 
o^ortunHv the cannon? nine in number, belonging to the crown oi Sweden 
to march out of the fort with twelve men, as his body guard, full} accoutred 
and colors flying; the common soldiers to wear their side arms. Ihe com 

HISTOai OB PENNffi i.v \si.\. 31 

•mandant and other officers were to retail) their private property, the muskets 
belonging to the crown were to be held until sen! for, and finally the fori was 
to be surrendered, with all the cannon, ammunition, materials and other goods 
belonging to the Wed India Company. The Dutch entered the fort at noon 
with all the formality and glorious oiroumstanoe of war. and Dominie Megap- 
. lensis, Chaplain of the expedition, preached a sermon of thanksgiving on the 
following Sunday in honor of 1 1 1 » - great triumph. 

While these, Bignal events were transpiring at Oasimir, Gov. ftysing, at his 
royal residence on Tinicum, was in niter ignorance that hewas being despoiled 
of his power. A. detachment of nine men had been sent by the Governor to 
Casimir to re-enforce the garrison, which came unawares upon the Dutch lines, 
and after a brief skirmish all but two were captured. Upon learning thai the 
fori was invested, Factor Ellswyok was sent with a flag to inquire of the in 
raders the purpose of their ooming. The answer was returned "To recover 
and retain our property." Rysingh then communicated the hope that they 
would therewith rest content, and not encroach further upon Swedish territory, 
having, doubtless, ascertained bj this time that the Dutch were too strong for 
him to make any effectual resistance. Stuyvesant returned an evasive answer, 
but made ready to march upon Fort Christina It will be remembered that 
by the terms of the modified orders given for the reduction of the Swedes, 
I inistina was not to be disturbed. But the Dutch Governor's blood was 
Dow trp. and he determined to make clean work while the means were in his 
haods. Discovering that the Dutch were advancing. Rysingh spent the whole 
night in strengthening the defenses and putting the garrison in position to 
make a Btout resistance. Early on the following day the invaders made their 
appearance on the opposite bank of Christina Creek, when' they threw up de 
fenses and planted their cannon. Forces were landed above the fort, and the 
place was soon invented on all sides, the vessels, in the meantime, having been 
brought into the mouth of the creek, their cannon planted west of the fort and 
on Timber Island. Having thus securely shut up the Governor and his garri- 
son, Stuyvesant BUmmmoned him to surrender. Rysingh could not in honor 
tamely Bubmit, and at a council of war it was resolved to make a defense and 
" leave the consequence to be redressed by our gracious superiors.*' But their 
supply of powder barely sufficed for one round, and his force consisted of only 
thirty men. In the meantime, the Dutch soldiery made free with the property 
of the Swedes without the fort, killing their cattle and invading their homes. 
■•At length the Swedish garrison itself showed symptoms of mutiny. The 
men were harassed with constant watching, provisions began to fail, many 
ick, several had deserted, and Stuyvesant threatened, that, if they held 
out much longer, to give no quarter." A conference was held which ended 
return of Rysingh to the fort more resolute than ever for defense. 
Finally Stuyvesant "sent in his ultimatum and gave twenty-four hours for a 
final answer, the generous extent of time for consideration evincing the humane 
disposition of the commander of the invading army, or what is perhaps more 
probable his own lack of stomach for carnage. Before the expiration of the 
time allowed, the garrison capitulated, 'after a siege of fourteen days, dur- 
ing which, very fortunately, there was a great deal more talking than cannon- 
ading, and no blood shed, except those of the goats, poultry and swine, which 
tie- Dutch troops laid their hands on. The twenty or thirty Swedes then 
marched out with their arms: colors flying, matches lighted, drums beating, 
and fifes playing, and the Dutch took possession of the fort, hauled down the 
Swedish flag and hoisted their own." 

By the terms of capitulation, the Swedes, who wished to remain in the 


county, were pelted to doj on *p^g>«$$^ tov^ 
of property were to be respected ™^£» sway ^.^ 

singh, and all others- who J^JfSg^^ Jj, m ade to Eysingh, to be 
and by a secret provision, a loan ot Xdu property belonging 

refanded on bis arrival ml ^^'^Te Dutch until the" loan was paid, 
to the crown remaining in the hands ot me Christina and the 

ions, or else the discipline i entered most vigorous pro- 

of a new vessel, with ha «ng plundeiea tne g , b violently 

8 ° desolated ? atsca i; ce ^---^^01^ sub isten^ 

"wS that olmy Sy and we were left like sheep doomed to the kmfe, 

without means of defense Y^FilsonlheloZ Eiver, which had been 

and their dwellings around the graves of their -fetters. ^ 

throughout the web of history, and are mvisib e t .the du U eye of gn ^ 

* * * By the treacherous surpnsal of Foit Oasimn, tnen, aiu 1 ■ ■ 

Swedes eniov a transient triumph, but drew upon their heads the ™ngeance 
of StorStuyvesant. who wrested all New Sweden from their hand* B* the 
inquest of New Sweden, Peter Stuyvesant aroused the claims of Lord Bait, 


more, who appealed to the cabinet of Groat Britain, who subdued the whole 
province of Not Netherlands. By this great achievement, the whole extent of 
North America, from Nova Scotia to the Floridas, was rendered one entire 
dependency npon the British crown. Bat mark the consequence: The hith- 
erto scattered ooloniee l>.-iu^ thus consolidated and having no rival colonies to 
check or keep them in awe, waxed great and powerful, and finally becoming 
eg for the mother country, were enabled to shake off its bonds. But 
the chain of effects stepped not here; the -successful revolution in America pro- 
duced the sanguinary revolution in France, which produced the puissant 
Bonaparte, who produced the French despotism." 

In March, 1656, the ship " Mercury, " with 130 emigrants, arrived, the 
government at Stockholm having had no intimation of the Dutch conquest. 
An attempt was made to prevent a landing, and the vessel was ordered to 
report to Stuyvesant at Manhattan, but the order was disregarded and the col- 
oniatB debarked and acquired lands. The Swedish Government was not dis- 
poeed to submit to these high-handed proceedings of the Duteh, and the min- 
i-ter- of the two courts maintained a heated discussion of their differences. 
Og the Dutch disposed to hold by force their conquests, the government 
of Sweden allowed the claim to rest until 1(104. In that year, vigorous meas- 
ures were planned to regain its claims upon the Delaware, and a fleet bearing 
a military force was dispatched for the purpose. But, having been obliged to 
put back on account of stress of weather, the enterprise was abandoned. 


John Paul Jacqfet, 1655-57— Jacob Alrichs, 1657-59— Goeran Van Dyck, 1657 
-58— William Beekmax, 1658-63— Alexander D'IIixoyossa. 1659-64. 

THE colonies upon the Delaware being now under exclusive control of the 
Dutch, John Paul Jaquet was appointed in November, 1(155, as Vice 
Director, Derek Smidt having exercised authority after the departure of Stuy 
vesant. The expense of fitting out the expedition for the reduction of the 
Swedes was sorely felt by the A\ est India Company, which had been obliged 
iow money for the 'purpose of t'je city of Amsterdam. Inpayment of 
this loan, the company sold to the city all the lauds upon the south bank of 
the Delaware, from the ocean to Christina Creek, reaching back to the lands 
of the Ifinquas, which was designated N'ieur Amstel. Again was there di- 
.uihority upon the Delaware. The government of the new possession 
ii a commission of forty residents of Amsterdam, who appointed 
Jacob Alrichs as Director, and sent" him with a force of forty soldiers and 150 
colonists, in three vessels, to assume the government, whereupon Jaquet relin- 
quished authority over this portion of his territory. The company in commu- 
nicating with Stuyvesant upon the subject of his course in dispossessing the 
■ r duly considering all the complaints and remonstrances of the 
-li government) approved his conduct, "though they would not have been 
displei 1. a formal capitulation not taken place," adding as a paren- 

thetical explanation of the word formal " what is written is too long preserved, 
and may be produced when not desired, whereas words not recorded the 
lapse of time, forgotten, or may be explained away." 


Stuyvesant still remained in supreme control over both the colony of the 
city and the colony of the company, to the immediate governorship of the lat- 
ter o^ch, Goeian Van Dyck was appointed. But though settlements m 
he management of affairs were frequently made they would I not remain j£ 
tied There was conflict of authority between Alrichs and Van Djck. llie 
companies soon found that a grievous system of smuggling had sprung up. 
After Tsearchincr examination - into the irregularities by Stuyvesant, who vis- 
UedtheMawar e forthe recommended the appointment of one 
general a-enT who should have charge of all the revenues of both colonies 
fud \Y illfam Beeknian was accordingly appointed The company of the city 
™t tnWebeen satisfied with the profits of their investment, and ac- 
cording mad^w regulations to govern "settlement, by which larger returns 
Sould accrue. This action created discontent among the settlers, and many 
who wexe meditating the purchase of lands and the acquisition of homes, de- 
termtoed to go over°into Maryland where Lord Baltimore was .offering far more 
teimmea to fc j discomforts of the settlers, the 

mtr^hlhrtTlluvialsoil and the rank and *<^^£* 
of a new country engenders, ' ' produced wasting sicknesses When the plant ng 
wascompteed, and g thenew soil, for ages undisturbed, had been thoroughly 
rtoedThe rains set in which descended almost continuously, producing ; fever 
and ague and dysentery. Scarcely a family escaped the epidemic^ Six m 
the Ely of Director Alrichs were attacked, and his wife died New colo- 
nisVcSmo without provisions, which only added to the distress. " Scarcity of 

000 schepels of grain had been sown in the spring. They produced scarcely 
600 athartst Rye rose to three guilders the bushel- peas to eigh guilders 
the sack salt was twelve guilders the bushel at New Amsterdam; cheese and 
butter we're not to be had, and when a man journeys he can get nothing bu 
dry breacl or he must take a pot or kettle along with him to cook his victuals. 
" The p'ace had now got so bid a name that the whole river could not wash it 
clean ''The exactions of the city company upon its colony not only did not 

si $s£i=2i?& area ?Att=£ 

AccoEglt Col. Utie, with a number of delegates, was dispatched to demand 
that the Dutch should quit the place, or declare themselves subjects of Lord 
Baltimore addLg '< th'at if /ey hesitated, they should be responsible for 
whatever innocent blood might be shed. „„;+; M aT ,H the agents 

Excited discussions ensued between the Dutch authorities and the agents 
of the Maryland government, and it was finally agreed to refer the matter to 
G^ot StoySanVwho immediately sent Commissioners to the Cb-aped. to 
settle differences, and enter into treaty regulations for the mutual return ot 
fnltives and dispatched sixty soldiers to the Delaware to assist m preserving 
orfe^and resistifg the English, should an attempt be made to dispossess the 

DUt Coon the death of Alrichs, which occurred in 1659, Alexander D'Hinoyossa 
was^Pointodtovernor of the city colony. The new Governor was^ man of 
good business capacity, and sought to administer the aff airs o t.s , ony to. 
the best interests of the settlers, and for increasing the revenues of th > com 
pany To further the general prosperity, the company negotiated a new loan 


with which to strengthen and improve its resources. This liberal policy had 
the desired effeol The Swedes, who had Bettled above on the river, - 
down, and acquired homes on the land- of the oitj colony. The Pins and die- 
oontented Dntch, who had gone to Maryland, returned and brought with them 
some of the English Bettlers. 

Disoonraged by the harassing oonfUots of authority which seemed inter 
minable, the West India Company transferred all its interests on the east side 
.if the river to the colon] of the city, and upon the visit of D'Hinoyossa to 
Holland in 1668, he secured (or himself the entire and exclusive government 
of the colonies upon the Delaware, being no longer subject to the authority of 

Encouraged by liberal terms of settlement, and there being now a prospect 
of stable government, emigrants were attracted thither. A Mennonite commu- 
nity came in a body. " Clergymen were not allowed to join them, nor any 
1 intractable people such as those in communion with the Roman See, usurious 
Jews, English stiff-necked Quakers, Puritans, foolhardy believers in the mil- 
lennium, and obstinate modern pretenders to revelation.' " They were obliged 
to take an oath never to seek for an office; Magistrates were to receive no com- 
pensation, "not even astiver." The soil and climate were regarded as excel- 
lent, and when sufficiently peopled, the country would be the "finest on the 
face of the globe." 


Richard Nichols, 1664-OT— Robert Needham, 1884-68— Francis Lovelace 

Hit;: :;; .ions Cakk. 1668-73— Anthony Colvk, 1673 74— PETER ALBIOBS, 

AFFAIRS were scarcely arranged upon the Delaware, and the dawning of 
a better day for the colonists ushered in, before new complioati 
began to threaten the subversion of the whole Dutch power in America. The 
English had always claimed the entire Atlantic seaboard. I'nder Cromwell. 
the Navigation act was aimed tit Dutch interests in the New World. Captain 
John Scott, who had been an officer in the army of Charles I, having 
obtained some show of authority from the ( iovernor of Connecticut, had visited 
the towns upon the west end of Long [Bland, where was a mixed population of 
Dutch and English, and where he claimed to have purchased largo tracts of 
land, .and had persuaded them to unite under his authority in setting up a 
government of their own. He visited England and "petitioned the King to be 
invested with the government of Long Island, or that the people thereof be 
allowed to choose yearlj a Governor and Assistants." By his represen 
an inquiry was instituted by the King's council, "as to his majesty's title to the 
premises-, the intrusions of the Dutch ; their deportment; management of the 
country, strength, trade and government; and lastly, of the means necessary 
to induce or force them to acknowledge the King, or if necessary, to 
them together from the country." The visit of Scott, and his prayer to the 
Ki ti_r for a <^ant of Long Island, was the occasion of inaugurating a policy, 
which resulted in the overthrow of Dutch rule in America. But the attention 
of English statesmen had for some time been turned to the importance of the 

territory which the Dutch colonies hail o lpied, and a belief that Dutch trade 

in the New World was yielding great returns, stimulated inquiry. 


Duke of York, brother of the King, who afterward himself became King, was 
probably at this time the power behind the throne that was urging on action 
ookin/to the dispossession of the Dutch. The motive which seemed to actuate 
him wits the acquisition of personal wealth and power. He saw as he 
thought, a company of merchants in Amsterdam accumulating great weath out 
of these colonies, and he meditated the transfer of this wealth to himself. He 
was seconded in this project by the powerful influence of Sir George Downing 
who had been Envoy at The Hague, under Cromwell, and was now under Charles 
II "Keen bold, subtle, active, and observant, but imperious and unscrupulous, 
disliking and distrusting the Dutch," he had watched every movement of the 
company's granted privileges by the States General, and had reported every- 
thing to his°su P eriorsat home. "The whole bent," says O'Calaghan,' of this 
man's mind was constantly to hold up before the eyes of his countrymen the 
mowing power of Holland and her commercial companies, their immense 
wealth and ambition, and the danger to England of permitting these to pro 
cress onward unchecked.'' » 

After giving his testimony before the council, Scott returned ^o America 
with a letter from the King recommending his interests to the co-operation and 
protection of the New England colonies. On arriving in Connecticut, he was 
commissioned by the Governor of that colony to incorporate Long Island under 
Connecticut jurisdiction. But the Baptists, Quakers and Menuomtes, who formed 
a considerable part of the population," dreaded falling mo the hands of the 
Puritans " In a quaint document commencing, ''In the behalfe of sum hun- 
dreds of 'English here planted on the west end of Long Island wee address, 
etc " they besought Scott to come and settle their difficulties. On his arriva 
he acquainted them with the fact, till then unknown, that King Charles had 
^ranted Hie island to the Duke of York, who would soon assert his rights. 
Whereupon the towns of Hemstede, Newwarke, Crafford, Hastings, Folestone 
and Gravesend, entered into a "combination" as they termed it, resolved to 
elect deputies to draw up laws, choose magistrates, and empowered bcott to 
act as their President; in short set up the first independent State in America. 
Scott immediately set out at the head of 150 men, horse and foot, to subdue 

e On a the 22d of March, 1664, Charles II made a grant of the whole of Long 
Island and all the adjoining country at the time m possession of th» Dutch 
to the Duke of York. Borrowing four men-of-war of the king, James sent 
them in command of Col. Richard Nicholls, an old officer, with whom was as- 
sociated Sir Robert Carr, Sir George Cartwright, and Samuel Maverick, Esq., 
and a force of 450 men, to dispossess the Dutch. To insure the success of the 
expedition, letters were addressed to each of the Governors of the New England 
colonies, enjoining upon them to unite in giving aid by men and material to 
Nicholls The fleet sailed directly for Boston, where it was expected, and 
whence, through one Lord, the Dutch were notified of its coming. I he great- 
est consternation was aroused upon the receipt of this intelligence, and the 
most active preparations were making for defense. But m the midst of these 
preparations, notice was received from the Chambers at Amsterdam, doubtless 
inspired by the English, that " no apprehension of any public enemy or dan- 
ger from England need be entertained. That the King was only desirous to 
reduce the colonies to uniformity in church and state, aud with this view was 
dispatching some Commissioners with two or three frigates to New England to 
introduce Episcopacy in that quarter." Thrown completely off his guard by 
this announcement, the Director General, Stuyvesant abandoned all preparations 
for resistance, and indulged in no anticipations of a hostile visitation. lbus 


- three full weeka lost in which the colonies might have been put in a verj 
good state "f deli 

Nicholls on arriving in American waters, touched at Boston and Connecti- 
cut, when aoote aid was received, :m<l then hastened toward to Manhattan 
- .in had l>ut a day or two before learned of the arrival, and of the hoe 
tile intent Soaroel] had he i^^uml orders for bringing ou( his forces and foi 
fortifying before Nicholls Boattered proolamations through the colony promis- 
ing to protect all who submitted to his Brittanic majesty in the undisturbed 
ion of their property, and made a formal summons upon Btuyvesanl to 
Borrender the rountry to the King of Great Britain. The Direotor found thai 
he had an entirely different enenrj to treat with from Bysinghi and a few half- 
armed Swedes and Fins upon the Delaware. Wordy war ensued between the 
Commissioners and the Direotor, and the English Governor finding that Stay 
vesanl not in the temper to yield, landed a bodj of his soldiers upon the lower end 
of the island, and ordered Hyde, the commander of the tleet. to lay the frigates 
broadside before the city. It was a critical moment. Stuyvesant was stand- 
ing on one of the points of the fort when he saw the frigates approaching. 
The runner stood by with burning match, prepared to fire on the fleet, and 
Btuyvesant seemed on the point of giving the order. But he was restrained, 
and a further communication was sentto Nicholls, who would listen to nothing 
-hort of the full execution of his mission. Still Stuyvesant held out The 
inhabitants implored, but rather than surrender "he would be earned a corpse 
to his grave." The town was, however, in qo condition to stand a siege. The 
powder at the fort would only suffice for one day of active operations. Pro- 
visions were scarce. The inhabitants were not disposed to be sacrificed, and 
the disaffection among them spread to the soldiers. They were overheard mut- 
tering. " Now we hope to pepper those devilish traders who have so long 
salted us; we know where booty is to be fouud, and where the young women 
live who wear gold chains." 

The Rev. Jannes Myapoleuses seems to have been active in negotiations and 
dto the shedding of blood. A remonstrance drawn by him was finally 
1 and signed by the principal men, and presented to the Director Gen- 
eral, in which the utter hopelessness of resistance was set forth, and Stuyre- 
sant finally consented to capitulate. Favorable terms were arranged, and 
Nicholls promised that if it should be finally agreed between the English and 
Dutch governments that the province should be given over to Dutch rule, he 
would peacefully yield his authority. Thus without a gun being fired, the En 
glish made conquest of the Manhattoes. 

Sir Robert Carr, with two frigates and an ample force, was dispatched to 
laware to reduce the a ttlementa there to English rule. The planters, 
whether Dutch or Swedes, were to be insured in the peaceable possession of 
their property, and the magistrates were to be continued in office. 

Sailine; past the fort, he disseminated among the settler,, the news of the 
surrender of Stuyvesant, and the promises of protection which Nicholls had 

made use of. But Gov. D'Hinoyossa was not disposed t" 1 1 the demand 

rrender without a struggle. Whereupon Carr landed his forw 
stormed the place. After a fruitless but heroic resistance, in which ten were 
wounded and three were killed, the Governor was forced to surrender. Tims 
was the complete subversion of the State's General in America consummated, 
and the name of New Amsterdam gave place to thai of .New York, from the 
name of the BWiglinfr propriet ir, James, Duke of York. 

The resistance offered by D'Hinoyossa formed a pretext for shameless 
plunder. Carr, in his report which shows him to have been a lawless fel- 


low, says, « Ye soldiers never stoping untill they stormed ye fort, andsae con- 
sequently to plundering; the seamen, noe less given to that ^.™<P£% 
within and have g Hon good store of booty." Carr seized the farm of 
DHim.yossa, hir broker, John Carr, that of Sheriff Swenngen, and Ensign 
Stock that of Peter Alrichs. The produce of the land for that year was seized, 
together with a cargo of goods that was unsold. " Even the inoffensive Men- 
njnisls, though non-combatant from principle, did not escape the sack and 
plunder to which the whole river was subjected by Carr and his marauders. 
A boat was dispatched to their settlement, which was stripped of everything, 

t0 VichoUs'o'n hearing of the rapacious conduct of his subordinate visited 
the Delaware, removed Carr, and placed Robert N^edham in command Pre^ 
vious to dispatching his fleet to America, m June, 1664 the Duke of Joikhal 
granted to John, Lord Berkeley, Baron of Stratton and Sir George Carteret, 
of Saltrum in Devon, the territory of New Jersey, bounded substantially as the 
present State, and this, though but little settled by the Dutch, had been in- 
cluded in the terms of surrender secured by Nicholls. In many ways, he 
showed himself a man of ability and discretion. He drew up .with signal 
success a body of laws, embracing most of the provisions which had been in 
force in the English colonies, which were designated the Duke s .Laws. 

In May 1667, Col. Francis- Lovelace was appointed Governor in place oi 
Nicholls, and soon after taking charge of affairs, drew up regulations for the 
government of the territory upon the Delaware, and dispatched Capt. John 
Carr to act there as his Deputy Governor. It was provided that whenever 
complaint duly sworn to was made, the Governor was to summon the sellout. 
Hans Block, Israel Helm, Peter Rambo, Peter Cock and Peter Alrichs, or any 
two of them, as counsellors, to advise him, and determine by the major vote 
what is just, equitable and necessary in the case in question. it was ™"&& 
provided that all men should be punished in an exemplary manner though 
with moderation; that the laws should be frequently communicated to the 
counsellors, and that in cases of difficulty recourse should be had to the Gov- 
ernor and Council at New York. 

In 1668. two murders were perpetrated by Indians, which caused consider- 
able disturbance and alarm throughout the settlements. These capital crimes 
appear to have been committed while the guilty parties were maddened by 
liquor So impressed were the sachems and leading warriors of the baneiul 
effects of strong drink, that they appeared before the Council and besought ,ts 
authority to utterly prohibit the sale of it to any of their tribes These re- 
quests were repeated, and finally, upon the advice of Peter Alrichs, the 
Governor (Lovelace) prohibited, on pain of death, the selling of powder, shot 
and strong liquors to the Indians, and writ to Carr on the occasion to use the 
utmost vigilance and caution " 

The native murderers were not apprehended, as it was difficult to tiace 
them; but the Indians themselves were determined to ferret them out. Une 
was taken and shot to death, who was the chief offender, but the other escaped 
and was never after heard of. The chiefs summoned their young men and m 
presence of the English warned them that such would be the fate of all offend- 
ers. Proud justly remarks: " This, at a time when the Indians were numer- 
ous and strong and the Europeans few and weak, was a memorable act of jus- 
tice, and a proof of true friendship to the Enghsh, greatly alienating the 
fear, for which they had so much reason among savages, in this then wildei- 

neS In°166?a reputed son of the distinguished Swedish General, Connings- 

HISTOB? OP PENN81 L\ \m \ : >'J 

marke, commonly sailed the Long Fin. with another of his nationality, Henry 
Ooleman, a man of property, and familiar with the language and habits of the 
Indians, endeavored to incite an inBorreotion to throw off the English rale and 
establish the Swedish supremacy. The Long Fin was apprehended, and was 

condemned to die; but upon reconsideration his sentence was commuted to 
whipping and og with the letter K. He was brought in chains to 

New Tore, whore he was incarcerated in the Stadt-honse for a year, and was 
then transported to Barbadoee to be Bold. Improvements in the modes of 
administering justice wore from time Jo time introduced. New Castle was 
made a corporation, to be governed by a Bailiff and six associates. Duties on 
importations were laid, and Oapi Martin Pringer was appointed to collect and 
make duo returns of them to Gov. Lovelace. 

In 1678, the French monarch, Louis XIV, declared war against the Neth- 
erlands, and with an army of over 200,000 men moved down upon that do. 

ountry. In conjunction with the land force, the English, with a power- 
ful armament, descended upon the Dutch waters. The aged Du Buyter and 
the youthful Nan Tromp put boldly to sea to meet the invaders. Three great 
naval" battles were fought upon the Dutch coast on the 7th and 14th of June, 
and the 6th of August, in which the English forces were linally repulsed and 
driven from the coast. In the meantime, the inhabitants, abandoning their 
homes, cut the dikes which held bark the soa. and invited inundation. Deem 
ing this a favorable opportunity to regain their possessions wrenched from them 
in the Now World, the Dutch sent a small fleet under Commodores Cornelius 
Evertse and Jacobus Benkes, to Now York, to demand the surrender of all 
their previous possessions. Gov. Lovelace happened to be absent, and hie 
representative, Capt John Manning, surrendered with but brief resistance, 
and the magistrates from Albany, Esopus, Fast, Jersey and Long Island, on 
being summoned to New York, swore fealty to the returning Dutch power. 
Anthony Colve, as Governor, was Bent to Delaware, where the magistrates 
hastened to meet him and submit themselves to his authority. Property in 

glial) Government was confiscated; Gov. Lovelace returned to Fngland, 
and many of the soldiers wore carried prisoners to Holland. Before their de- 
parture. Commodores Evertse and Benkes. whost] led themselves "The honora- 
ble and awful oounoil of war, for their high mightinesses, the State's General 
of the United Netherlands, and his Serene Highness, the Prince of Orange," 
commissioned Anthony Colve, a Captain of foot, on the 12th of August. 1673, 
to be Governor General of "Now Netherlands, with all its appendences," 
and on the lUth of September following, Peter Alrichs, who had maid tested 
his subserviency and his pleasure at the return of Dutch ascendancy, was ap 
pointed by Colve Deputy Governor upon the Delaware. A body of laws was 
drawn up for his instruction, and throe courts of justice were established, at 
Chester and Lewistown Capt. Manning on his return to En 
gland was charged with treachery for delivering up the fort at New York with- 
out resistance, and was Bentenced by a court martial "to have bis sword broken 
over his head in public, before the city hall, and himself rendered incapable 
of wearing B sword and of serving his Majesty for the future in any public 
trust in the < tnvernment," 

But the revolution which had been affected so easily was of short duration. 

On the 9th of February, 1674, peace was concluded beta n England and 

Holland, and in the articles of pacification it was provided '• that whatsoever 
countries, islands, town-, ports, rustics or forts, have or shall bo taken, on both 
sides, since the time that the late unhappy war broke out. either in Europe, oi 
elsewhere, shall be restored I i the former lord and proprietor, in the same con- 


dition they shall be in when the peace itself shall be proclaimed, after which 
time there shall be no spoil nor plunder of the inhabitants, no demolition 
of fortifications, nor carrying away of guns, powder or other military stores 
which belonged to any castle or port at the time when it was taken. This 
left no room for controversy about possession. But that there might be no legal 
bar nor loophole for question of absolute right to his possessions, the Duke of 
York secured from the King on tbe 29th of June following a new patent cov- 
ering the former grant, and two days thereafter sent Sir Edmund Andros, o 
possfss and govern the country. He arrived at New York and took peaceable 
possession on the 31st of October, and two days thereafter it was resolved m 
council to reinstate all the officers upon Delaware as they were at the surrender 
to the Dutch, except Peter Alrichs, who for his forwardness in yielding his 
power was relieved. Capt. Edmund Cantwell and William Tom were sent to 
occupy the fort at New Castle, in the capacities of Deputy Governor and Sec- 
retary In Mav 3675, Gov. Andros visited the Delaware, and held court at 
New Castle " in which orders were made relative to the opening of roads, the 
regulation of church property and the support of preaching, the prohibition 
of the sale of liquors to the Indians, and the distillation thereof by the inhab- 
itants" On the 23d of September, 1676, Cantwell was superseded by John 
Collier as Vice Governor, when Ephraim Hermans became Secretary. 

As 'was previously observed, Gov. Nicholis, in 1664, made a complete di- 
gest of all the laws and usages in force in the English-speaking colonies in 
America, which were known as the Duke's Laws. That these might now be 
made the basis of judicature throughout the Duke's possessions, they were, on 
the 25th of September, 1676, formally proclaimed and published by Gov. 
Lovelace, with a suitable ordinance introducing them. It may here be ob- 
served, that, in the administration of Gov. Hartranft, by act of the Legislature 
of June 12 1878, the Duke's Laws were published in a handsome volume, to- 
gether with the Charter and Laws instituted by Penn, and nistoncal notes 
covering the early history of the State, under the direction of John B. Linn, 
Secretary of the commonwealth, edited by Staughton George, Benjamin M. 
Nead, and Thomas McCamant, from an old copy preserved among the town rec- 
ords of Hempstead, Long Island, the seat of the independent State which 
had been set up there by John Scott before the coming of Nicholis. The num- 
ber of taxable male inhabitants between the ages of sixteen and sixty years 
in 1677, for Uplandt and New Castle, was 443, which by the usual estimate of 
seven to one would give the population 3,101 for this district, Gov. Collier 
having exceeded his authority by exercising judicial functions, was deposed 
by Andros, and Capt. Christopher Billop was appointed to succeed him. But 
the change resulted in little benefit to the colony; for Billop was charged 
with many irregularities, "taking possession of the fort and turning it into 
a stable, and the court room above into a hay and fodder loft; debarring the 
court from sitting in its usual place in the fort, and making use of soldiers tor 
his own private purposes. " , ■„„«„„ 

The hand of the English Government bore heavily upon the denomination 
of Christians called Friends or Quakers, and the earnest-minded, conscientious 
worshipers, uncompromising in their faith, were eager for homes in a land 
where they should be absolutely free to worship the Supreme Being Berke- 
ley and Carteret, who had bought New Jersey, were Fnends and the settle- 
ments made in their territory were largely of that faith. In 16 - 5, Lord Ber- 
keley sold his undivided half of the province to John Fenwicke, in trust for 
Edward Bvllinge, also Quakers, and Fenwicke sailed in the Griffith, with a 
■company of Friends who settled at Salem, in West Jersey. Byllmge, having 


become involved in debt, made an assignment of his interest for the benefit of 

liters, and William Peon was induced to become trustee jointly with 

Qowen Lawrie and Nicholas Lucas. Penn was a devoted Quaker, and he was 

Of that earnest nature that the interests of his friends and Christian devotees 

wen like his own persona] interests. Eence lie became zealous in promoting 
the welfare of the colony. For its orderly government, am! that settlers might 
have assurance of stability in tin' management el' affairs, Penn drew up " ( 'on 
and agreements of the proprietor-, freeholders ami inhabitants of West 

New Jersev iii America" in forty-four chapters. Foreseeing difficult] from 
divided authority, Penn secured a division of the province by "a line of par- 
tition from the east side of Little Egg Harbor, straight north, through the 
country to the utmost branch of the Delaware River." Penn's half was called 
New West Jersey, along the I lelawareside, Carteret'sNew Bast Jersey along the 

shore. Penn's purposes and disposition toward the settlers, as the 
founder of a State, are disclosed by s letter which he wroto at this time to a 
Friend, Richard Hartshorn, then in America: H We lay a foundation for 
altera rstand their liberty, as men and Christians; that they may 

not be brought into bondage, but by their own consent; tor we put the power 
inthepeople. * * So every man is capable to choose or to be cboson; no man 
to be arrested, condemned, or molested, in his estate, or liberty, but by twelve 
men of the neighborhood; no man to lie in prison for debt, but that his estate 
satisfv. BS far as it will go, and he he sot at liberty to work; no man to be 
called in question, or molested for his conscience." Lest any should be in- 
duced to leave home and embark in the enterprise of settlement unadvisedly, 
Penn wrote ami published a letter of caution. "That in whomsoever a desire to 
I... concerned in this intended plantation, smh would weigh the thing before 

rd, and not hoadily, or rashly, conclude on any such remove, and that 
the] do not offer violence to the tender love of their near kindred and relations. 
but soljerly, and conscientiously endeavor to obtain their good wills; that 
whether they go or stay, it may be of good savor before the Lord and good 


Sib Edmund Amdbos, I674r«1 Edmi nd Cantwell, 1674-70— John- Collieh, 1676- 
77 — Cnnisi oiMiii; BilXOP, b'>77-81. 

\ WILLIAM PENN, as Trustee, and finally as part owner of New Jersey, 
W became much interested in the subject of colonization in America. 
Mam of his people had gone thither, and he had given much prayerful study 
ami meditation to the amelioration of their condition by securing just laws for 
their government. His imagination pictured the fortunate condition of a 
State where the law-giver should alone study the happiness of his subjects, and 
his subjects should be chiefly intent on rendering implicit obedience to 
just laws. From his experience in the management of the Jerseys, he had 
doubtless discovered that if he would carry out his ideas of government suc- 
cessfully, he must have a province where his voice would he potential and his 
will supreme. He accordingly cast about for the acquirement of sucha land in 
the New World. 

Penn had doubtless been stimulated in his desires by the very roseate ac- 
counts of the beaut] and BXOellence of the country, its salubrity of climate, its 


balmy airs, the fertility of its soil, and the abundance of the native fish, flesh 
and fowl In 1680, one Malhon Stacy wrote a letter which was large y circu- 
lated in England, inwhichhe says: "Itisa countrythat produceth all things 
for the support and furtherance of man, in a plentiful manner 1 

have seen orchards laden with fruit to adm.rat.on- their very limbs torn to 
nieces with weight, most delicious to the taste, and lovely to behold. I have 
een an apple tree from a pippin-kernel, yield a barrel of curious cider; and 
oeachestn such plenty that some people took their carts a peach gathering; I 
Lid not butTmile attbe conceit of it; they are very delicious fruit and hang 
almost like our onions, that are tied on ropes. I have seen and know , th s 
summer, fortv bushels of bold wheat of one bushel sown. From May till 
M Tae Imas, great store of very good wild fruits as strawberries cranberries 
and hurtleberries, which are like our in England, only far sweeter; 
the cranberries, much like cherries for color and bigness which may be 
kept t 11 frnit comes again; an excellent sauce is made of them for venison 
tiukevs and other great fowl, and they are better to make tarts of than either 
gooscoer'sorchefries; we have them brought to our houses by the Indians 
fn Treat plenty. My brother Robert had as many cherries this year as would 
have loaded several carts. As for venison and fowls, we have great plenty; 
we have brought home to our countries by the Indians seven or eight fat bucks 
£ a day Ve went into the river to catch herrings after the Indian fashion, 
i * *' W e could have filled a three-bushel sack of as good large herrings 
as ever I saw. And as to beef and pork, here is great plenty of it and good 
sheep The common grass of this country toeds beef very fat. Indeed, the 
couatry, take it as a wilderness, is a brave country 

The father of William Penn had arisen to distinction in tne British Navy. 
He was sent in Cromwell's time, with a considerable sea and land force to the 
WesTlndies, where he reduced the Island of Jamaica under English rule. At 
tte restoration, he gave in his adhesion to the royal cause. Under James 
Duke of York,' Admiral Penn commanded the English fleet which descended 
upon the Dutch coast, and gained a great victory over the combined I naval 
forces led by Van Opdam. For this great service to his country, Penn was 
Sted, and became a favorite at court, the King and his brothor, the Duke, 
holding h m in cherished remembrance. At his death, here was due him 
from?be crown the sum of £16,000, a portion of which he himself had ad^ 
vanned for the sea service. Filled with the romantic idea of colonization and 
eTamored with the sacred cause of his people, the son, who had come to be , ^ 
earded with favor for his great father's sake, petitioned King Chailes II to 
IranthTm, in liquidation of this debt, "a tract of land m America lying 
norS of Maryland, bounded east by the Delaware River on *e wesW^ted 
as Maryland and northward to extend as far as plantable. Theie were con 
nieW intorests at this time which were being warily watched at court. The 
tt ton was submitted to the Privy Council, and afterward to the Lords of 
the committee of plantations. The Duke of York already held the counties of 
New C^sUe Kent and Sussex. Lord Baltimore held a grant upon the south, 
wtha^ indefint norrhern limit, and the agents of both these territories 
viewed with a jealous eye any new grant that should in any way trench upon 
Seh- riJhte. These claims were fully debated and heard by the Lords, and 
bein/a°matter in which the King manifested special interest, the r.ord Chief 
justice, North, and the Attorney* General, Sir William Jones, were consulted 
Doth as to the grant itself, and the form or manner of making it Finally, 
after a careful Lidv of the whole subject, it was determined by the toghest 
authority in ne Government to grant to Penn a larger tract than he had asked 


for and the oharter was drawn with unexampled liberality, in unequivocal 
terms of gift and perpetuity of holding, and with remarkable minuteness of 
detail, and that Penn should have the advantage of any double meaning con 
veyed'inthe instrument, the twenty-third and las) sootion provides: "And, 
if perchance hereafter any doubt ur question should arise concerning the true 
sense and meaning of any word,olauseor sentence contained in this our present 
oharter, we will ordain and command that at all times and in all things uofa 
interpretation be made thereof, and allowed in any of our courts whatsoever 
as shall be adjudged most advantageous and favorable unto the said William 
Penn, his heirs and assigns." 

It was a joyful >lav for lVnn when he finally reached the consummation of 
bis wishes, and saw himself invested with almost dictatorial power over a 
country as large as England itself, destined to become a populous empire. 
But his exultation was tempered with the most devout Christian spirit, (earful 
lest in the exercise of bis great power he might be led to do something that 
ahoold be displeasing to God To his dear friend, Robert Turner, ho writes 
in a modest way: "My true love in the Lord salutes thee and dear friends 
that love the Lord's precious truth in those parts. Thine I have, and for my 
business here know that after many waitings, watohings, solicitings and dis- 
pute-; in council, this day my country was confirmed to me under the great seal 
of England, with large powers and privileges, by the name of Pennsylvania, a 
name the King would give it in honor of my father. I chose New Wales, be- 
ing, as this, a°prettv hilly country; but Penn being Welsh for a head, as Pen- 
manmoire in Wales, and Penrith in Cumberland, and Penn in Buckingham- 
shire, the highest land in England, called this Pennsylvania, which is the high 
01 head woodlands; tor 1 proposed, when the Secretary, a Welshman, refused 
to have it called New Wales, Sylvania, and they added Penn to it; and though 
I much opposed it. and went to the King to have it struck out and altered, he 
.-aid it was past, and w.mld take it upon him; nor could twenty guineas move 
the Dndnr Secretary to varj the name; for 1 feared lest it should be looked on 
■i- a vanity in me, and not as a respect in the King, as it truly was to my 
father, whom he often mentions with praise. Thou mayest communicate my 
grant to Friends, and expect shortly my proposals. It is a clear and just 
Thing, and my God, that has given it me through many difficulties, will, I be- 
liev" hle>> and make it the seed of a nation. I shall have a tendor care to the 
government, that ii be well laid at first." 

Penn had asked that the western boundary should bo the same as that of 

Maryland; but the King made the width from east to west live full deg B. 

The charter limits wore " all that tract, or part, of land, in America, with the 
islands therein contained as the same is bounded, on the east by Delaware 
River, from twelve miles distance northwards of Newcastle town, unto the 

and fortieth degr f northern latitude. 

J'li,- said land to extend westward live degrees in longitude, to be computed 
from the said eastern bounds; and the said lands to be bounded on the north 
by the beginning of the three and fortieth degree of northern latitude, and, 
on the Bonth, by a circle drawn at twelve miles distance from New Castle 
northward and westward unto the beginning of the fortieth degree of northern 
latitude; and then by a. straight line westward to the limits of longitude above 

It is evident that tne royal secretaries did not well understand the geogra- 
phy of this section, for by "reference to a map it will be seen that the bogin- 
f the fortieth degree, that is, the end of the thirty ninth, cuts the 
Distric' of Columbia, and hence Baltimore, and the greater part of Maryland 


and a good slice of Virginia ^.^^™&* %*ZlS\£. 
the chartered limits of Pennsylvania. Bu f e ™^f / • Penn charter 

at the beginning or a, the em ng oi me foun d that a contro- 

claimed three full degrees of kt tude and *hen ^.^ ^ 

V ersy J^S^S^ Ap r il2, 1681, in which 

r^wnvdin* S^forigS chartered limits fixed for Pennsylvania were 
♦Tvtbftim and his royal pleasure declared that these limits should be 
quoted veibatim, ana ma iu.) a f , r,lpa«nrp " This was supposed to 

Lpected " as they Render hi. ^^^^5^?^. dSn, and'tEe ques- 
settle the matter. But Lord lialtimoie bu .1 l y causin „ muc h disquietude 

^Sl^S^^i^ SeTSU a,A, and 
™ W^t^Cri^i^S-the charter itself that the King, in making 
« Jft wts mfiuenced "by the commendable desire of Penn to enlarge our 

kind providence and people." „ 16gl r t anv 

made to the Duke 01 xotk, ui => , p i n duced him to obtain a deed. 

by the Dutch" the pruden oretho^ht ,0 gjj^ ^^ . 

dated August 31 lbSi, ot tne ig ^ . 8at isfied. He was cut off 

terms of the royal ^bTihe^nJrtdn navfgation of one narrow stream. He 
from the ocean except by the unceiiam ™> district of 

therefore obtained from the Duke a grant cf New CasUe and ^ 

twelve miles around it, dated on he 24th of ^ Augv st lb» Henlopen , 

day a further grant from the Duk ^ of a g££g*»* £ compl , si ng 

embracing the two counties of Ken t ,ma ' «« counties, which were 

° f SngTow satisfied with his province, ^^^X^Z^Z 
drew up°such a description of the «%%-%£ j£ ^clamation, terms of 
to give, which, together with the r0 > a * c * a ™* a he P pub i is hed and spread 
settlement, and other papers P 8 "^ J^S*^ £ btles8 to have the 
broadcast through ^e^ngdom taking spec 1"™*^ 40 ^ for 
documents reach the Friends. The trams . saie ised wb 

^$r& (y ^t^xt^ ) 


the royal ch« n were made absolute on the " payment therefor to us. 

oar heirs and successors, two beaver skins, to bo delivered at our castle in 
Windsor, on the 1st day of January in every year," and contingent pa 
of one-fifth part of all gold and silver which shall from time to time happen 
to be found clear of all charges." Penn, therefore, held hts title only upon 
the payment of quil rents. He could consequently give a valid title only by 
the exacting of quit rents. 

Having now a great province of his own to manage. Penn was obliged to 
relinquish his share in West New Jersey. He had given largely of his tii 
energies to its settlement; he had sent 1,400 emigrants, many of them people 
of high character; had Been farms reclaimed from the forest, the town of 
Burlington built, meeting houses erected in place of tents for worship, good 
Government established, and the Bavage Indians turned to peaceful ways, 
With satisfaction, therefore, he could now give himself to reclaiming and set- 
tling his own province. He had of course in his published account: of the 
country made it appear a desirable place for habitation, But lest any should 

regrel having gone thither when it was too lato. he added to his description a 
caution, "to consider seriously the premises, as well the inconveniency ae 
future ease and plenty; thai BO none may move rashly or from a fickle, hnt from 
a solid mind, having above all things an eye to the providence of God in the 
disposing of themselves." Nothing more surely points to the goodness of 
heart of William Penn, the great founder of our State, than this extreme 
solicitude, lest he might induce any to go to the new country who should af- 
terward regret having gone. 

The publication of the royal charter and his description of the country 
attracted attention, and many purchases of land were made of Penn before 
leaving England. That these purchasers mirjht have something binding to 
rely upon, Penn drew up what lie termed '' conditions or concessions " 1 
himself as proprietor and purchasers in the province. These related to the 
settling the country, laying out towns, and especially to the treatment of the 
Indian-, who were to have the same rights and privileges, and careful regard 
as the Europeans. And what is perhaps a remarkable instance of provident 
forethought, the eighteenth article provides "That, in clearing the ground, 
care be taken to leave one acre of trees for every five acres cleared, especially 
to preserve oak and mulberries, for silk and shipping." It could be desired 
that such a provision might have remained operative in the State for alj 

Encouraged by the manner in which his proposals for settlement were 
received, Penn now drew up a frame of government, consisting of twenty- 
four articles and forty laws. These were drawn in a spirit of unexampled 
fairness and liberality, introduced by an elaborate essay on the just rights of 
govern iverned, and with such conditions and concessions that it 

should never be in the power of an unjust Governor to take advantage of thy 
people and practice injustice. " For the matter of liberty and privilege, I pur. 
pose that which is extraordinary, and leave myself and successors no power of 
doing mischief, that the will of one man may not hinder that of a whole coun- 
his frame gave impress to the character of the early government. It im- 
planted in the breasts of the people a deep sense' of duty, of right, and of obli- 
gation in all public affairs, and the relations of man with man, and formed a 
framework for the future constitution. Penn himself had fell the heavy hand 
of government for religious opinions and practice' sake. He determined, (or 
the matter of religion, to leave all free to hold such opinions as they might 
elect, and hence enacted for his State that all who " hold themselves obliged 


in conscience, to live peaceably and justly in civil society, shall, in do ways, 
be molested, nor prejudiced, for their religious persuasion or practice m mat- 
tersof faith and worship, nor shall they be compelled, at any time, to fre^ 
quent, or maintain, any religious worship, place, or ministry whatever At 
this period, such governmental liberality in matters of religion was almost un- 
known though Roger Williams in the colony of Rhode Island had previously, 
unrllr similar circumstances, and having just escaped a like persecution pro- 
claimed it, as had likewise Lord Baltimore in the Catholic colony of Mary- 

lan The mind of Penn was constantly exercised upon the affairs of his settlement 
Indeed to plant a colony in a new country had been a thought of his boyhood, 
or he says in one of his letters: "I had an opening of joy as to these parts m 
he year 1651, at Oxford, twenty years since." Not being m readiness to go 
to his province during the first year, he dispatched three ship loads of eet- 
Ls and wit\ tJl ^nt his cousin, William Markham to take formal pos- 
session of the country and act as Deputy Governor Markham sailed for New 
YorTand upon his arrival there exhibited his commission, bearing date March 
6 1681, and the King's charter and proclamation. In the absence of Gov. An^ 
dros who on having been called to account for some complaint made against 
him had gone to England, Capt. Anthony Brockholls, Acting Governor, re- 
S'ed Markham's papers, and gave him a letter addressed to the civil officers 
on the Delaware informing them that Markham's authority as Governor had 
Teeue^n£lnLn official record made of it at New York thanking hem 
for their fidelity, and requesting them to submit themselv «r £ *e new au thoi- 
ity Armed with this letter, which was dated June 21, 1681, Markham pro 
ceededtothe Delaware, where, on exhibiting his papers, he was kindly re- 
ceWed and allegiance was cheerfully transferred to the new government. In- 
Teed so frequently had the power changed hands that it had become quite a 
matter of habit to transfer obedience from one authority to another, and they 
had scarcely laid their heads to rest at night but with the consciousness that 
the morning light might bring new codes and new officers. 

Markham was empowered to call a council of nine citizens to assist torn ^in 
the government, and over whom he was to preside. He brought a lettei ad- 
SS1 Lord Baltimore, touching the boundary between the two grants and 
exhibiting the terms of the charter for Pennsylvania. On receipt of this let 
?! Baltimore came to Upland to confer with Markham. An observation 
fixint the exact latitude of Upland showed that it was twelve miles south of 
Se forty first de^e, to which Baltimore claimed, and that the beginning of 
he fortfeSaeSe, which the royal charter explicitly fixed tor the southern 
boundary of Pennsylvania, would include nearly the entire State of Maryland, 
and cut the limits oi the present site of the city of Washington. "If .this be 
allowed," was significantly asked by Baltimore " where is my P^mce 
He returned to his colony, and from this time forward an active contention 
was begun before the authorities in England for possession of the disputed 
territory which required all the arts and diplomatic skill ot Penn 

Sham was accompanied to the province by four Commissioners sen 
out by Penn-William Crispin, John Bezer, William Haige and Na haniel 
ll en The first named had been designated as Surveyor General, but he 
having died on the passage, Thomas Holme was appointed to succeed him 
These Commissioners, in conjunction with the Governor had two chief dut^s 
assigned them. The first was to meet and preserve friendly relations with the 
Sans and acquire lands by actual purchase, and the second ■ ™ * jj^ 
Bite of a great city and make the necessary surveys. That they might Have a 


suitable introduction to the natives from him. IVnn addressed to them a dec 
laratioD of his purposes, conceived in a spirit of limt lu-rl y love, and expressed 
in such simple terms thai these children of the forest, unschooled in book 
learning', would have do difficulty in apprehending his meaning. The refer- 
ring the sour »f alljpower to the Creator was fitted to produce a strong im- 
pression upon their naturally superstitious habits of thought. "There is a 
great God and power, that hath made the world, and all thin — therein, to 
whom you and 1. and all people owe their being, and well being; and to whom 
you and I must one day give an account for all that we do in the world. This 
great God bath written His law in our hearts, by which we are taught and com- 
manded to love, and help, and do good to one another. Now this great God hath 
been pleased to make me oonoerned in your pari of the world, and the King 
.if the country where I live hath given me a great province therein; hut I de- 
sire to enjoy it with your love and consent, that we may always live together. 
as neighbors and friends; else what would the great God do to us, who hath 
made as, not t<> devour and destroy one another, but to live soberly and kindly 
• igether in the world? Now I would have you well observe that I am very 
sensible of the unkindness and injustice thai have been too much exercised 
toward you by the people of these parts of the world, who have, sought them- 
-elves, and to make great advantages by you, rather than to be examples of 
goodness and patience unto you. which I hear hath been a matter of trouble 
to you, and caused great grudging and animosities, sometimes to the shedding 
of blood, which hath made the great God angry. But I am not such a man, 
as is well known in my own country. I have great love and regard toward 
you, and desire to gain your love and friendship by a kind, just and peaceable 
life, and the people I send are of the same mind, and shall in all things be- 
have themselves accordingly; and if in anything any shall offend you or 
your people, you shall have a full and speedy satisfaction for the same by an 
equal number of just men on both sides that by no means you may have just 
occasion of being offended against them. I shall shortly come to you myself. 
at which time we may more largely and freely confer and discourse of these 
matters. In the meantime, I have sent my Commissioners to treat with you 
about land, and form a league of peace. Let me desire you to be kind to 
them and their people, and receive these presents and tokens which I haveeent 
you as a testimony of my good will to you, and my resolution to live justly. 
peaceably and friendly with you.'' 

In this plain but sublime statement is embraced the whole theory of Will 
iam Penn's treatment of the Indians. It was the doctrine which the Savior 
of mankind came upon earth to promulgate — the estimable worth of every 
human soul. And when Penn came to propose his laws, one was adopted 
which forbade private trade with the natives in which they might be overreached; 
but itwas required that the valuable skins and furs i\\:'y had to sell should be 
hung up in the market place where all could see them and enter into compe- 
tition for their purchase. Penn was offered £(>,<IOO for a monopoly of trade. 
But he well knew the injustice to which this would subject the simple-minded 
natives, and he refused it saying: "As the Lord gave it me over all and 
great opposition, I would not abuse His love, nor act unworthy of His provi- 
and so defile what came to me clean" — a sentiment worthy to be treas 
ured with the best thoughts of the sages of old. And to his Commissioners he 
gave a letter of instructions, in which he says: "Be impartially just to all; 
that is both pleasing to the Lord, and wise in itself. Be tender of off 
the Indians, and let them know that you come to sit down lovingly among 
them. Let my letter and conditions bo read in their tongue, that they" may see 


fn find a tract which answered all the conditions. For seven weeks they kept 
no their search Penn had written, « be sure to make your choice where it is 
np their seaicn. ± « withv that is, where most ships may bestride, 

Lfl J P«n Wtefore .elected. „ H,i. fonnding , o.ty » • project 
h, had teng dreamed of ,od contemplated with ne,er.ce».ng mtereet. 

history of PENNSYLVANIA. 51 


William Makkiiam, 1081-82— William PBHN, 1682-84. 

HAVING now made necessary preparations and settled Lin affairs in En- 
gland, Penn embarked on board the ship Weloome, in August, 1082, in 
company with about B hundred planters, mostly from his native town of Sussex, 
and set his prow for the New World. Before leaving the Downs, he addressed 
a farewell letter to his whom he left behind, and another to his wife 
and children, giving them much excellent advice, and sketching the way of 
iife he wished them to lead. With remarkable care and minuteness, he points 
out the way in which he would have his children bred, and educated, married, 
and live. A single passage from this remarkable document will indicate its 
general tenor. " Be sun' to observe," in educating his children, " their genius, 
and do not cross it as to learning ; lei them not dwell too long on one thing ; 
but let their change be agreeable, and let all their diversions have some little 
bodily labor in thorn. When grown big, have most care for them; for then 
there are more snares both within and without. When marriageable, see that 
they have worthy persons in their eye ; of good life and good fame for piety 
and understanding. I need no wealth but sufficiency ; and be sure their love 
be dear, fervent and mutual, that it may be happy for them." And to his 
children he said, " Betake yourselves to some honest, industrious course of 
life, and that not of sordid covetousness, but for example and to avoid idle- 
ness. * * * . * * Love not money nor the world ; use them only, 
and they will serve you ; but if you love them you serve them, which will 
debase your spirits as well as offend the Lord. ***** Watch 
against anger, neither speak nor act in it ; for, like drunkenness, it makes a 
man a beast, and throws people into desperate inconveniences." The entire 
letters are so full of excellent counsel that they might with great profit be 
committed to memory, and treasured in the heart. 

The voyage of nearly six weeks was prosperous ; but they had not been 
long on the ocean beforo that loathed disease — the virulent small-pox — broke 
out, of which thirty died, nearly a third of the whole company. This, added 
to the nana] di -comforts and terrors of the ocean, to most of whom this was 
probably their first experience, made the voyage a dismal one. And here was 
seen the nobility of Penn. "For his good conversation" says one of them, 
" was very advantageous to all the company. His singular care was manifested 
in contributing to the necessities of many who were sick with the smallpox 
then on board." 

His arrival upon the coast and pnssage up the river was hailed with dem- 
onstrations of joy by all classes, English, Dutch, Swedes, and especially by his 
own devoted followers. He landed at New Castle on the 24th of October, 1682, 
and on the following day summoned the people to the court house, where pos- 
session of the country was formally made over x> him, and he renewed the 
commissions of the magistrates, to whom and to the assembled people he an- 
nounced the design of his coming, explained the nature and end of truly good 
government, assuring them that their religious and civil rights should be re- 
spected, and recommended them to live in sobriety and peace. He then pro- 


ceeded to Upland, heneefoward known as Chester, where, on the 4th of Novem- 
ber, he called aa assembly of the people, in which an equal number of votes. 
was allowed to the province and the territories Nicholas Moore, 1 resident of 
the Free Society of Traders, was chosen speaker. As at New Cast e, Penn 
addressed the assembly, giving them assurances of his beneficent intentions, 
for which they returned their grateful acknowledgments the Swedes bemg 
especially demonstrative, deputing one of their number, Lacy Cock to say 
« That they would love, serve and obey him with all they had, and that this 
was the best day they ever saw. " We can well understand with what satisfac- 
tion the settlers upon the Delaware hailed the prospect of a stable government 
established in their own midst, after having been so long at the mercy of the 
government in New York, with allegience trembling between the courte of 
Sweden, Holland and Britain. 

The proceedings of this first assembly were conducted with great decorum, 
and after the usages of the English Parliament. On the 7th of December 
1682, the three lower counties, what is now Delaware which had previously 
been under the government of the Duke of York, were formerly annexed to the 
province and became an integral part of Pennsylvania. The frame of govern^ 
ment, which had been drawn with much deliberation, was submitted to the 
assembly, and, after some alterations and amendments, was adopted, and be- 
came the fundamental law of the State. The assembly was in session only 
three days, but the work they accomplished, how vast and far-reaching m its 

m ThTDutch, Swedes and other foreigners were then naturalized, and the 
government was launched in fair running order: That some idea may be > had 
of its character, the subjects treated are here given: 1, Liberty of conscience, 
2 Qualification of officers; 3, Swearing by God, Christ or Jesus; 4, Swearing 
by any other thing or name; 5, Profanity; 6 Cursing; i, Formcati on; 8 In- 
cest; 9, Sodomy* 10, Rape; 11, Bigamy; 12 Drunkenness; 13 Suffering 
drunkenness; 14, Healths drinking; 15, Selling hquoi :to Indians; fj™?^ 
17 Burglary, 13, Stolen goods; 19, Forcible entry; 20, Riots; 21 Assaulting 
parents 22; Assaulting Magistrates; 23, Assaulting masters; 24, Assault and 
battery 25 Duels; 26? Riotous sports, as plays; 27, Gambling and lotteries; 
28 Sedition; 29, Contempt; 30, Libel; 31, Common scolds; 32 Charities; 
33 Prices of beer and ale; 34, Weights and measures; 35 , Names °f days and 
months- 36 Perjury; 37, Court proceedings in English; 38, Civil and crmi- 
Tal tr alsV39, Fees? salaries, bribery and extortion; 40, Moderation of fines, 
41 Suits 'avoidable;' 42, Foreign arrest; 43, Contracts: 44, Charts pflj 
^ants conveyances, bills, bonds and deeds, when recorded; 45, Wills, 4b, 
ff iH of non compos mentis; 47, Registry of Wills; 48 Registry for servants; 
49 Factors; 50, Defacers, corrupters and embezzlers of garters, conveyances 
and records; 51, Lands and goods to pay debts; 52, Bailable offenses Dd 
Jails and jailers; 54, Prisons to be workhouses; 55 ^V^TT Flee' 
Magistrates may elect between fine or imprisonment; o7 Freemen ,5b, flec- 
tions- 59, No money levied but in pursuance of law; 60, Laws shall be printed 
and taught in schools; 61, All other things, not provided for nerem, are re- 
ferred to the Governor and freemen from time to time. 

Very soon after his arrival in the colony, after the precept had been issued, 

but before the convening of the Assembly, Penn, that he might not be wanting 

iu respect to the Duke of York, made a visit to New York, where he was kind- 

y receded, and also after the adjournment of the Assembly, journeyed to Maiy- 

and where he was entertained by Lord Baltimore with grea t ceremony. 1 he 

ettlenTent of the disputed boundaries was made the subject of formal confer- 


.■iKv iSut after two days apenf in fruitless discussion, tho weather becoming 
severeh oold, and thus precluding the possibility of taking observations or 
r\ surveys, it was agreed to adjourn further consideration 
of the subject until the milder weather of the spring. We may imagine thai 
Governors were taking the measure of each other, and of gaining all 
possible knowledge of each other's claims and rights, preparatory to that 
straggle for possession of this disputed fortieth degree of latitude, which was 
destined to come before the home government. 

With all hi;- (arcs in founding a State and providing a government over a 
Dew people, Penn did not forget to preach the ''blessed Gospel," andwherevi i 
he went he was intent upon his "Blaster's business." On his return from 
Maryland, Lord Baltimore accompanied him several miles to the house of 
William Richardson, and thence to Thomas Hooker's, where was a religious 
meeting, as was also one held at Choptauk. Penn himself says: " 1 have 

Iso at New York, Long Island, East Jersey and Maryland, in which I 
have had good and eminent service for the Lord." And again he says, 
outward things, we are satisfied - the land good, the air clear and sweet, tho 
springs plentiful and provisions good and easy to come at, an innumerable 
quantity of wild fowl and ti-h; in line, hero is what an Abraham, Isaac and 
Jacob would be well contented with, and service enough for God: for the 
fields are here white for the harvest. O, how sweet is the quiet of these parts, 
freed from the anxious and troublesome solicitations, hurries and perplexities 
of woeful Euro]..'! * * * Blessed be the Lord, that of twenty-three ships, 
none miscarried; only two or three had the small-pox; else healthy and swift 
passages, generally such as have not been known; some but twenty-eight daj - 
and few longer than six weeks. Blessed be God for it; my soul fervently 
breathes that in His heavenly guiding wisdom, we may be kept, that we may 
serve Him in our day, and lav down our heads in peace." And then, as if re- 
proached for not having mentioned another subject of thankfulness, he adds in 
■ript. "Many women, in divers of the ships, brought to bed; they and 
their children do well.'' 

Penn made it his first care to take formal possession of his province, and 
adopt a frame of government. When this was done, his chief concern w.ts 
to look to the establishment of his proposed new city, the site of which Lad 
already been determined on by his Commissioners. Accordingly, early in 

iber, at a season when, in this section, the days are golden. Penn em- 
barked in an open barge with a number of his friends, and was wafted 
leisurely up the Delaware to the present site of the city of Philadel- 
phia, which the natives called Coaquannock. Along the river was a bold shore, 
fringed with lofty pines, which grew close down to the water's edge, so much 
when the first ship passing up with settler.-, for West Jersey had brushed 
against the branches, the passengers remarked that this would be a good place 
for u city. It was then in a wild state, the deer browsing along the shore and 
sipping the stream, and the coneys burrowing in the banks. The scattered 
Bottlers had gathered in to see and welcome the new Governor, and when he 
stepped upon the shore, they extended a helping hand in assisting him up the 

I bluff. Three Swedes had already taken up tracts within the limit- <>f 
the block of land chosen for the city. But the v were given lands in exchange, 
and readily relinquished their claims. The location was pleasiDg to Penn, and 
was adopted without further search, though little could be seen of this then 

• ncumbered country, where now is the home of counties- industries, the 
busy mart, the river bearing upon its bosom the commerce of many climes, 
and the abiding ] dace of nearly a million of people. Bui Penn did not con- 


sider that he had as yet any just title to the soil holding that the Indians 
were its only rightful possessors, and until it was fairly acquired by purchase 
from them, his own title was entirely void. 

Hence/he sought an early opportunity to meet the chiefs of the tribes and 
cultivate friendly relations with them. Tradition faxes the first great treat; 
or conference at about this time, probably in November and the place under 
the elm tree, known as the " Treaty Tree," at Kensington. It was at a» 
son when the leaves would still be upon the trees, and the assembly was called 
beneath the ample shade of the wide-sweeping branches, which was pleasing 
to the Indians, as it was their cu.tom to hold all their great deliberations and 
smoke the pipe of peace in the open air. The letter which Penn had sent had 
prepared the minds of these simple-hearted inhabitants of the forest to regard 
him with awe and reverence, little less than that inspired by a descended god^ 
His coming had for a long time been awaited, and it is probable that it had 
been heralded and talked over by the wigwam fare throughout the remotest 
bounds of the tribes. And when at length the day came, the whole popula- 
tion far around had assembled. . 

It is known that three tribes at least were represented— the Lenni Lenape, 
living alone the Delaware; the Shawnees, a tribe that had come up from the 
South, and°were seated along the Lower Susquehanna; and the Mingoes, 
spruncr from the Six Nations, and inhabiting along the Conestoga. Penn was 
probably accompanied by the several officers of his Government and his most 
trusted friends. There were no implements of warfare, for peace was a cardi- 
nal feature of the Quaker creed 

No veritable account of this, the great treaty, is known to have been made, 
but from the fact that Penn not long after, in an elaborate treatise upon the 
country, the inhabitants and the natives, has given the account of the manner 
in which the Iodians demean themselves in conference, we may infer that he 
had this one in mind, and hence we may adopt it as his own description of the 


" Their order is thus: The King sits in the middle of a half moon, and 
hath his council, the old and wise, on each hand; behind them, or at a little 
distance, sit the younger fry in the same figure. Having consulted and re^ 
solved their business, the King ordered one of them to speak to me He stood 
up, came to me, and, in the name of the King, saluted me; then took me by 
the hand and told me he was ordered by the King to speak to me; and now it 
was not he, but the King that spoke, because what he would say was the 
King's mind * * * * During the time that this person spoke, not 
a man of them was observed to whisper or smile; the old grave the young 
reverant, in their deportment. They speak little, but fervently, and with ele- 

aD In response to the salutation from the Indians, Penn makes a reply in 
suitable terms: "The Great Spirit, who made me and you, who rules the 
heavens and the earth, and who knows the innermost thoughts of men, knows 
that I and my friends have a hearty desire to live in peace and friendship 
with you, and to serve you to the uttermost of our power. It is not our custom 
to use hostile weapons against our fellow-creatures, for which reason we have 
come unarmed. Our object is not to do injury, and thus provoke the Great 
Spirit, but to do good. We are met on the broad pathway of good faith and 
good will, so that no advantage is to be taken on either side; but all to be open- 
ness brotherhood and love." Having unrolled his parchment, he explains „o 
them through an interpreter, article by article, the nature of the business, and 
laying it upon the ground, observes that the ground shall be for the use of 


both people. "I will not do as the Marylanders did, call yon ohildren, ox 

brothers on 15*; for parents are apt to whip their ohildren I iverely, and 

brothers sometimes will differ; neither will I compare the friendship between 

: chain, for the rain may rust it, or a tree may fall and break it; bnl I 
will consider yon as the same flesh and blood with the Christians, and the same 
as if one man's body were to be divided into two parts." Having ended his 
business, the speaker for the K i n_^ comes forward and makes great promises 
■• . if kindness and good neighborhood, and that the Indians and English must 
live in [ove as long as the sun gave light." This ended, another Indian makes 
rn people, first to explain to them what had been agreed on, 
and then to exhort them "to love the Christians, and particularly live in peace 
with me and the people under my government, that many Governors had been 
in the river, but that no Governor had come himself to live and stay bore, be- 
fore, nnd having now such an one, that had treated them well, they should never 
do him nor his any wrong." At every sentence they shouted, as much as to 
The Indians had no system of writing by which they could record their 
dealings, but their memory of events and agreements was almost miraculous. 
Heohewelder records that in after years, they were accustomed, by means 
strings, or belts of wampum, to preserve the recollection of their pleasant in 
terviews with Penn, after he had departed for England. He says. " They fro 
qnently assembled together in the woods, in some shady spot, as nearly as pos 
slide similar to those where they used to meet their brother Miquon (Penn), and 
there lay all his words and speeches, with those of his descendants, on a 
blanket, or clean piece of bark, and with great satisfaction go successively 
over the whole. This practice, which I have repeatedly witnessed, continued 
until the year 178". when disturbances which took place put an end to it, 

bly forever." 
The memory of this, the "Great Treaty," was long preserved by the na- 
tives, and the novel spectacle was reproduced upon canvas by the genius of 
Benjamin West. In this picture, Penn is represented as a corpulent old man, 
whereas he was at this time but thirty-eight years of age, and in the very 
of manly activity. The Treaty Tree was preserved and guarded from 
injury with an almost superstitious care. During the Revolution, when Phila- 
delphia was occupied by the British, and their parties were scouring the conn- 
try for firewood. Gen. Simcoe had a sentinel placed at this tree to protect it 
from mutilation. It stood until 1810, when it was blown down, and it was 
ascertained by its annual concentric accretions to be 'J s '! years old, and was, 

[uently, 155 at the time of making the treaty. The Penn Society erected 

-tantial monument on the spot where it sti 
Penn drew up his deeds for lands in legal form, and had them duly exe 
if record, that, in the dispute possible to arise in aftei 

might be proof definite and positive of the purchase. Of these purchases 
there are two deeds on record executed in 1683. One is for land near Neslia 
miny Creek, and thence to Penypack, and the other for lands lying between 
Schuylkill and Chester Rivers, the first bearing the signature of the great 
chieftain. Taminend. In one of these purchase-, it is provided thai the tract 
•shall extend back as far as a man could walk in three days." Tradition 
runs that Penn himself, with a number of his friends, walked out the half this 
purchase with the Indians, that no advantage should be taken of them by mak- 
ing a great walk, and to show his consideration for them, and that he was not 

the toils and fatigues of such a duty." They began to walk out this 
land at the mouth of the Neshaminy, and walked up the Delaware; in one day 


and a half they got to a spruce tree near the mouth of Baker's Creek, when 
Pennconcludiul that this would include as much land as he would want a 
present a line w°as run and marked from the spruce tree , to Neshammv, and 
t P he remainder left to be walked when it should be wanted They proceed^ 
ed after the Indian manner, walking leisurely, f^ ™* ™'™ » * 
smoke their pipes, eat biscuit and cheese, and drink a bottle of wine. In the 
day and a half they walked a little less than thirty miles. The balance of the 
purchase was not walked until September 20, 17b3, when the then Governor of 
prnnsylvania offered a prize of 500 acres of land and £o for the man who 
would walk the farthest. A distance of eighty-six miles was covered, in 
marked contrast with the kind consideration of Penn 

During the first year, the country upon tne Delaware, from the falls of 
Trenton as far as Chester, a distance of nearly sixty miles, was rapidly taken up 
and peopled. The large proportion of these were Quakers, and devotedly attached 
o their ilio-ion audits proper observances. They were, hence,morally of the 
best classeXnd though they were not generally of the aristocracy, yet many 
of them were in comfortable circumstances, had valuable properties, were of 
respectable families, educated, and had the resources within themselves to live 
contented and happy. They were provident, industrious, and had come hither 
w"i no IcMe puSoL. Many brought servants with them and well supplied 
wardrobes, and all necessary articles which they w.sely judged would be got 

in a new country with difficulty. 

Their religious principles were so peaceful and generous, and the govern- 
ment rested so lightly, that the fame of the colony and the desirableness of 
Tttlement therein V-d rapidly, and the »^.<^™^E3& 
alleled in the history of colonization, especially when we cons der that abroad 
o ean was to be crossed and a voyage of several weeks was to be- JJ^jjlJ* 
a brief period, ships with passengers came from London, Bristol Ireland, 
Wales Cheshire, Lancashire, Holland, Germany, to the number of about fafty. 
It' others came a company of German Quakers, from Krisheim, near 
ttos, in the Palatinate. These people regarded their lot as partly 
fortunate in which they recognized the direct interposition and hand of Provi- 
dence For not long afterward, the Palatinate was laid waste by the French 
army and mauy of their kindred whom they had left behind were despoiled of 
thelr'posseSions and reduced to penury. There came also from Wales a com- 
pany of the stock of aucient Britons. ... , , 

So lar^e an influx of population, coming in many cases without due pro- 
vision tvarfety of dietfcaused a scarcity in many kinds of food, especially 
of meats Time was required to bring forward flocks and herds, more than 
forToducin^rains. But Providence seemed to have graciously considered 
hei necessHiel and have miraculously provided for them, as of o d was pro 
vSnmaTe for 'the chosen people. For it is recorded that the << wild pigeons 
came in such great numbers that the sky was sometimes darkened by then 
St and flying low, they were frequently knocked down as they flew in 
5£t auStS by those who had no other means to take them whereby they 
SlS themselvel and, having salted those which- they could not immed, 
nriilv use they preserved them, both for bread and meat. The Indians were 
kind, and X? furnished them with game, for which they would receive no 

C ° m Kir at nr"t care on landing was to bring their household goods to a place 
of safety, often to the simple protection of a tree. For some, his was th«r 
only shelter, lumber being scarce, and in many places impossible to obtain. 


Some made for themselves caves in the earth until better habitatiotiH could be 

John Key, who was said to have been the first child bom of English par. 
ante in Philadelphia, and thai in recognition of which William Penn gave 
him a lot of ground, died at Rennet, in Cheater County, on July 5, 1708, 
in the eighty-fifth year of Mb age. He was born in one of these caves upon 
the river bank, long afterward known by the name of Penny-pot, near Sassa- 
Lbout six years before hie death, he walked from Kennet to the 
city, about thirtj miles, in one day. In tho latter part of his life he went 
under the name of .fc'irst Born. 

The contrasts between the comforts and conveniences of an old settled 
country and this, where the heavy forests must bo cleared away and severe la- 
,-t be endured before the sun could bo let in sufficiently to produce 
anything, must have been very marked, and caused repining. But they had 
generally come with meek and humble hearts, and they willingly endured 
hardship and privation, and labored on earnestly for the spiritual comfort 
which thov fiiji>,-ed. Thomas Makin, in some Latin verses upon tho early set- 
tles .lit. Bays (we quote the metrical translation): 

"Its fame to distant countries far lias spread, 
ome for peace, and some for profit led; 
Born in remotest climes, to settle here 
Tii'-v leave their native soil and all that's dear, 

itill will Bock from far. lure tn be free, 
Such powerful charms baa lovely liberty." 

But for their many privations and sufferings there were some compensat- 
ing conditions. The soil was fertile, the air mostly clear and healthy, the 
streams of water wore good and plentiful, wood for lire and building unlimit- 
ed, and at certain Beasons of the year game in the forest was abundant. Rich- 
ard Townsond. a settler at Gtermantown, who came over in the ship with Penn, 
in writing to his friends in England of his first year in America, says :" I, 
with Joshua Tittery, made a net, and oaughi great quantities of fish, so that, 
notwithstanding it was thought near three thousand persons came in the first 
year, we wen- so providentially provided for that we could buy a deer for 
about two shillings, and a huge turkey for aboutone shilling, and Indian corn 
for about two shillings sixpence a bushel." 

In the aame letter, the writer mentions that a young deer came out of the 
forest into the meadow where he was mowing, and looked at him, and when 
he went toward it would retreat; and, as he resumed his mowing, would come 
back to gaze upon him, and finally ran forcibly against a tree, which so 
stunned it that he was able to overmaster it and bear it away to his home, and 
was at a time when he was suffering for the lack of meat, he believed 
it a direct interposition of Providence. 

In the Bpring of 1683, there was great activity throughout the colony, and 
especially in the new city, in selecting lands and erecting dwellings, tin Sur- 
veyor General, Thomas Holme, laying out and marking the streets. In the 
center of the city was a public square of ten acres, and in each of the tour 
quarters one of eight acres. A large mansion, which had been undertaken be- 
- arrival, was built for Penn, at B point twenty-six miles np the river, 
called Pennabury Manor, where he sometimes resided, and where he often met 
the Indian aachems. At this time, Penn divided the colony into counties, 
three for the province (Bucks, Philadelphia and Chester) and three for the 
Territories (New Castle, Cent and Sussex). Having appointed Sheriffs and 
other proper officers, he issued writs for the election of members of a General 


Assembly, three from each county for the Council or Upper House, and nine 
from each county for the Assembly or Lower House. 

This Assembly convened and organized for business on the 10th of Jan- 
uary, 1683, at Philadelphia. One of the first subjects considered was the 
revising some provisions of the frame of government which was effected, re- 
ducin/the number of members of both Houses, the Council to ,16 the As- 
sembly to 36, and otherwise amending in unimportant particulars. In 
an assembly thus convened, and where few, if any, had had any experience in 
s^vtoTin a deliberative body, we may reasonably suppose that many crude 
and impracticable propositions would be presented. As an example of these 
the following maybe cited as specimens: That young men should be obliged 
to mWVor before, a certain age; that two sorts of clothes only shall be 
worn! "ne for winter and the other for summer. The session lasted twenty two 

^The first grand jury in Pennsylvania was summoned for the 2d of Feb- 
ruary 1683, to inquire into the cases of some persons accused of issuing 
counterfeit money. The Governor and Council sat as a court. One Picker - 
Twas convicted, and the sentence was significant of the kind and patriarchal 
nature of the government, "that he should make full satisfaction, in good 
and current pay, to every person who should, within the space of one month, 
oringTn any of this false, base and counterfeit coin, and that the money 
b ou-ht in should be melted down before it was returned to him and that he 
should pay a fine of forty pounds toward the building a court house, stand 
committed till the same was paid, and afterward find security for his good 

beh TheAssembly and courts having now adjourned, Perm gave his attention 
to the grading and improving the streets of the new city, and the managing 
he affairs of lis land Office, Suddenly grown to great importance *«™7 
section of land taken up in the wilderness, the purchaser was entitled to a 
certain plot in the new city. The River Delaware at this time was nearly a 
mile broad opposite the city, and navigable for ships of the largest tonnage 
The tide rises P about six feet at this point, and flows back f the falls of 
Trenton a distance of thirty miles. The tide in the Schuylkill flows only 
IZ five l^miles abov^ its confluence with the Delaware. The river bank along 
the Delaware was intended by Penn as a common or public resort. But in 
his time the owners of lots above Front street pressed him to allow them to 
consteuct Warehouses upon it, opposite their properties, which importaj^ m- 
duced him to make the following declaration concerning it: The bank is a 
top common from end to end; the rest next the water belongs to front-lot 
me P n noTore' than back-lot men. The way bounds them; they may budd s airs 
and the top of the bank a common exchange, or wall, and against the street 
— wharfs maybe bnilt freely; but into the water .and the . or s 
purchaser's." But in future time, this liberal desire of the founder was riis 
regarded, and the bank has been covered with_i mmense warehouses. 

- .iT^Tamatterof curiosity to know the *>^»%Zg£$£*££.r*** r '^ *** 

lature in Pennsylvania, ami they are »»*'*»*; u V/ „ , " aov -k William Haige, John Moll. 

^S^^^^^iT^^^^^^^ ^ Villi/m Biles ' James Harris0D ' Wllham 

•on; from Chester, John ""^ins lU.hert \\ ade, . .e r^e \\ oml Jul n ^1 Valentine Holl- 

Bracy, John Bezev, John Hardin,-, Joseph Phipps ■ fnmi New < as f ;H' R "^ Alrk h, Henrick Williams; 
iDgsworthJiasparns Herman John IVhoael, . lames \ II 1 .ii»,W I H. n w.lli.mi .Yindsmore, John 

from Ken. ■ John Bi«s. Simu.Mrnns, Thomas Ilatt, ,, John '"'^ '^^ , e r Draper, William Futcher, 
Brinkloe, Daniel Brown Henony Bishop; Iro m Sussez, Luke WateOg ( ornelius Yerhoof. 

Henry Bowman, Alexander Moleston, John Hill, KoDeit cracy, jouu mi» 

IIISTokv OF PBNN81 l.\ \M \ 59 

Seeing now his plana of government and settlement fairly in operation, as 
nutuinu approached, Penn wrote a letter to the Free Society of Traders in 
i ; which had been formed to promote Battlement in his colony, in wind, 

hetoaohed apon b great variety of topics regarding hie enterprise, extendingto 
quite a complete treatise, The great interest attaching u> the Bubjeota dis- 
and the ability with which it was drawn, makes it desirable to insert 
the document entire; but its great length makes its use incompatible with the 
plan of this work. A few extracts and a general plan of the letter is all that 
can be given. He first notices the injurious reports put in circulation in En- 
gland during his absence " Some persons have had so little wit and so much 
malice as to report my death, and, to mend the matter, dead a Jesuit, too. 
One might have reasonably hoped that thie distance, like death, would have 
been a protection against spite and envy. " * * However, to the great sorrow 
and sham.' of the inventor-. 1 am still alive and no Jesuit, and. I thank God, 
ver\ well." Of the air and waters he. says: " The air is sweet and clear, the 

heavens serene, like the south parts of France, rarely overcast. The waters 
are generally good, for the rivers and brooks have mostly gravel and stony bot- 
tom" and in number hardly credible. We also have mineral waters that 
operate in the same manner with Barnet and North Hall, not two miles from 
Philadelphia." He then treats at length of the f our seasons, of trees, fruits. 
grapes, peaches, grains, garden produce: of animals. beasts, birds, fish, whale fish 
ery. horses and cattle, medicinal plants, flowers of the wood-: of the Indians 
and their persons. Of their language he says: "It is lofty, yet narrow; but, 
like the Hebrew, in signification, full, imperfect in their tenses, wanting in their 
moods, participles, adverbs, conjunctions, interjections. I have made it my busi 
ness to understand it.audlmusteaythatlknownot a language spoken in Europe 
that hath words of more Bweetnees or greatness in accent and emphasis than 
then-." of their customs and their children: "The children will go very young, 
at ninemonths.commoiily; if boys, they go a fishing, till ripe for the woods, which 
is about fifteen; then they hunt, and, after having given some proofs of their 
manhood by a good return of skins, they may marry, else it is a shame to think 
Of B wife. "The girls stay with their mother and help to hoe the ground, plant 
corn and carry burdens. ' When the young women are lit for marriage, thej 
mething upon their heads as an advertisment ; but so, as their faces hardly 
to be seen, but when they please. The age they marry at, if women, is about 
thirteen and fourteen; if men, seventeen and eighteen; they are randy elder." 
In a romantic vein he -peaks of their houses, diet, hospitality, revengefulneSB 
ami concealment of resentment, great liberality, free manner of life and 
customs, late love of strong liquor, bebavior in sickness and death, their re 
ligion. their feastings, their government, their mode of doing business, their 
manner of administering justice, of agreement forsettling difficulties entered into 
with the pen, their susceptibility to improvement, of the origin of the Indian race 
their resemblance to the Jews." Of the Dutch and Swedes whom he found set 
tied here when he came, he says: " The Dutch applied themselves to traffick, 
the Swedea and Finns to husbandry. The Dutch mostly inhabit those part- 
that lie upon the bay. and the Swedes the freshes of the Delaware. They are 
a plain, strong, industrious people; yet have made no great progress in culture 
or propagation of fruit trees. They are a people proper, and strong of body 
BO they have fine children, and almost every house full; rare to find one of them 
without three or four boys and as many girls — some, six, seven and ei^htsons. 
ami I must do themthatri^ht. I see few young men more sober and laborious." 
After BpeaUng at length of the organization of the colony and its manner of 
government, he concludes with his own opinion of the country: "I say little 


of the town itself; but this I will say, for the good providence of God, that 
of all the many places I have seen in the world, I remember not one better 
seated, so that it seems to me to have been appointed for a town whether we 
regard the rivers or the conveniens of the coves, docks springs, the loftiness 
and soundness of the land and the air, held by the people of these parts to be 
very good. It is advanced within less than a year to about fourscore bouses 
and cottages, where merchants and handicrafts are following then: vocations 
as fast as they can, while the countrymen are close at their farms _ 1 

bless God I am fully satisfied with the country and entertainment I got m it, 
for I find that particular content, which hath always attended me, where God in 
His providence hath made it my place and service to reside. 

As we have seen, the visit of Penn to Lord Baltimore soon after his arrival 
inAmerica, for the purpose of settling the boundaries of the two provinces after 
a two days ; conference proved fruitless, and an adjournment was had for he 
winter, when the efforts for settlement were to be resumed. Early in the 
Spring an attempt was made on the part of Peon, but was prevented til May 
when" meeting was held at New Castle. Penn proposed to confer by the aid 
of counselors and in writing. But to this Baltimore objecte d a»d ; compla i^ 
in- of the sultryness of the weather, the conference was broken up. In the 
meantime, it had come to the knowledge of Penn that Lord Baltimore had 
ssueda proclamation offering settlers more land, and at cheaper rates than 
Penn had done, in portions Sf the lower counties which Penn had secured 
from the Duke of York, but which Baltimore now c aimed. Besides, it was 
ascertained that an agent of his had taken an observation, and determined the 
Side without the knowledge of Penn, and had secretly made an ex parte 
statement of the case before the Lords of the Committeeof Plantations in En^ 
glaXand ™s pressing for arbitrament. This state o the case created much 
uneas ness in the mind of Penn, especially as the proclamation of Lord Balti- 
more was likelv to bring the two governments into conflict on territory mutu- 
X Jaime [But Lord Baltimore was not disposed to be content with diplo- 
ma'cy He determined to pursue an aggressive policy. He accordingly com- 
missioned his a-ent, Col. George Talbot, under date of September .7, 1683 
To goto Schuylkill, at Delaware, and demand of William Penn » all that part 
of g the land on the west side of the said river that lyeth to the southward of 
the fortieth degree." This bold demand would have embraced the entire colony 
both the lower°counties, and the three counties in the province, as the fortieth 
decree reaches a considerable distance above Philadelphia. Penn was absent 
at the time in New York, and Talbot made his demand upon Nicholas Moo e 
the deputy of Penn. Upon his return, the proprietor made a dignified but 
Srnest rSoinder. While he felt that the demand could not be justly sus- 
tained yet the fact that a controversy for the settlement of the boundary was 
Sely to arise! gave him disquietude, and though he was gratified with the 

relations with them, the laying out of his new city and settling it, the adop- 
Iten of altable government and putting it in successful operation and, more 
Sn all the drawing thither the large number of settlers, chiefly of his own 
rSions faith and seeing them contented and happy m the new State, he 
P S oresaw that his skill and tact would be taxed to the utmost to defend 
and hold his claim before the English court. If the demand of Loid Balti- 
more il to prevail, all that he had done would be lost, as his ent,re colony 
would be swallowed up by Maryland. „ , ,.-.,„ was 

The anxiety of Penn to hold from the beginning of the 40 of latitude was 
no ttoincrea e se y therebyhis territory by so much, for two degrees he 

0R1 OF PENN81 l.\ ama 61 

securely had, so far as amount of Land was <T>ncerz>ed, would have entirely 
satisfied him; but he wanted this degree chiefly thai he might have the tree 
navigation of Delaware Baj and River, and thus open communication with the 
ocean. !'<• desired also to hold the lower counties, which were now well 
I, as well as his own counties rapidlj being peopled, and his new oitj of 
Philadelphia, which he regarded as the apple of his eye. So anxious was he 
to hold the land on the right bank of the Delaware to the open ocean, that at 
lond meeting, he asked Lord Baltimore to set a price per Bquare mile on 
this disputed ground, and though he had purchased it once of the crown and 
held the King's charter for it, and the Duke <>f York's deed, yet rather than 
have any further wrangle over it, he was willing to pay for it again, lint this 
Lord Baltimore refused b 

Bent upon bringing matters to a crisis, and to force possession of his 
claim, early in the year 1 1 • ^ t a party from Maryland made forcible entry 
upon the plantations in the lower counties and drove off the owners. The 
Governor and Council at Philadelphia sent thither a copy of the answer of 
I'enn to Baltimore's demand Cor the hind south of the Delaware, with orders 
to William Welch, Sheriff at New Oastle, to use his influence to reinstate the 
lawful owners, and issued a declaration succinctly stating the claim of Penn, 
for the purpose of preventing such unlawful incursions iD future. 

The season opened favorably for the continued prosperity of the young 
colony. Agriculture was being prosecuted as never before. Goodly flocks 
and herds gladdened the eyes of the settlers. An intelligent, moral and in- 
dustrious yeomanry was springing into existence. Emigrants were pouring 
into the Delaware from many lands. The Government was becoming settled 
in its operations and popular with the people. The proprietor had leisure to 
attend to the interests of his religious society, not only in his own dominions, 
but in the Jerseys and in New York. 


Thomas Lloyd. 1684-86— Fivf. (ommissionkks. it;s0-88— John Black'vell, 1688 
-90— Thomas Llotd, 1690-91— William M akkiiam. 1691-93— Benjamin 
I'm n iir.u. 1698-95— William Makkha.m. 1693 99. 

BIT the indications, constantly thickening, that a struggle was likely soon 
to he precipitated before the crown for possession of the disputed terri- 
tory, decided Penn early in the summer to quit the colony and return to En- 
gland to defend his in periled interests. There is no doubt that he took this 
step with unfeigned regret, as he was contented and happy in his now country, 
and was moat usefully employed. There were, however, other inducements 
which were loading hira back to England. The hand of persecution was at 
this time laid heavily upon the Quakers. Over 1,400 of these pious and in- 
offensive people were now, and some of them had been for yearn, languishing 
in the prisons of England, for no other offense than their manner of worship. 
By his friendship with James, and his acquaintance with the King, ho might 
do something to soften the l,,t of these unfortunate victims of bigotry. 

He accordingly empowered the Provincial Council, of which Thomas 
Lloyd was President, to act in his stead, commissioned Nicholas Moore, Will- 
iam Welch, William Wood, Robert Turner and John Ecklov, Provincial 


Judges for two years; appointed Thomas Lloyd, James Claypole and Robert 
Turner to sign land patents and warrants, and William Clark as Justice of 
the Peace for all the counties; and on the 6th of June, 1684, sailed for Europe. 
His feelings on leaving his colony are exmbned by a farewell address which 
he issued from on board the vessel to his people, of which the following are 
brief extracts: "My love and my life is to you, and with you, and no water 
can quench it, nor distance wear it out, nor bring it to an end. I have been 
with you, cared over you and served over you with unfeigned love, and you 
are beloved of me, and near to me, beyond utterance. I bless you in the 
name and power of the Lord, and may God bless you with His righteousness, 
peace and plenty all the land over. * * * Oh! now are you come to a 
quiet land provoke not the Lord to trouble it. And now liberty and author- 
ity are with yon, and in your hands. Let the government be upon His 
shoulders, in all your spirits, that you may rule for Him, under whom the 
princes of this world will, one day, esteem their honor to govern and serve in 
their places * * * And thou, Philadelphia, the virgin settlement of 
this province, named before thou wert born, what love, what care, what serv- 
ice and what travail has there been, to bring thee forth, and preserve thee from 
such as would abuse and defile thee! * * * So, dear friends my love 
a-ain salutes you all, wishing that grace, mercy and peace, with all temporal 
blessings, may abound richly among you-so says, so prays, your friend and 
lover in the truth. i oQ ^ ^ William Pe*n 

On the 6th of December of this same year, 1684, Charles II died and was 
succeeded by his brother James, Duke of York, under the title of James II. 
James was a professed Catholic, and the people were greatly excited all over 
the kingdom lest the reign of Bloody Mary should be repeated, and that the 
Catholic should become the established religion. He had less ability than 
his brother, the deceased King, but great discipline and industry. Penn en- 
ioyed the friendship and intimacy of the new King, and he determined to use 
his advantage for the relief of his suffering countrymen, not only of his sect, 
the Quakers" but of all, and especially for the furtherance of universal liberty. 
But there is no doubt that he at this time meditated a speedy return to his 
province, for he writes: "Keep up the peoples' hearts and loves; I hope tobe 
with them next fall, if the Lord prevent not. I long to be with you No 
temptations prevail to fix me here. The Lord send us a good meeting. By 
authority of Penn, dated 18th of January, 1685, William Markham, Penns 
cousin, was commissioned Secretary of the province, and the proprietor a Sec- 

r6ta That he might be fixed near to court for the furtherance of his private as 
well as public business, he secured lodgings for himself and family, in 168o at 
Kensington, near London, and cultivated a daily intimacy with the ^mg who, 
no doubt, found in the strong native sense of his Quaker friend, a valued ad- 
viser upon many questions of difficulty. His first and chief care was the set^ 
tlement of his disagreement with Lord Baltimore touching the boundaries of 
their provinces. This was settled in November, 1685, by a compromise, by 
which the land lying between the Delaware and Chesepeake Bays was divided 
into two equal parts-that upon the Delaware was adjudged to Penn, and that 
upon the Chesapeake to Lord Baltimore. This settled the matter in theory: 
but when the attempt was made to run the lines according to the language of 
the Royal Act, it was found that the royal secretaries did not understand the 
geography of the country, and that the line which their language described was 
In impossible one. Consequently the boundary remained undetermined till 
1732 ' The account of its location will be given in its proper place. 

IHSlnKV OF PBNN81 I.V WIA. tj.{ 

Having secured this important decision to his satisfaction, Penn applied 
himself with renewed zeal, not only to secure the release of his people, who 
were languishing in prisons, bnt to prooure for all Englishmen, everywhere, 
enlarged liberty and freedom of conscience. Bis relations with the King fa 
vored his designs. The King had said to Penn beforo he ascended the throne 
that he was opposed to persecution for religion On the fust dayof his reign, 
he made an address, in which h<> proclaimed himself opposed to all arbitrary 
principles in government, 'and promised protection to the Church of England. 
Early in the year L686, in consequence of the King's proclamation for a gen- 
eral pardon, over thirteen hundred Quakers were set at liberty, and in April, 
1687, the King issued a declaration for entire liberty of conscience, and sus- 
pending the penal laws in matters ecclesiastical. This was a great Btep in ad- 
vance, and one that must over throw a luster over the brief reign of this un- 
fortunate monarch. Penn, though holding no official position, doubtless did 
a- much toward securing the issue of this liberal measure ns any Englishman. 
id the issue of these edicts, the Quakers, at their noxt annual meeting, 
ted an address of acknowledgment to the King, which opened in these 
words: " Wo caunot but bless and praise the name of Almighty God, who 
bath the hearts of princes in His hands, that He hath inclined the King to hear 
the cries of his suffering subjects for conscience' sake, and wo rejoice that he. 
hath given us so eminent an occasion to present him our thanks." This ad- 
dress was presented by Penn in a few well -chosen words, and the King re- 
plied in the following, though brief, yet most expressive, language: "Gentle 
men — I thank you heartily for your address. Some of you know (I am sure. 
you do Mr. Penn), that it was always my principle, that conscience ought not 
to be forced, and that all men ought to have the liberty of their consciences 
And what I have promised in my declaration, I will continue to perform so 
long as 1 live. And I hope, before 1 die, to settle it so that after ages shall 
have no reason to alter it.'' 

It would have been supposed that such noble sentiments as these from a 
sovereign would have been hailed with delight by the English people. But 
they were not. The aristocracy of Britain at this time did not want libi 

QCe. They wanted oomfonuity to the established church, and bitter 
ution against all others, as in the reign of Charles, which filled the 
prisons with Quakers. The warm congratulations to James, andfervent prayers 
for his welfare, were regarded by them with an evil eye. Hitter reproaches 
were heaped upon Penn, who was looked upon as the power behind the throno 
ring the King to the enforcing of these principles. He was ac- 
cused of having been educated at St, Omer's, a Catholic college, a place which 
he never saw in his life, of having taken orders as a priest in the Catholic 
Church, of having obtained dispensation to marry, and of being not only a 
Catholic, but a Jesuit in disguise, all of which w< re pure fabrications. But in 
the excited stale of the public mind they were believed, and caused him to bo 
ter hatred. The King, too, fell rapidly into disfavor, and so 
completely hail the mind- of his people become alienated from him, that upon 
the coming of the Prince of Orange and his wife Mary, in 1688, James was 
obliged to flee to France for safety, and they were received as the rulers of 

But while the interests of the colony were thus prospering at court, the] 
were not so cloudless in the new oountry. There was needed tho strong band 
of Penn to cheek a pride the course of legislation in proper chan- 

nels. Ho had labored to plaeo the government entirely in the hands of tho 
people — an idea, in the abstract, most attractive, and one which, were the entiro 



population w«e »d j-, ™»ld ,e,»lt *«•»*>*££ ffitoTtog b™» 

cessfully resisted the PJ^gjJ^'jSS^toSSoe. the records in the 
Patrick Robinson, Clerk of the comt, t0 " eIu ^?» troubles in the government 
trial of Moore, was voted a public «£™7-^^™ZJng a number of the 
were the occasion of much ■£* * *«J^J£ ^nTourk in an endeavor 
most influential men m the colony, and bescecmn province, 

number, and accordingly ^P"^^^^ of whom should consti- 
Claypole, Robert Turner and John Eckley any three ot ietol , In 

tute a quorum, to be Commissioners of State to act tor tn p I 
place of Moore and Claypole, Arthur Cook and John himcock PP m 

key were to compel the ^^^^^'t^L^-, to dismiss 
admit of bo parley; to abrogate rll laws except tM admonishes theul , 

in any of his State papers or more P^! 10 ,,^™^^ English nation. " I 
seen how important were his ^^ 8 J^ ^ t ^* £3 and those in au- 
fl m engaged in the public h ™»™°*^™^tto*li\£ty. that I was a small 
thority would have me see the est abluent o^he li y ^^ ^ 

instrument to begin m the land. The Lord nas give g j ^^ 

int-^^tt-^^^^-Sf^S^ repealed, that are now 
rejoice Jo see poo old England tod, t V ft ^^ gQ m pennsvl . 

suspended, and it it goes wen 5 Turkey desires more 

vania, as unkindly used as I am; and nc , poor slave ^n 1 } fte ^ 

earnestly, I believe, for deliverance tLauIdo to be wit ay ^ 

pears to have been present, particularly in fester. Pre8 ident of 

P Since the departure of Penn, ThomasLloj d had ac^ed a effect 

the Council, and later of the Commiss one^s o f W * ^ while 

jSa^^^^^S Prided to relieve him, though 

HIST0R1 OF PENNS) l.\ AM A 65 

- his entir mfidenoe by notifying him that he intended soon to ap- 
point him absolute Governor. In hia plane, he indicated Samuel Oarpenter, 
or if he was on willing to serve, then Thomas Kl lis, hut not to be President! his 
will being thai euoh Bhonld preside a month in turn, or that the oldest mem 
ber should be ohosen. 

i foresaw the executive power, to be efficient, must be lodged in 

the hands of one man of ability, Buoh as to command therespeotof his | pie. 

Those whom h" moat trusted in the colony had been bo mixed up in the wran- 

the executive and legislative departments of the government that be 
dee med it advisable to appoint a person who had not before 1 u in tli I 

ony and not a Quaker. He accordingly oonunissioned John Blaokwell, July 

i lii'SS, tn lio Lieutenant Governor, who was at this time in New England, 
and who had the esteem and confidence of Penn. With tho commission, the 
proprietor sunt full instructions, chiefly by way of caution, the last one being: 
' Utile the meek meekly; and those thai will not be ruled, rule with authority." 
Though Lloyd had been relieved of power, In* still remained in the Council, 
probably because neither of the persons designated were willing to serve. 
Having seen the evils of a many headed executive, lie had recommended the 
appointment of one person to exercise executive authority. It was in con 
formity with this advice that Blaekwell was appointed. He met the Assembly 
in March. 1689; bul either his conceptions of business were arbitrary and im 
perious, or the Assembly had become accustomed to great latitude and lax 
discipline; for the business had not proceeded far before the several branches 
of the government were at variance. Lloyd refused to give up the great seal. 
alleging that it had been given him for life. The Governor, arbitra 
rily and without warrant of law. imprisoned officers of high rank, denied the 
validity of all laws passed by the Assembly previous to his administration, and 
set on foot a project tor organizing and equipping the militia, under the plea 
of threatened hostility of France. The Assembly attempted to arrest his 
proceedings, but he shrewdly evaded their intents by organizing a party 
among the members, who persistently absented themselves. His reign 
was short, for in January. 1690, lie left the colony and sailed away for En 
gland, whereupon the government again devolved upon the Council, Thomas 
Lloyd. President. Penn had a high estimation of the talents and integrity 
of Blaokwell, and adds. " He is in England and Ireland of great repute for 
ability, integrity and virtue." 

lliiee forms of administering the executive department of the government 
had now been tried, by a Council consisting of eighteen members, a commission of 
live members, and a Lieutenant Governor, Desirous of leaving the government 
as far as possible in the hands of the people who were the Bouroes of all 
power, Penn left it to the Council to decide which form should be adopted. 

The majority decided for a Deputy Governor. This was opposed by tho mem- 
bers from the provinces, who preferred a Council, and who, finding themselves 
outvoted, decided to withdraw, and determined for themselves to govern the 
lower counties until Penn should come. This obstinacy and falling out be- 
tween the councilors from the lower counties and those from tho province 
was the beginning of a controversy which eventuated in a separation, and 
finally in the formation of Delaware as a separate commonwealth. A deputa- 
tion from tho Council was sent to New Castle to induce tho seceding members 
to return, but without success. They had never regarded with favor the re- 
moval of the sittings of the Council from New Castle, the first seat of gov- 
ernment, to Philadelphia, and they were now determined to set up a govern- 
ment for themselves. 

/ U I i ■/ <• r^ 


' In 1689, the Friends Pubbc ^%^t^JZmi:SZX 
confirmed by a patent from Penn in 1701 ^J? November 29 1711. The 
with greatly enlarged powers , ron .Penn P™™^£™Z we ' lfare of any 
preamble to the charter recites that as , tn '11 J f out h, and their 
people depend, in great "^"I^^^^Jand qualifying 
early introduction in the P^^^fby breeding them in reading, 
them to serve their country and theme elves oy d ° scieQCes su itable to 
writing, and learning of langua ges and ^j£ ar s ' ™ anner 80 well a3 
their sex, age and degree, which c a nnot j£ J??.**™ ^JJyed as the first mas- 
by erecting public schools," etc George K ^ n | C o t Tand a man of learning, 
ter of this school. He was a native of Aberdeen 1 Scotland a m ^ 

and had emigrated to East Jersey some y^YnebeZlZi^ West New 
General, and had surveyed ^d nwked the Imejbetwe he ^ 

Jersey. He only remained at the head of the school ^ considerable 

succeeded by his usher, Thomas Makm Inis was a ^ 

merit and pretension, where th e high ier ma them atics an fi 

guages were taught, and was the first of ^ this high gr ade. when 

mary grade had been established as early as 1003, £ English. 

Enoch Flower taught on the following -ms: To lea™ to rea ^^ 

a saw s^gSi^ wLS 

hard cash was not exorbitant. caused him to be sus- 

Penn's favor at court daring the reign of * am £ " ™£ Marv had come ho 
pected of disloyalty to the government ^jn^^ »d M Jn 

The throne. Accordingly on the 10th of Decker ^ ^ fc 

White Hall, he was summoned before the ljoras o 

nothing was found against him, was compelled to £^% c ™ ^ At ^ sec . 
ance af the next term, to answer any charg p t hatm ght em h ^ ^ 

ond sitting of the Council nothing ^-^^XougM before the Lords on 
cleared in open court. In lb90, he was again uiu g 

the charge of having been in eorrespond^ce with he a £»* d P, 

pealed to King William who, after a tearing o two bo ^ ^ 

release him, but the Lords de cided to hold him tmu ^ time with 

he was again discharged. A third time he was arrai ™ , ^ was 

eighteen others, charged with adhem g t ° t f no w°t liberty, and these vexa- 
cleared by order of the King's Bench Being now a ^ lib V ^ ^^ 

tious suits apparently at an end, he set about j«£^££& » nd ^ GoYe rn- 
to his cherished Pennsylvania. Pro P° 8 p f im ^ t ^ tad ordered an armed 
ment, regarding the enterprise of so ^J ^ ^ % nd now , ba eked by 
convoy, when he was again met by another accusal on u de . 

the false oath of one William Fuller whom * 6 ^Xrepare ^ {or hls 
clared a " cheat and an imposter. See mg *™ ™£™J l mad ° expensive 
defense, he abandoned his voyage to America atter na ^ to pre v e nt his 
preparations, and convinced that his ^^in sLland ot America, he with- 
Mention to public or private affairs^ whe her i n En gland oi . 

drew himself during the ensuing two or three years F ^ hig 

But though not participating in business, which wa , ca a ^ ligioas 

attention, his mind was busy and ^--^Xat nfl^ct'po/the tur°n of 
and civil matters were produced that had ' & ™« f £ is forced ret ire- 

1IISTOKV OF I'KVVM l.\ AM \ ti7 

■ My enemies are touts. My privacy ia nol became men have sworn truly, 
but falselj against me " 

Bis personal grievanoea in England wore the I • ■ .- 1 — t which ho sufTered. For 
lack of guiding uitlucnec, bitter dissensions hail sprung op in his colony, 
which threatened the loss of all Desiring to secure peace, he had commis- 
sioned Thomas Uoyd Deputy Governor of the province, and William Mark- 
ham Deputy Governor of the lover oountiee. Penn's grief on account of this 
division iadisolosed in a letter to a friend in the provinoe: " 1 left it to them, 
to choose either the government of the Council, five Commissioners or a deputy. 
Whatoouldbe tenderer? Now I peroeive Thomas Lloyd is chosen by the 
three apper l>ut not the three lower counties, and sits down with this broken 
ohoice. This has grieved, and wounded me and mine, I fear to tho hazard of 
all! • * * for else the Governor of New York is like to have all, if he 
has it not already." 

But the troubles of Penn in America were not confined to civil affairs. 
His religious society was torn with dissension. George Keith, a man of con- 
aiderable power in argumentation, but of overweening self-conceit, attacked the 
Friends for the laxitv of their discipline, and drew off some followers. So 
venomous did he become that on the 20th of April. 1692, a testimony of de- 
nial was drawn up against him at a meeting of ministers, wherein ho and his 
conduct were public!] disowned. This was confirmed at the nest yearly meet- 
ing. He .Irew off large numbers and set up an independent society, who 
tanned themselves Christian Quakers. Keith appealed from this actiun of the 
American Chinch to the yearlj meeting in London, but was so intemperate in 
i hat the action of the American Church was confirmed. Whereupon 
he became the bitter enemy of the Quakers, and, uniting with the Church of 
England, was ordained a Vicar by the Bishop of London. He afterward re- 
turned to America where he wrote against his former associates, but was final- 
ly fixed in a benefice in Sussex. England. On his death bed, he said, " I wish 
I had died when I was a Quaker, for then I am sure it would have been well 
with ray soul." 

I lut" Keith had not been satisfied with attacking the principles and prac- 
tices of his church. He mercilessly lampooned the Lieutenant Governor, say- 
ing that ' He was not fit to be a Governor, and his name would stink," and of 
the Council, that "Ho hoped to God he should shortly see their power taken 
from them." On another occasion, he said of Thomas Lloyd, who was reputed 
a mild- tempered man. and had befriended Keith, that he was "an impu- 
dent man and a pitiful Governor," and asked him "why he did not send him 
to jail."' Baying that "his back (Keith's) had long itched for a whipping, and 
that he would print and expose them all over America, if not over Europe." 
So abusive had he finally become that the Council was obliged to take notice 
of his conduct and to warn him to desist. 

Penn, as has been shown, was silenced and thrown into retirement in En- 
gland. It can be readily seen what an excellent opportunity these troubles 
in America, the separation in the government, and the schism in tho church, 
gave his enemies to attack him. They represented that he had neglected his 
colony by remaining in England and meddling with matters in which he had 
DO business; that tho colony in consequence had fallen into great disorder, 
and that he should be deprived of Ins proprietary rights. These complaints 
had so much weight with William and Mary, that, on the 21st of October, 1692, 
they commissioned Benjamin Fletcher, Governor of New York, to take the 
province and territories under his government. There was another motive 
operating at this time, more potent than those mentioned above, to induce the 



to, would »ot ,.!«.« t» feed the to,B OT „d c tothe ft . £££■** ™ '" 

patedVfor he blamed the colony for refusing to send money to New York for 

the Duke of Buckingham and Sir John Trenchard, the king was asked to 
hear the case SwSCn Penn, against whom no charge was proven and who 
would two years before have gone to his colony had he °ot supposed toa he 
would have been thought to go in defiance of the government. King W Uliaitt 


answered that William Penn was his old acquaintance as well as theirs, thai 
be might follow his business aa treelj aa ever, and thai H<' bad nothing to sa 
to him. Penn was accordingly reinstated in bi nl by letters pateni 

dated on the 20th of August, L694, whereupon he oommiasioned William Marl 
ham Lieutenant Governor. 

When Markham called the Assembly, he disregarded tln> provisions of the 
oharter, assuming that the removal of Penn had annulled the grant. The 
|j made no objection t i this action, as there were provisions in the oM 
oharter thai thej desired to have changed. Accordingly, when the appropria 
tion bill was considered, a new constitution was attached to it ami passed 
This was approved by Markham and became the organic law, the third consti- 
tution adopted under the charter of King Charles. By the provisions of tin 

instrument, the Council was composed of twelve members, and the Assembly 

of twenty- four. During the war between France and England, tho ocean 
swarmed with the privateers of the former. \\ hen peace was declared, many of 

rafts, which had richly profited by privateering, wore disposed to con- 
tinue their irregular practices, which wasnowpiraoy. Judging that tho peace 
principles of the Quakers would shield them from forcible seizure, they were 

med to run into the Delaware for safe harbor. Complaints coming 
,f the depredations of these parties, a proclamation was issued calling on 
magistrates and citizens to unite in breaking up practices so damaging to the 
good name of the colony. It was charged in England that evil-disposed per 
sons in the province were privy to these practices, if not parties to it. anil that 
the failure of the Government to break it up was a proof of its inefficiency. 
and of a radical defect of the principles on which it was based. Penn wa^ 
much exercised by these charges, and in his letters to the Lieutenant Governor 
and to bis friends in the Assembly, urged ceaseless vigilance to effect reform. 


William Penn, 1699-1701— Andrew Hamilton. 1701-8— Edward Shippi n 
t— John Evans, 1704-9— Charles Gookin, 1709-17. 

BEING free from harassing persecutions, and in favor at court, Penn de 
termined to remove with his family to Pennsylvania, and now with thi 

in of living and dying here. Accordingly, in July, L699, he set sail, 
and, on account of adverse winds, was three months tossed about upon the 
ocean. Just before his arrival in his colony, the yellow fever raged there with 
great virulence, having been brought thither from the Wee! Indies, but had 
been checked by the biting frosts of autumn, and bad now disappeared An 
observant traveler, who witnessed the effects of this scourge, writes thus of it 
in his journal: "Great was the majesty and hand of the Lord. Great was 
the fefir that fell upon all flesh 1 saw no lofty nor airy countenanc 

.ny vain jesting to move men to laughter, nor witty repartee to raise 
mirth, nor extravagant feasting to excite the lusts and desires of tho flesh 
above measure: but every face gathered paleness, and many hearts wer 
bled, and countenances fallen and sunk, as such that waited every moment to 
be summoned t,> the bar and numbered to the g 

iverywhere manifest • 1 throughout the province at the arriv- 


al of the proprietor and his family, fondly believing that he had now como to 
stay He met the Assembly soon after landing, but, it being an inclement 
season, he only detained them loag enough to pass two measures against 
Piracy and illicit trade, exaggerated reports of which, having been spread 
broadcast through the kingdom, had caused him great uneasiness and vexation. 
At tt Is monthly meeting of Friends in 1700 he laid before them his 
concern, which was for the welfare of Indians and Negroes, and steps were 
taken to instruct them and provide stated meetings for them where they could 
hear the Word. It is more than probable that he had fears from the nrst that 
his enemies in England would interfere in his affairs to such a degree as to £ 
quire his early return, though he had declared to his friends there that he 
never expected to meet them again. His greatest solicitude, consequently, 
was to gfve a charter to his colony, and also one to his city, the very best that 
human Ingenuity could devise. An experience of now nearly twenty years 
would be likely to develop the weaknesses and impracticable ; Pulsions of : the 
first constitutions, so that a frame now drawn with all the light of the past, 
and by the aid and suggestion of the men who had been employed m admin- 
Serin- it, would be likely to be enduring, and though he might be called 
hence or be removed by death, their work would live on from generation o 
generation and age to age, and exert a benign and preserving influence while 
the State should exist. . , , ,, T 

In February, 1701, Penn met the most renowned and powerful of the In- 
dian chief teinsfreaching out to the Potomac, the Susquehanna and to the Ononda- 
coes of the Five Nations, some forty in number, at Philadelphia where he 
Renewed with them pledges of peace and entered into a formal treaty of active 
friendship binding them to disclose any hostile intent, confirm sale of lands, 
be Tovexi P ed by cofonial law, all of which was confirmed on the part of the In- 
dians "by fivJ parcels of skins;" and on the part of Penn by " several English 

8 °tj£lZ£™TL Legislature were held inwhich great harmonypre- 
vailed, and much attention was giving to revising and recompensing the const - 
tu ion But in the midst of their labors for the improvement of the organic 
aw inference was brought to Penn that a bill had been introduced in the 
House of Lords for reducing all the proprietary governments in Amenca to 
re°al ones under pretence of advancing the prerogative of the crown, and 
the atal advantage. Such of the owners of land in Pennsylvania as hap- 
pened to be in England, remonstrated against action upon the bill until Penn 
could return and °be heard, and wrote to him urging his immediate coming 
hrther Though much to his disappointment and sorrow he determined to 
oo immediately thither. He promptly called a session of the Assembly, and 
fn hTm ssag^ to the two Houses said, "I cannot think of such ^a voyage 
without greafretoctancy of mind, having promised myself the quietnes of a 
wilderness. For my heart is among you, and no disappointment shall ever be 
lb le to alter my love to the country, and resolution to return, and settle my 
Jmily and posterity in it. * * Think therefore (since all men are mortg, 
of some suitable expedient and provision for your safety as well in .you, prm- 
Wes as property. Review again your laws, propose new ones, and you wiJl 
find me Sy to comply with whatsoever may render us happy, by a nearer 
union of our interests " The Assembly returned a suitable response, and then 
proceed' ^ to draw up twenty-one article, The first related l to the appoint 
Lent of a Lieutenant Governor. Penn proposed that the Assembly should 
cTose one. But this they declined, preferring that he should appoint on. 
Little trouble was experienced in settling everything broached, except the 


union of the provinoe and lower counties. Penn used his best endeavors to 
.• them to the union, but without avail The new oonstitation « is 
the 28th of October, 1701. The instrument proTided for the 
anion, bnl in a supplementary article, evidently granted with great reluctance, 
it was provided that the provinoe and the territories might be separated at any 
time within three years as Ins last aot before leaving, he presented the city 
of Philadelphia, now grown to be a considerable place, and always an object 
of his affectionate regard, with a charter of privileges. As his Deputy, he ap- 
pointed Andrew Hamilton, one of the proprietors of East New Jersey, and 
sometime Governor of both Past and \\ eel Jersey, and for Secretary of the 
province and Clerb of the Council, he selected James Logan, a man of sin- 
gular urbanity and strength of mind, and withal a scholar. 

Penn set sail for Europe on the 1st of November, 1701. Soon after ins 
arrival, on the l s th of January, 170:!. King William died, and Anne of Den- 
mark succeeded him. He now found hiiusolf in favor at court, and that he 
might be convenient to the royal residence, he again took lodgings at Kensing- 
ton. The bill which hail been pending before Parliament, that had given him 
so much uneasiness, was at the succi ion dropped entirely, and was 

again called up. During his leisure hours, he now busied himself in 
writing "several useful and excellent treatises mi divers subjects." 

Gov. Hamilton's administration continued only till December, 17i>'J. when 
In- died. He was earnest in his endeavors to induce the territories to unite 
with the province, they having as yet not accepted the new charter, alleging 
that they had three years in which to make their decision, but without success 
He also organized a military force, of which George Lowther was commander, 
f. .r t he safety of the colony. 

The executive authority now devolved upon the Council, of which Edward 
Shippeo was President. Conflict of authority, and contention over the due in- 
terpretation of some provisions of the new charter, prevented the accomplish 
ment of much, by way of legislation, in the Assembly which convened in 1703: 
though in this body it was finally determined that the lower counties should 
thereafter act separately in a legislative capacity. This separation proved 
final, the two bodies never again meeting in common. 

Though the bill to govern the American Colonies by regal authority failed, 
yet the clamor of those opposed to the proprietary Governors was so strong 
thai an act was finally passed requiring the selection of deputies to have 1 the 
royal assent Hem i choosing a successor to Hamilton, he was obliged to 
consider the Queen's wishes John Evans, a man of parts, of Welsh extrac- 
aly twentj six years old. a member of the Queen's household, and not a 
Quaker, nor even of exemplary morals, was appointed, who arrived in tho col- 
ony in December. 17o:i. He « panied by William Penn, Jr., who was 
. a member of the Council, the number having been increased by author- 
ity of the Governor, probably with a view to his election 

The first care of Evans was to unite the province and lower counties. 
though the final separation had Hi presented the matter so 

well that tiie lower OOUnties, from which the difficulty had always come, were 
willing to return to a firm union. But now the provincial Assembly, having 
■ inpatient of the obstacles thrown in the way of legislation bj the dele 
gates from these counties, was unwilling to receive them. They henceforward 

remained separate ins legislative capacity, though still a part of Pennsylvania, 

under the claim of Penn. ami ruled by the same Governor, and thus thi 
tinued until the 20th of September, 177'i. when a constitution was adopted, 
and they were proclaimed a separate State under the name of Delaware. 


Dunne two years of the government of Evans, there was ceaseless discord be- 
En^rCouncil, headed by the Governor and Secretary Logan on the one 
sS and the Assembly led by David Lloyd, its Speaker, on the other, and 
little legislation was effected. . , , 

Resizing the defenseless condition of the colony, Evans determined to 
or^fnize the militia, and accordingly issued his proclamation In obedience 
to g he Majesty's royal command, and to the end that the .nha bitants of this 
government may be in a posture of defense and readiness to withstand and 
Sail acts of hostility. I do hereby strictly command and require al pel- 
sons residing in this government, whose persuasions will, on any account, per- 
mitthemto g takeuparmsin their own defense, that forthwith they _d , pro- 
vide themselves with a good firelock and ammunition, in order to enlist them- 
selves in the militia, which I am now settling in this government The Gov- 
ernor evidently issued this proclamation in good faith, and with a pure pur- 
pose The French and Indians had assumed a threatening aspect upon the north 
Tdwhile the other colonies had assisted New ^klil«ally^ei^yWania^ 
done little or nothing for the common defense. But his call fell stillborn. 
The "fire-locks" were not brought out, and none enlisted. 

Disappointed at this lack of spirit, and embittered by the actions temper of 
the Assembly Evans, who seems not to have had faith in the religious prm- 
ciples of thfQuakers and to have entirely mistook the nature of their Christian 
zea formed a wild scheme to test their steadfastness under the pressure of 
hreateTd danger. In conjunction with his gay associates in .revel, he , ag eed 
tn hive a false alarm spread of the approach of a hostile force in the river, 
whereupon he was to raise the alarm in the city. Accordingly, on the day of 
he faS in Philadelphia, 16th of March, 1706, a messenger came post haste 
from New Castle bringing the startling intelligence that an armed fleet of the 
enemy wis at ady She river, and making their way rapidly toward the o.* 
Where™ Evans acted his part to a nicety. He sent through the 
town proclaiming the dread tale, while he mounted his horse, and m an ex- 
cited Sanner?andwith a drawn sword, rode through the streets, calling upon all 
good "en and true to rush to arms for the defense of their homes heir wives 
S children, and all they held dear. The ruse was so well played that it 
had an immense effect. » The suddenness of the surprise," says Proud, with 
the noise of precipitation consequent thereon, threw many of the people into 
very °reat fright and consternation, insomuch that it is said some threw the r 
nl2e°and most valuable effects down their wells and little houses; that others 
E d themse" e , in the best manner they could, while many retired further ^ up 
the rive. "'with what they could most readily carry off; so that some of the 
creeks seemed full of boats and small craft; those of a larger size running as 
far as BuHin-ton, and some higher up the river; several women are said to 
havrmlscarrfed by the fright a & nd terror into which they were thrown, and 

^C^IZ^UM of the people are said to have understood the 
deceit from the first* and labored to allay the excitement; but the seeming 
earnestness of the Governor and the zeal of his emissaries so worked upon the 
mo™ inconsiderate of the population that the consternation and commotion 
was almost past belief. In an almanac published at Philadelphia for the next 
year opposite this date was this distich: 

""Wise men wonder, good men grieve, 
Knaves invent and fools believe." 
Though this ruse was played upon all classes alike, yet it was generally 
believed to have been aimed chiefly at the Quakers, to try the force of thou 

BIBTORY or PBNN81 i.vam \ 73 

prinoiplee, and Bee if they would not rush to arma when danger ahonld really 
appear. Hut in this the Governor was disappointed. For it iB said that only 
four < .lit cif tlu> entire population of this religious creed showed any disposition 

to falsify their faith, It was the day of their weekly meeting, and regardless 

of the dismay and oonatei'nation which were everywhere manifest aliout them, 
the] assembled in their accustomed places of worship, and engaged in then 
devotions as though nothing unusual was transpiring without, manifesting 
such unshaken faith, as \\ bittier has exemplified in verse by his Abraham 
Davenport, on the occasion of the Dark Day: 

Keanwhile In the old Btate Bouse, dim us ghosts, 
S:ii the law-givera of Connecticut, 
Trembling beneath their legislative rubes. 
• It i~ the C ird - ereat day I Let as adjourn, ' 
Boms Bald; and then, as with one accord, 
All eyes were turned on Abraham Davenport. 
Be rose, Blow, cleaving with his Bteadj voice 
The intolerable hush. 'This well may be 
The Day of Judgment which the world awaits; 

But I"' it BO or not, I only know 

Mv present duty, and nay Lord's command 
To occupy till id- ci, me Bo at the post. 
Win-re lie hath Bet me in His Providence, 
I choose, for one, to meet 1 iim face to Cat •, 
No faithless Bervant frightened from my task, 

But ready when the Lord of the harvest calls; 
And therefore, with all reverence, I would - 

Lei God do His work, we will sec to ours. 

in the candles.' And they brought them in." 

In conjunction with the Legislature of the lower counties, Evans was in- 
strumental in having a law passed for the imposition of a tax on the tonnage 
of the river, and the erection of a fort near the town of New Castle for com- 
pelling obedience. This was in direct violation of the fundamental compact, 
and vexatious to commerce. It was at length forcibly resisted, and its impo 
sition abandoned. His administration was anything but efficient or peaceful, 
a series of contentions, of charges and counter-charges having been kept up 
between the leaders of the two factions, Lloyd and Logan, which he was pow- 
erless to properly direct or control. " He was relieved in 1701). Possessed of 
a good degree of learning and refinement, and accustomed to the gay society 
of the British metropolis, he found in the grave and serious habits of the- 
Friends a type of life and character which he failed to comprehend, and with 
which he could, consequently, have little sympathy. How widely he mistook 
the Quaker character is seen in the result of his wild and hair-brained ezperi 
ment to test their faith. His general tenor of life seems to have been of a 
piece with this. Watson says: 'The Indians of Connestoga complained of 
him when there as misbehaving to their women, and that, in 170H. Solomon 
Oresson, going his rounds at 'night, entered a ken era to suppress a riotous as- 
sembly, and found there John Evans, Esq.. the Governor, who fell to beat- 
ing Cresson.' " 

The youth and levity of Gov. Evans induced the proprietor to seek for a 
■ r of a more sober and sedate character. He had thought of proposing 
his son. but finally settled upon CoL Charles Gookin, who was reputed to be a 
man of wisdom and prudence, though as was afterward learned, to the sorrow 
of the colony, he was subject to tits of derangement, which toward the close ol 
rm were exhibited in the most extravagant acts. He had scarcely ar- 
rived in the colony before charges were preferred against the late Governor, 
and he was asked to institute criminal proceedings, which he declined. This 


was the occasion of a renewal of contentions between the Governor and his 
Council and ihe Assembly, which continued daring the greate, -pare of h^s ad- 
ministration In the midst of them, Logan, who was at the head ot the Coun 
d having demanded a trial of the charges against him, and faded to secure 
one sailed for Europe, where he presented the difficulties experienced in ad- 
Tn^eing the government so strongly, that Penn was seriously inclined to 
TeU his interest in the colony. He had already greatly crippled his estate by 
expense he had incurred in making costly presents to the natives, and m set- 
tlinAis colony, for which he had received small return. In the year 1707, 
he had become y involved in a suit in chancery witb the executors of his former 
steward in the course of which he was confined in the Old Baily during this 
anTa part of the following year, when he was obliged to mortgage his colony 
inlhe 1 urn of £6,600 to Relieve himself. Foreseeing the great consequence 
f would be to the crown to buy the rights of the proprietors of the several 
Engl sh colonies in America before they would grow too powerful, negoh 

he was incapacitated for transacting any business, and a stay was P*J to fur- 
ther proceedings until the Queen should order an act of Parliament for con- 

Sn Tttl 3 rlo:ifS spectacle to behold the great mind and the great heart of 
Penn reduced now in his declining years, by the troubles of government and 
^ debts incurred in the bettering of his colony, to this -j-bled conditro^ 
He was at the moment writing to Logan on public affairs when _ h« hand was 
suddenly seized by lethargy in the beginning of a sentence, which he neyer 
finished His mind was touched by the disease, which ^ never recovered, 
Sd after leering for six years, he died on the 30th of May, 1718 in the 
^SSJKi of hi, ag y e. With great power of ^lle^ ^d^rehgiouj 
devotion scarcely matched in all Christendom, he gave himself to the welfare 
of mankind by securing civil and religious liberty through the operations of 
ct'nfc aw. Though not a lawyer by profession, he drew frames of govern- 
S and bodies of faws which have been ^e admiration of succeeding gen^ 
itions and are destined to exert a benign influence m all future time, and by 
hsdLussions with Lord Baltimore and before the Lords >^ 
showed himself familial- with the abstruse principles of law. Though but a 
nrivate person and of a despised sect, he was received as the friend and confi- 
dential See of therulin P g sovereigns of England, and so *ne of theo- 
ries which ^ive luster to British law were engrafted there thiougn the influ 
ence of the powerful intellect and benignant heart of Penn. He sought to 
know no philosophy but that promulgated by Christ and His disciples, and 
E he had sounded to its depths, and in it were anchored his ideas of public 
aw and private and social living. The untamed savage of the forest bowed in 
law ana P« simDlici t v to his mild and resistless sway, and the members 

oTtte Society ol Friends a'll over Europe flocked to his City of Brotherly Love 
His prayers for the welfare of his people are the beginning and ending of al 
his puX and private correspondence, and who will say toat they have not 
been answered in the blessings which have attended the commonwealth ^ his 
founding And will not the day of its greatness be when he inhabitants 
throughout all its borders shall return to the peaceful and loving spirit of 

B38T0BY 0* itnwi t.\ \\t \. 75 

Pennf In the midst of a licentious court, and with every prospect of advance- 
ment iu its sunshine and favor, inheriting a great name and an independent 
patrimony, he turned aside from this brilliant dark to make common lot with 
a poor aed under the ban of Government; endured stripes and imprisonment 
and loss of property; banished himself to the wilds of the American continent 
thai he might secure to his people those devotions which seemed to them re 
quired by their Maker, and has won for himself a name by the simple deeds of 
love and humble obedienoe to Christian mandates which shall never peiish. 
Many have won renown by deeds of blood, but fadeless glory has come to 
William Penn by charity. 


Sn; William Keith, 1717-25— Patbich Gordon, 1728-86— James Looan, 1738-38 
— George Thomas. 1788-47— Anthony. Palmer, 1747-48— James Hamilton, 


IN 1712, Penn had made a will, by which he devised to his only surviving 
sou, William, by his tirst marriage, all his estates in England, amounting 
to some twenty thousand pounds. By his first wife, Gulielma Maria Springett, 
he had issue of three sous — William, Springett and William, and four daugh- 
ters — Gulielma. Margaret, Gulielma and Letitia; and by his second wife, 
Hannah Oallowhill, of four sons — John, Thomas, Richard and Dennis. To 
his wife Hannah, who survived him, and whom he made the sole executrix of 
his will, hi' gave, for the equal benefit of herself and her children, all his 
personal estate in Pennsylvania and elsewhere, after paying all debts, and 
alloting ten thousand acres of land in the Province to his daughter Letitia, by 
his first marriage, and each of the three children of his son William. 

Doubts having arisen as t i the force of the provisions of this will, it was 
finally determined to institute a suit in chancery for its determination. Before 
a decision wa- reached, iu March. 1720. William Penn, Jr., died, and while 
still pending, his son Springett died also. During the long pendency of this 
litigation for nine years. Hannah Penn, as executrix of the will, assumed the 
proprietary powers, issued instructions to her Lieutenant Governors, heard 
complaints and settled difficulties with the skill and the assurance of a veteran 
diplomatist. In 1727. a decision was reached that, upon the death of William 

Penn, Jr., and his sod Springett, the proprietary rights in Pennsylvania de- 
scended to the three surviving sons — John. Thomas and Richard — issue by the 
second marriage; and thai the proprietors bargain to sell his province to the 
crown for twelve thousand pound-, made in 1712, and on which one thousand 
pounds had been paid at the confirmation of the sale, was void. Whereupon 
the three sons became the joint proprietors. 

A year before the death of Penn, the lunacy of Gov. Gookin having be 
come troublesome, he was succeeded in the Government by Sir William Keith. 
Oman who had serve. I as Surveyor of Customs to the English Govern 
ment. in which capacity he had visited Pennsylvania previously, and knew 
something of its condition. He was a man of dignified and commanding 
bearing, endowed with cunning, of an accommdating policy, full of faithfu 
promises, and usually found upon the stronger side. Hence, upon hi; 
arrival in the colony, he did not summon the Assembly immediate!; 


assigning as a reason in his first message that he did not wish to inconvenience 
the country members by calling them in harvest time. The disposition thus 
manifested to favor the people, and his advocacy of popular rights on several 
occasions in opposition to the claims of the proprietor, gave great satisfaction 
to the popular branch of the Legislature which manifested its appreciation ot 
his conduct bv voting him liberal salaries, which had often been withheld from 
his less accommodating predecessors. By his artful and insinuating policy, 
he induced the Assembly to pass two acts which had previously met with un- 
compromising opposition— one to establish a Court of Equity, with himself as 
Chancellor, the want of which had been seriously felt; and another, for organ- 
izing the militia. Though the soil was fruitful and produce was plentiful, 
yet "for lack of good markets, and on account of the meagerness of the cir- 
culating medium, prices were very low, the toil and sweat of the husbandman 
beincr little rewarded, and the taxes and payments on land were met with great 
difficulty Accordingly, arrangements"'were made for the appointment of in- 
spectors of provisions, who, from a conscientious discharge of duty, soon 
caused the Pennsylvania brands of best products to be much sought for, and 
to command ready sale at highest prices in the West Indies, whither most of 
the surplus produce was exported. A provision was also made for the issue ot 
a limited amount of paper money, on the establishment of ample securities, 
which tended to raise the value of the products of the soil and <h manufact- 
ures, and encourage industry. 

By the repeated notices of the Governors in their messages to the Legis- 
lature previous to this time, it is evident that Indian hostilities had for some- 
time been threatened. The Potomac was the dividing line between the 
Northern and Southern Indians. But the young men on either side, when ojh 
in pursuit of game, often crossed the line of the river into the territory of the 
other when fierce altercations ensued. This trouble had become so 
violent in 1719 as to threaten a great Indian war, in which the pow- 
erful confederation, known as the Five Nations, would take a hand. 
To avert this danger, which it was foreseen would inevitably involve 
the defenseless familes upon the frontier, and perhaps the entire colony, 
Gov Keith determined to use his best exertions. He accordingly made 
a toilsome journey in the spring of 1721 to confer with the Governor of 
Virginia and endeavor to employ by concert of action such means as would 
allay further cause of contention. His policy was well devised and enlisted 
the favor of the Governor. Soon after his return, he summoned a council of 
Indian Chieftains to meet him at Coaestoga, a point about seventy miles west 
of- Philadelphia. He went in considerable pomp, attended by some seventy 
or eighty horsemen, gaily caparisoned, and many of them armed arriving 
about noon, on the 4th of July, not then a day of more note than other days. 
He went immediately to Capt. Civility's cabin, where were assembled four 
deputies of the Five Nations and representatives of other tribes. Ihe Gov- 
ernor said that he had come a long distance from home to see and speak to 
representatives of the Five Nations, who had never met the Governor of Penn^ 
sylvania. They said in reply that they had heard much of the Governor, and 
would have come sooner to pay him their respects, but that the wild conducts 
some of their young men had made them ashamed to show their faces In tne 
formal meeting in the morning, Ghesaont, chief of the Senecas, spoke iot all 
the Five Nations. He said that they now felt that they were speaking to the 
same effect that they would were William Penn before them, that they had not 
forgotten Penn, nor the treaties made with him, and the good advice he gave 
them; that though they could not write as do the English, yet they could keep 

RI8T0RY OF rrw-vi.v \\i \ ,7 

ail thee b i" their memories After laying down a beU of 

irampam upon the table us if by way of emphasis, be began again, d« 
thai ■•.ill ill. mi- disorders aro b from the one oi rum and strong spirits, which 
t,><ik away tbi d memory, thai they bad no snob liquors," and desired 

in.>r<- be Bent among them. Here he produoed a bundle of dressed 
skins, by which be would say. "'you see how much in earnest we are upon this 
matter of furnishing fiery liquors to us."* Then he proceeds, declaring thai 

e Nations remember all their ancient treaties, and they now desire that 
the chain of friendship maj be made so strong thai none of the links may 
Brer be broken This may haw been a hint that they wanted high piled 
and valuable presents; for the Quakers had made a reputation of brightening 
and strengthening the chain of friendship by valuable presents which bad 

1 so far away as the Five Nations. He then produces a bundle of raw 
skins, and observes "thai a chain may oontraot rust with laying and I 

. wherefore, be desires it may ndw be bo well cleaned as to remain 
ter and stronger than over it was before." Here ho presents another par- 
cel of skins, and continues, "that as in the firmament, all clouds and dark- 
ness are removed bom the face of the sun, so the] desire that all misunder- 
standings maj be full] done away, so that when (hoy, who are now hero, shall 
be dead and gone, their whole people, with their children and posterity, m 
joy the clear sunshine with us forever." Presenting another bundle oi skins, 
be" says, "that, looking upon the Governor as if William Perm were pi 
they desire, that, in case any disorders should hereafter happen between their 
TOUng people and ours, we would not be too hasty in resenting any such acoi 
dent, until their Council and ours can have irtunity to treat amicably 

upon it, and so to adjust all matters, as that the friendship between us may 
-till ho inviolably preserved." Here he produces a small parcel of dressed 
skins, and concludes by saying "that we may now be together as one people, 
treating one another's children kindly and affectionately, that they are fully 
empow. ' :ik for the Five Nations, and they look upon the Gova 

the representative of the Great King of England, and therefore they expect 
that everything now stipulated will be made absolutely firm and good on both 
-eles " And now he presents a different stylo of present and pulls out a 
bundle of bearskins, and proceed- to put in an item of complaint, that "they 
get too little for their skins and furs.-, that they cannot live by hunting ; 
they desire us, therefore, to take compassion on them, and contrive some way 
t > help them in that particular. Then producing a few furs, lie -peak- only 
for himself, "to acquaint the Governor, that the Five Nations having heard 
that the Governor of Virginia wanted to speak with them, he himself, with 
some of his company intended to proceed to Virginia, but do not know the 
way how to get safe thither." 

To this formal and adroitly conceived speech of the XoDeea chief, Gov. 
Keith, after having brought m the present of Btroud match coats, gunpowder, 
lead, biscuit, pipes and tobacco, adjourned the council till the following day, 
when, being assembled at Concstoga. he answered at length the items of the 
chieftain's speech. His most earnest appeal, however, was made in favor of 
"I nave persuaded all my | Indian] brethren, in these parts, to con- 
sider what is for their good, and not to go out any more to war ; but your 
young men [Five Nations] as they come this way. endeavor to force them ; 
and, because they incline to the counsels of peace, and the good advice of their 
true friends, your people use them ill, and often prevail with thom to go out 
to their own destruction. Thus it was that their town of (Jonestoga lost their 
good king not long ago. Their young children are left without parents ; 


their wives without husbands ; the old men, contrary to the course of nature 
mourn the death of their young ; the people decay and grow weak ; we lose 
our dear friends and are afflicted. Surely you cannot propose to get e, toe 
riches, or possessions, by going thus out to war ; for when you kill a deei, you 
have the flesh to eat, and the skin to sell ; but when you return from war you 
brin^ nothing home, but the scalp of a dead man, who perhaps was husband 
to a kind wife, and father to tender children, who never wronged you, though 
by losing him, you have robbed them of their help and protection, and at toe 
same time got nothing by it. If I were not your friend, I would not take the 
trouble to say all these things to you." When the Governor had concluded 
£s address, he called the Senaea chieftain (Ghesaont) to rum, and presented a 
gold coronation medal of King George I, which he requested sh ould be aken 
to the monarch of the Five Nations, " Kannygooah," to be laid *p a^ kept. » 
a token to our children's children, that an entire and las tmg friendship ^ s no w 
established forever between the English in this country and the great Five 
Nations " Upon the return of the Governor, he was met at the uppei ferry of 
the SchuvlkilL bv the Mayor and Aldermen of the city, with about two hun- 
ared horse and conducted [through the streets after the manner of a conqueror 
of old returning from the scenes of his triumphs. 

Gov Keith gave diligent study to the subject of finance regulating the 
currency in such a way that the planter should have it in his power to dis- 
charge Promptly his indebtedness to the merchant, that their mutual interests 
might thus be subserved. He even proposed to establish a <«rt«Ue setth, 
ment on his own account in the colony, in order to carry on manufactures and 
tons consume the grain, of which there was at this time abundance, and no 

^In^spSgTll^, an Indian was barbarously murdered within the 
lim£ of the colSny, which gave the Governor great concern^ After having 
cautioned red men so strongly about keeping the peace, he felt that to ^honor 
of himself and all his people was compromised by this vile act He immedi 
a ely commissioned James Logan and John French to go to the scene of the 
mSer Tove Conestoga, and inquire into the facts of the case .quick ly app^ 
hended the supposed murderers, sent a fast Indian runner (Satcheecno), to 
acquafnt toe Xe Nations with his sorrow for the act, and of determination 
to brin- the guilty parties to justice, and himself set out with three of bis 
Council (Hill Norris and Hamilton), for Albany, where he had been invited 
?y°toe Indians for a conference with the Governors of all toe ponies and 
where he met the chiefs of the Five Nations and treated with chem upon the 
subject of the murder, besides making presents to the Indians. It was on thi = 
occasion that the grand sachem of this great confederacy made that noble, 
and Generous and touching response, so different from the spirit o revenge 
gener Hy attributed to the°IndiL character. It is a notable exampW love 
that begets love, and of the mild answer that turneth away wrath. He _sa £ 
" The Sreat king of the Five Nations is sorry for the death of the Ind lan 
toatwa^s killed, for he was of his own flesh and blood. He believes^ tha t the 
Governor is also sorry, but, now that it is done, there i it Mp foi £ and 
he desires that Cartlidge [the murderer] may not be put to death, nor ^that he 
should be spared for a time, and afterward executed ; one life is enough „o be 
tT; therrshotVnot two die. The King's heart is good to the Governor and 
all the English." , ._ 

Though Gov. Keith, during the early part of his term, pursued a pacifi, 
policy yet the interminable quarrels which had been kept up between toe^ 
sernbly and Council during previous administrations, at length broke out witu 



mora virulence than over, and he who in the fin! flush of power bad declared 

"That he should pass DO laws, nor transact anything of mom»ul 'flat i n^ to 
the public affaire without the advioe and approbation of the Oounoil," took it 
apon himself finally to act independently of the Council, and ovon went bo 
far as to dismiss the able and trusted representative of the proprietary inter 
sets, James Logan, President of the Council and Secretary of the Province, 
from the duties of his high office, and oven refused the request of Hannah 
Penn, th<> real Governor of the province, to re-in9tate him. This unwarranta- 
ble conduct cost him his dismissal from office in July, 17'Jt>. Why he should 
have assumed so headstrong and onwarrantable a coarse, who had promised at 
~i mild and considerate a polioy, it is difficult to understand, unless it 
be the fact that he found that the Council was blocking, by its obstinacy, 
wholesome legislation, which he considered of vital importance to the pros- 
perity of the colony, and if, as he alleges, he found that the new constitution 
only gave the Council advisory and not a voice in executive power. 

The administration of Gov. Keith was eminently successful, as he did not 
■ to grapple with important questions of judicature, finance, trade, 
Commerce, and the many vexing relations with the native tribes, and right 
manfully, and judiciously did be effect their solution. It was at a time when 
lony was tilling up rapidly, and the laws and regulations whiohhad been 
found ample for the management of a few hundred families struggling for a 
foothold in the forest, and when the only traffic was a few skins, were entirely 
inadequate for securing protection and prosperity to a Beething and jostling 
population intent on trade and commerce, and the conflicting interests which 
required wise legislation and prudent management. No colony on the Ameri- 
can coast made such progress in numbers and improvement as did Pennsylvania 
daring the nine year- iii which William Keith exercised tho Gubernatorial 
office. Though not himself a Quaker, lie had secured the passage of an act of 
Assembly, and its royal affirmation for allowing the members of the Quaker 
sect to wear their bats in court, and give testimony under affirmation instead 
of oath, which iu tic beginning of the reign of Queen Anno had been with- 
held from them. After the e\piration of his term of office, he was iim li 

ately elected a member of the Assembly, and was intent on being elected 
Speaker, "and had his support out-doors in a cavalcade of eighty mounted 
horsemen and the resounding of many guns tired;" yet David Lloyd was 
elected with only three dissenting voices, the out door business having perhaps 
been overdone. 

I pon tin* 1 recommendation of Spriugett Penn. who was now tho prospective 
heir to Pennsylvania, Patrick Gordon was appointed and confirmed Lieutenant 
Governor in place of Keith, and arrived in the colony and assumed authority 
m July, IT'Jt). Ho had served in the army, and in his first address to the 
assembly, which he met in August, he said that as ho had been a soldier; he 
knew nothing of the crooked ways of professed politicians, and must rely on a 
-tr lightforward manner of transact ing the duties devolving upon him. I ieorge 
I died in June. 17'iT. and the Assembly at its meeting in October prepared 

and forwarded a congratulatory address to his btj ssor, George II. By the 

decision of the Court of Chancery in 1727, Hannah Penn's authority over the 
colony was at an ond, the proprietary inl ing descended to John, 

Richard and Thomas Penn, the only surviving sous ..f William Penn, Sr. 
This period, from the death of Penn in 1718 to 1727, one of the mosl 
parous m the history of the colony, was familiarly known as the " lieign of 
h and tho 1; 

Ion found the Indian troubles claiming a considerable part 


t - Tr, 1 798 worthless bands, who had strayed away from their proper 

CUlt f S ' i ac 17« the French who were claiming all the territory drained 

ElSrito meet 1» «o»«il a. Ph.tad.lpU., to •"-Jjf^, °UEl£& 
'"S^fKSS'im w^Ck^bly, supposing that a, pro. 

„ . ^££^^£££^^ years later, John Penn, 
thet dl2 and^^TmericL bofn, arrived in the Proving, ^d were r. 
ceived with every mark „f respect ^+£££j£tf&£ZZ to have 
the latter, news was brought that ^ oldBa ™^ test ^ s ma de against 

the Provinces transfened to has colony. A Mg^ Potest « otest 

this by Quakers in ^ England *£** S^^ngto* to defend the 
might prove ineffectual, Joh ° ^ e "° J er ^ in retu rned, he having died a bach- 

P[°^ ie l7 46 ngh t a Aug U ut ^6 Gov SoTdied, deeply lamented, as an 
•elor in K4o. in August,, xiou, « ..iinraptnr which he expressed 

tone* upright ««d eta^Mfor.ard aenutew, a^J'™ £ His term 
«be hope he would be able to Mmtor wto he assumed ..Uro ^ ^^ 

'"irC. f resident o, th.^unriU nd k « "•^'j 

-t SSSS boX^iX^^*- faster, no. 


lark County. A number of settlers, in order to evade the paymenl of taxes, 
had secured titles to their lands from Maryland, and afterward sought to be 
reinstated in their rights under Pennsj Ivania authority, and plead protection 
the latter. The Sheriff of the adjoining Maryland County, with 300 
follow- '1 to drive these settlers from their homes. On hearing of 

tins movement, Samuel Smith, Sheriff of Lancaster County, with a hastily eum- 
I posse, advanced to proteol the citizens in their rights, Without a con- 
tact. an agreement was entered into bj both parties to retira Soon afterward, 
however, a band of fifty Marylandexs again entered the state with the design 
of driving out the settlers anil each securing for himself 200 acres of land. 
They were led by one Cressap. The settlers made resistance, and in an en- 
eounter, one of them bj the name of Kuowles was killed. The Sheriff of 
Lancaster again advanced with a posse, and in a skirmish which ensued one 
f the invaders was killed, and the leader Cressap was wounded and taken 
prisoner. The Governor of Maryland Bent a commission to Philadelphia to 
demand the release of the prisoner. Not succeeding in this, ho seized four of 
ttlers and incarcerated them in the jail at Baltimore. Still determined 
i their purpose, a party of .Marylanders, under the leadership of one 
m, advanced into Pennsylvania and began a warfare upon the 
Again the Sheriff of Lancaster appeared upon the scene, and drove 
OUt the invaders. So stubbornly were these invasions pushed and resented 
that the season passed without planting or securing the usual crops. Finally 
a party of sixteen Marylanders, led by Richard Lowden, broke into the Lan- 
caster jail and liberated the .Maryland prisoners. Learning of these disturb- 
ing in Council issued an order restraining both parties from fur- 
ther acts of violence, and afterward adopted a plan of settlement of the vexed 
boundary question, 

Though not legally Governor, Logan managed the affairs of tbe colony 

with great prudence and judgment, as he had done and continued to do for a 

period of nearly a half century. He was a scholar well versed in the ancient 

tgee and the sciences, and published several learned works in the Latin 

His Experimenta Meletemata ■'■ plantarum generations, written in 

Latin, was published at Leyden in IT;!',', and afterward, in 1747, republished 

ion. with an English version on tbe opposite page by Dr. J. Fothergill. 

Another work of his in Latinwas also published ai Leyden, entitled, ( 'anonum 

lis refractionwn, turn rimpUcium turn in lentibua duplicum foda, 

trationia geometricae. After retiring from public business, lie lived at 

his country seat at Stenton, near Germantown, whorohe spent his time among 

his books and in correspondence with the literati of Europe. In bis old age 

he made an English translation of Cicero's De Senerlute, which was printed at 

Philadelphia in 1714 with a preface by Benjamin Eranklin, then rising into 

notice. Logan was a Quaker, of Scotch descent, though born in Ireland and 

came '" ' the ship with William Penn, in his second visit in 1609 

when about twenty -five years old, and died at seventy-seven. Hehadbeld the 

offices of Chief Commissioner of property, Agent for the purchase and sale of 

lands. Receiver General, Member of Council, President of Council and Chief 

He was the Confidential Agent of Penn, having charge of all his vast 

estates, making sales of lands, executing conveyances, and making collections. 

Amidst all tin- great cares of business so pressing as to make him exclaim "I 

know not what any of the comforts of life are," he found time to devote to the 

delight.- of learning, and collected a large library of standard works, which he 

bequeathed, at his death, to the people of Pennsylvania, and is known as the 

Loganiau Library. 


George Thomas, a planter from ^^™S^1^^ 
in 1737, but did not arrive in the colony till th t°»°™ n » J finall a ^ eed 
was to settle the disorders n the < ^^Z^l'JtotL Governor of" that 
that settlers from either colony should owe £ le W£ vided f or 

colony wherever settled, until the d. vision line * h ^ P j? 

was surveyed and marked War was declared o n t he 23d ^ tQ ^ 

between Great Britain and Spain^ Seemg that £ ^ eavored to orgaa . 

encroached upon by the enemies of J"^*^, f ^ elemen t, and 

ize the militia, but the majority of the Assemb y w ^ ^ home 

it could not be induced to vote monej. ^^^^ were quickly formed, 
government to call for volunteers and wgb t compa ^ £ be 8ervant s for 

and sent down for the coast defense Many ^ot th p eva ngelist, 

whom pay was demanded and hnall y ^ n f d " n reUgi ^s in f ere st among all 
Whitefield, visited the co ^J^f ^Vtte Assembly, Gov. Thomas en 
denominations. In his farst ^tercoiHse gtubborn 8et of men never met 

deavored to coerce it to his views. But ^a more^ stuo ^ time 

?n a deliberative body than were gathered in to As sem y ^ ^ 

Finding that he could not compel action tc ^hs mmd .b ^ 7 ^ {n mag . 
suited their views and decisions Jh e As s embl V, been withheld be . 

nanimity, voted him £1,500 arr ^ 9 ° f sa ^7. J? acts sbould 

cause he .would not approve their ^Sf^ 'own pay In March, 1744, war 
take precedence of appropna ions or then own pay. were called 

was declared between Great Brita »-f Jj™^ ^ their own expense, 
for, and 10,000 men were JP^^ 1 ^™ Se colony, issued a pamph- 
Franklin, ^cognizing the defenseless conm neCB ssity of organ- 

let entitled Plain Truth in ^^jff^fe^ed Colonel of one of the 
ized preparation for defense. Franklin was elee ^ ^ ^ of May> 

regiments, but resigned in f avor ^of Airman. Lawre ^ ^ ^^ the 

1747, the Governor f^^^J^S own intention to retire from 
oldest of the proprietors, to the Assemuiy ™ 

hetities of ^office on account of ^^ndl at ^ ^ 

Anthony Palmer was Pres.d en ; of the Conn 0ll at t inthe As. 

drawal of Gordon, and became he Ac ting Go vexno^ £ ^ the colony , 

sembly held that it was he ^fy^^Xs and become responsible for their 
and that for the colony to call ^f^™^^™ wh ich did not belong to 
payment was burdening the people w th an expense ^ ^ 

them, and which the crown was willing to ™e ^ ^ en _ 

deeply intent on securing hrm pos session of the A li PP J ^ ^ 

tire basin, even to the summits of the Alleghany £ Rivers , They 

busy establishing trading posts along the Ol"? «£ * » ^ their interests, 
empWed^n.oahartf^^m ^imple^at ^ ^ ^ 

giving showy presents and laboring tu u di 9 f ma king presents of 

Pennsylvania had won a /eputotion among the M^n steel andiron, the 
substantial worth. Not knowing the d fference De ^.^ ^ 

French distributed immense "^^^gJSh steel axes. The Indians, 
natives supposed were the equal of the best M va i ue less. TJn- 

however, soon came to ^S^f^^.^ and friendship, the 

derstanding the Pennsylvania methods of securm P „ ^ 

the natives became very artful in drawing out wel P tl £ ea £ ned from the 
government at this time was alive to the dange ™J d Weiserj wa9 

insinuating methods of the French, A trusty ^ e^e . to . ob9erve the 

sent among the Indians in the wes torn part of toa p ^ to 

plans of the French, ascertain the temper 01 m 

BISTORT OF h:vnsyi.v \ma. 85 

magnify the power of the Engli-h, and the disposition of Pennsylvania to give 
great presents. This latter policy bad the desired effect, and worthless and 

wandering bands, which had no righl to speak for (he tribe, ramo teeming in, 
deairons ol scouring the chain of friendship, intimating thai the French were 
- great offers, in order to induce the government to large liberality, 
until this " brightening the chain," became an intolerable nuisance. At asin- 
incil held at Albany, in 1717, Pennsylvania distributed goods to the 
value of £1,000, and of such a character as should be most serviceable to the 
recipients, nol worthless gew-gaws, but such as would contribute to their Last- 
ing oomfort and well being, a protection to the person against the bitter frosts 
of winter, and Bustenanoe thai should minister to the steady wants of the 
b > ly and alleviation of pain in time of sickness. The treaty of Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle, which was conducted on the 1st of October, 1748, secured peace between 
Ureal Britain and France, and should have put an end to all hostile encoun- 
ter- between their representatives on the American continent. Palmer re- 
mained at the head of tin- government for a little more than two years. He 
was a retired merchant from the West Indies, a man of wealth, and had come 
into the colony in L708. He lived in a style suited to a gentleman, kept a 
coach and a pleasure barge. 

On the 23d of November, 1748, James Hamilton arrived in the colony from 
England, bearing the commission of Lieutenant Governor. He was born in 
America, son of Andrew Hamilton, who had for many years been Speaker of 
the Assembly. The Indians west of the Susquehanna had complained that set- 
tlers had come upon their best lands, and were acquiring titles to them, where- 
as the proprietors had never purchased these lands of them, and had no claim 
to them. The first care of Hamilton was to settle these disputes, and allay the 
rising excitement of the natives. Richard Peters, Secretary of the colony, a 
man of great prudence and ability, was sent in company with the Indian in- 
terpreter, Conrad Weiaer, to remove the intruders. It was firmly and fear- 
lessly done, the settlers giving up their tracts and the cabins which they had 
built, and accepting lands on the east side of the river. The hardship was in 
many cases great, but when they were in actual need, the Secretary gave 
money and placed them upon lands of his own, having secured a tract of 
OOOof acres. 

But these troubles were of small consequence oompared with those that 

were threatening from the West. Though the treaty of A.ix was supposed to 

have settled all difficulties between the two courts, the French were determined 

ipy the whole territory drained by the Mississippi, which they claimed 

by priority of discovery by La Salle. The British Ambassador at Paris entered 

complaints before the French Court that encroachments were being made by 

the Trench upon English soil in America, which were politely heard, and 

promises made of restraining the French in Canada from encroaching upon 

English territory. Formal orders were sent out from the home government to 

ln~ effect; but at the same time secret intimations were conveyed to them that 

nduct in endeavoring to secure and hold the territory in dispute was 

not displeasing to the government, and that disobedience of these orders would 

Dot incur its displeasure. The French deemed it necessary, in order to eetab 

lish a legal claim to the country, to take formal possession of it. Accordingly, 

the Marquis do la Galissoniere, who was at this time Governor General of 

Canada, dispatched ('apt. Bienville de Celeron with a party of 215 French and 

fifty-live Indians, to publicly proclaim possession, and bury at prominent 

plates of lead bearing inscriptions declaring occupation in the name of 

. h King. Celeron started on the 15th of June, 174», from La Chine, 


following the southern shores of Lakes Ontario and Erie, until he reached a 
point opposite Lake Chautauqua, where the boats were drawn up and were taken 
bodUy over the dividing ridge, a distance of tea miles, with all he tmpedunenta 
of the 7 expedition, the pioneers havin t first opened a road. Following on down 
the lake and the Conewango Creek, they arrived at Warren near the confluence 
of the creek with the Allegheny River. Here the first plate was buried 
These plates were eleven inches long, seven and a half wide and one-eighth 
of an inch thick. The inscription was in French, and in the following terms, 
as ?LTy translated into English: "In the year 1749 of the reign of Lorn. 
XIV King of France, We Celeron, commander of a detachment sent by 
Monsieur the Marquis de la Galissoniere, Governor General of New France, 
to re-establish tranquillity in some Indian villages of these cantons, have 
buried this plate of lead at the confluence of the Ohio with the Chautauqua, 
this 29th day of July, near the River Ohio, otherwise Bel e Ri™ as a mon- 
ument of the renewal of the possession we have taken of the said River Ohio, 
and of all those which empty into it, and of all the lands on both sides as far 
as the sources of the said river, as enjoyed or ought to have been enjoyed by 
the Kin- of France preceding, and as they have there maintained themselves 
by arms° and by treaties, especially those of Ryswick Utrecht and Aix-la- 
Chapelle » The burying of this plate was attended with much form and cer- 
emony All the men and officers of the expedition were drawn up in battle 
array, when the Commander, Celeron, proclaimed in a loud voice, -Vive le 
Roi '» and declared that possession of the country was now taken in the name 
of the King. A plate on which was inscribed the arms of France was affixed 

to the nearest tree. , i„±„„ +v„ 

The same formality was observed in planting each of the other plates, the 
second at the rock known as the "Indian God," on which are ancient and un- 
known inscriptions, a few miles below Franklin, a third at the mouth of 
Wheelin* Creek: a fourth at the mouth of the Muskingum; a fifth at the mouth 
of the Great Kanawha, and the sixth and last at the mouth of the Great Miami. 
Toilsomely ascending the Miami to its head- waters, the party burned their 
canoes, and obtained ponies for the march across the portage to the head-waters 
Tthe Maumee, down which and by Lakes Erie and Ontario they returned 
to Fort Frontenac, arriving on the 6th of November. It appears that the In- 
dians through whose territory they passed viewed this planting of plates with 
great suspicion. By some means they got possession of one of them, gener- 
al supposed to have been stolen from the party at the very commencement of 
their journey from the mouth of the Chautauqua Creek. 

Mr O H. Marshall, in an excellent monograph upon this expedition made 
up from the original manuscript journal of Celeron and the diary of Father 
Bonnecamps, found in the Department de la Marine, m Fans, gives the fol- 
lowing account of this stolen plate: 

"The first of the leaden plates was brought to the attention or the public 
by Gov George Clinton to the Lords of Trade in London dated New York. 
December 19, 1750, in which he states that he would send to their Lordslnps 
fn two or three weeks a plate of lead full of writing which some of the nppei 
nations of Indians stole from Jean Coeur, the French interpreter at Niagara, 
on hie way to the River Ohio, which river, and all the lands tnereabouts h U 
French claim, as will appear by said writing. He further states that the lead 
plate gave the Indians so much uneasiness that they immediately dispatched 
Jome of the Cayuga chiefs to him with it, saying that their only reliance was 
onhim a7d earnestly begged he would communicate he center, jto k .them 
which he had done, much to their satisfaction and the interests of the English. 

BI8T0R1 OF PENN81 L\ ASIA. 87 

The (taveamor concludes by saying ' the contents of the plate may be <<t 
gteal importance in dealing up the encroachments whioh the French have 
made on the British Empire in America.' The plate was delivered to Colonel, 
afterward Sii William Johnson, on the 4th of December, 17r>u, at his resi- 
dence on the .Mohawk. h\ a Cayuga sachem, who accompanied it by tho follow- 
ing s] oh 

"« Brother Corlear and War-ragh-i-ya-gheyl 1 am sent, hero by the 
Nations with a piece of writing winch the Seneoaa, our brethren, go! by some 
artifice from Jean Ooeur, earnestly beseeching yon will lei as know what it 
means, and as we pni all our confidence in you, we hope you will explain it 
ingeniously to us.' 

"Col .lohnson replied to the sachem, and through him to the Five Na- 
tion-, returning a bell of wampum, and explaining the inscription on the 
plate. He told them that 'it was a matter of the greatest consequence, involv- 
ing the possession of their lauds and hunting grounds, and that, .lean Coenr 
and the French ought immediately to be expelled from the Ohio and Niagara.' 
In reply, the sachem said that 'he had heard with groat attention and surprise 
theeubstaneeof the "devilish writing "he had brought, and that, Col. Johnson's 
remarks were fully approved.' He promised that belts from each of the Five 
Nations should be sent from the Seneca's castle to the Indians at the Ohio, to 
warn and strengthen them against tho French encroachments in that direc- 
tion." On the 29th of January, 1751, Clinton sent a copy of this inscription 
to Gov. Hamilton, of Pennsylvania 

The French followed up this formal act of possession by laying out a line 
of military posts, on substantially the same line aa that pursued by the Celo 
ron expedition; but instead of crossing over to Lake Chautauqua, they kept 
on down to Presquo Isle (now Erie), where was a good harbor, where a fort 
was established, and thenco up to Le Boeuf (now Water ford), where another 
post was placed; thence down the Venango River (French Creek) to its month 
at Franklin, establishing Fort Venango there; thence by the Allegheny to 
Pittsburgh, where For) I > i i Quesne was seated, and so on down the Ohio. 

To counteract this activity of the French, the Ohio Company was char- 
tered, and a half million of acres was granted by the crown, to be selected 
mainly on the south side of the Ohio, between the Monongalia and Kanawha 
Rivers, and the condition made that settlements (100 families within seven 
years), protected by a fort, should he made. The company consisted of a 
number of Virginia and .Maryland gentlemen, of whom Lawrence Washington 
was one. and Thomas Banbury, of London. 

In 1752, a treaty was entered into with the Indians, securing tho right of 
occupancy, and twelve families, headed by ('apt. Gist, established themselves 
Monongalia, and subsequently commenced the erection of a fort, 
where the city of Pittsburgh now is. Apprised of this intrusion into the 
very hear! of the territory which they were claiming, the French built a fort 
at Le lioeuf. and strengthened the post at Franklin. 

rhese proceedings having been promptly reported to Lieut. Gov. Dinwid- 
die, of Virginia, where the greater number of the stockholders of tho Ohio 
Company resided, he determined to send an official communication — protesting 
against the forcible interference with their chartered rights, granted bv the 
crown of Britain, and pointing to the late treaties of peace entered into be- 
tween tl and French, whereby it was agreed thai each should respect 
the colonial possessions of the other— to the Commandant of the French, who 
had his headquarters at Fort Le Boeuf. fifteen miles inland from tho present 
site of the city of Erie. 


But who should be the messenger to execute this delicate aud responsible 
duty? It was winter, and the distance to be traversed was some 500 miles 
through an unbroken wilderness, cut by rugged mountain chains and deep and 
rapid streams. It was proposed to several, who declined, and was tonally 
accepted by George Washington, a youth barely twenty-one years old. On 
the last day of November, 1753, he bade adieu to civilization, and pushing on 
through the forest to the settlements on the Monongalia, where he was pined 
by Ca°pt. Gist, followed up the Allegheny to Fort Venango (now Franklin); 
thence up the Venango to its head-waters at Fort Le Boeuf, where he held 
formal conference with the French Commandant, St. Pierre. The French 
officer had been ordered to hold this territory on the score of the dis- 
covery of the Mississippi by La Salle, and he had no discretion but to execute 
his orders, and referred Washington to his superior, the Governor General of 
Canada Making careful notes of the location and strengtn of the post and 
those encountered on the way. the young embassador returned being twice 
fired at on his journey by hostile Indians, and near losing his life by being 
thrown into the freezing waters of the Allegheny. Upon his arrival, he made 
a full report of the embassage, which was widely published in this country 
and in England, and was doubtless the basis upon which action was predicted 
that eventuated in a long and sanguinary war, which finally resulted in the 
expulsion of the power of France from this continent. 

Satisfied that the French were determined to hold the territory upon the 
Ohio by force of arms, a body of 150 men, of which Washington was second 
in command, was sent to the support of the settlers. But the French, having 
the Allegheny River at flood-tide on which to move, and Washington, without 
means of transportation, having a rugged and mountainous country to over- 
come, the former first reached the point of destination. Contracoeur, the 
French commander, with 1,000 men and field pieces on a fleet of sixty boats and 
300 canoes, dropped down the Allegheny and easily seized the fort then being 
constructed by the Ohio Company at its mouth, and proceeded to erect there 
an elaborate work which he called Fort Du Quesne, alter the Governor Gen- 
eral Informed of this proceeding, Washington pushed forward, and finding 
that a detachment of the French was in his immediate neighborhood, he made 
a forced march by night, and coming upon them unawares ki led and captured 
the entire party save one. Ten of the French, including their commander, 
Jumonville, were killed, and twenty-one made prisoners. Col. Fry the com- 
mander of the Americans, died at Will's Creek, where the command devolved 
on Washington. Though re-enforcements had been dispatched from the sev- 
eral colonies in response to the urgent appeals of Washington, none reached 
him but one company of 100 men under Capt. Ma.kay from South Carolina 
Knowing that he was confronting a vastly superior force of the French well 
supplied with artillery, he threw up works at a point called the Great 
Meadows, which he characterizes as a "charming field for an encounter nam- 
ing his hastily built fortification Fort Necessity. Stung by the loss of then- 
leader the French came out in strong force and soon invested the place. Unfor- 
tunately one part of Washington's position was easily commanded by the artil- 
lery of the French, which they were not slow in taking advantage of. The ac- 
tion opened on the 3d of July, and was continued till late at night. A capit- 
ulation was proposed by the French commander, which Washington reluctantly 
accepted, seeing all hope of re-enforcements reaching him cut off, and on the 
4th of July marched out with honors of war and fell back to Fort Cumberland. 
Gov Hamilton had strongly recommended.before hostilities opened, that the 
Assembly should provide for defense and establish a line of block -houses along 


the frontier. But the Assembly, while willing to vote money tor baying pence 
from the Indians, and contributions t.. the British crown, from which protec- 
tion was claimed, was unwilling to contribute directly for oven defensive war 
(are. [n a single year, £8,000 were voted for Indian gratuities. The propria 
ton „,.,-, appealed to to aid in bearing this burden, lint, while they were 
willing to contribute liberally for defense, they would give Dothing for Indian 
gratuities. They sent to the colony cannon to the value of £400. 

In February, 1753, John Penn" grandson of the founder, eon of Richard, 
arrived in the oolony, and as a mark of respect was immediately chosen a mem- 
ber of the Council and made its President. In consequence of the defeat of 
A ashington al Fort Necessity, Gov. Hamilton convened the Assembly in extra 
session on the 0th of August, at which money was freely voted; but owing to 
the instructions given by the proprietors to their Deputy Governor not to sign 
any money bill that did not place the whole of the interest at their disposal, 
otion of the Assembly was abortive. 

The English and French nations made strenuous exertions to strengtnen 
their forcesln America for the campaigns sure to be undertaken in 1754 The 
French, by being under the supreme authority of one governing power, the 
nor General of Canada, were able to concentrate and bring all their 
p,,\ver of men and resource-, to bear at the threatened point with more celerity 
and certainty than the English, who were dependent upon colonies scattered 
along all theses board, and upon Legislatures penny-wise in voting money. 
Ti i remedy these inconveniences, the English Government recommended a con- 
grese of all the colonies, together with the Six Nations, for the purpose of con- 
cert me plans for efficient defense. This Congress met on the 19th of June, 
ITT. t. The first ever convened in America. The Representatives from Pennsyl- 
vania were John Penn and Richard Peters for the Council, and Isaac Norris 
and Benjamin Franklin for the Assembly. The influence of the powerful 
mind of Franklin was already beginning to be felt, he having been Clerk of 
the Pennsylvania Assembly Bince 1736, and since 1750 had been a member. 
Heartily sympathizing with the movers in the purposes of this Congress, he 
came to Albany with a scheme of union prepared, which, having boon pre- 
sented and debated, was, on the 10th of July, adopted substantially as it came 
from his hands It provided for the appointment of a President General by 
the Crown, and an Assembly of forty-eight members to be chosen by the sev- 
eral Colonial Assemblies. The plan was rejected by both parties in interest, 
the King considering the power vested in the representatives of the people too 
great and every oolony rejecting it because the President General was given 
•• an influence greater than appeared to them proper in a plan of government 
intended for freemen." 


Robert II. Morkis, 1754 56- William Df.nnv, 1756-59-jAMES Hamilton. 1759-63. 

FINDING himself in a false positiou by the repugnant instructions of the 
proprietors. Gov. Hamilton had given notice in 175:!, that, at theendoi 
twelve months from its reception, be would resign. Accordingly in October, 
175 1. he was succeeded bv Robert Hunter Morris, son o. Lewis Morris, ( hid 
Justice of New York and New Jersey, and Governor of New Jersey. The son 


was bred a lawyer, and was for twenty-six years Councilor, and twenty Chief 
Justice of New Jersey. The Assembly, at its first session, voted a money bill, 
for £40,000, but not having the proviso required by the proprietors, it was 
vetoed. Determined to push military operations, the British Government had 
called early in the year for 3,000 volunteers from Pennsylvania, with snbsis- 
tanee, camp equipage and transportation, and had sent two regiments of the 
line, under Gen. Braddock, from Cork, Ireland. Landing at Alexandria, 
Va., he marched to Frederick, Md., where, finding no supplies of 
transportation, he halted. The Assembly of Pennsylvania had voted to borrow 
£5,000, on its own account, for the use of the crown in prosecuting the cam- 
paign, and had sent Franklin, who was then Postmaster General for the colo- 
nies, to Braddock to aid in prosecuting the expedition. Finding that the army 
was stopped for lack of transportation, Franklin returned into Pennsylvania, 
and by his commanding influence soon secured the necessary wagons and beasts 
of burden. 

Braddock had formed extravagant plans for his campaign. He would 
march forward and reduce Fort Du Quesne, thence proceed against Fort Ni- 
agara, which having conquered he would close a season of triumphs by the 
capture of Fort Frontignace. But this is not the first time in warfare that 
the result of a campaign has failed to realize the promises of the manifesto. 
The orders brought by Braddock giving precedence of officers of the line over 
provincials gave offense, and Washington among others threw up his commis- 
sion; but enamored of the profession of arms, he accepted a position offered 
him by Braddock as Aide -de camp. Accustomed to the discipline of military 
establishments in old, long-settled countries, Braddock had little conception of 
making war in a wilderness with only Indian trails to move upon, and against 
wily savages. Washington had advised to push forward with pack horses, and, 
by rapidity of movement, forestall ample preparation. But Braddock had but 
one way of soldiering, and where roads did not exist for wagons he stopped to 
fell the forest and construct bridges over streams. The French, who were 
kept advised of every movement, made ample preparations to receive him. In 
the meantime, Washington fell sick; but intent on being up for the battle, he 
hastened forward as soon as sufficiently recovered, and only joined the army 
on the day before the fatal engagement. He had never seen much of the pride 
and circumstance of war, and when, on the morning of the 9th of July, the 
army of Braddock marched on across the Monongahela, with gay colors flying 
and martial music awakening the echoes of the forest, he was accustomed in 
after years to speak of it as the "most magnificent spectacle" that he had ever 
beheld. But the gay pageant was destined to be of short duration; for the 
army had only marched a little distance before it fell into an ambuscade skill- 
fully laid by the French and Indians, and the forest resounded with the un- 
earthly whoop of the Indians, and the continuous roar of musketry. The 
advance was checked and thrown into confusion by the French from their well- 
chosen position, and every tree upon the flanks of the long drawn out line con- 
cealed a murderous foe, who with unerring aim picked off the officers. A res- 
olute defense was made, and the battle raged with great fury for three hours; 
but the fire of the English was ineffectual because directed against an invisi- 
ble foe. Finally, the mounted officers having all fallen, killed or wounded, 
except Washington, being left without leaders, panic seized the survivors and 
"they ran," says Washington, "before the French and English like sheep be- 
fore dogs." Of 1,460, in Braddock's army, 456 were killed, and 421 wounded, 
a greater mortality, in proportion to the number engaged, than has ever oc- 
curred in the annals of modern warfare. Sir Peter Halkett was killed, and 

HI8T0BV OF PENN81 1.\ \m a 91 

Braddook mortal!] wounded and brought off the field only with the greatest 
difficulty. When Orme and Morris, the other aids, fell, Washington acted 
alone with the greatest gallantry. In writing to bis brother, he said: "I have 
been protected beyond all human probability or expectation; for 1 had four 
bullets throngh my coat, and two horses shot under me; yet I escapod unhurt. 
though death was leveling my companions on every sida" In after years, 
when Washington visited the Great Kanawha country, ho was approached by 
an Indian chieftain who Baid thai in thiB battle he had fired his rifle many 
times at Washington and had told his young men to do thosame; but when he 
saw that his bullets had no apparent effect, ho had bidden them to desist, be- 
lieving that the Great Spirit was protecting him. 

The panic among the survivors of the English carried them back upon the 
reserve, commanded by Gen. Dunbar, who seems himself to have been seized 
with it, and without attempting to renew the campaign and return to the en- 
oonnter, he joined in the flight which was not stayed until Fort Cumberland 
was reached. The French were anticipating a renewal of the struggle; but 
when they found that the English had tied leaving the frontier all unprotected, 
they left' no stone unturned in whetting the minds of the savages for the 
work of plunder and blood, and in organizing relentless bands to range at 
will along all the wide frontier. The Indians could not bo induced to pursue 
the retreating English, but fell to plundering the field. Nearly everything 
was lost, even to the camp chest of Braddook. The wounded General was 
taken back to the summit of Laurel Hill, where, four days after, he breathed 
his last He was buried in the middle of the road, and the army marched 
over his grave that it might not be discovered or molested by the natives 
The eajy victory, won chiefly by the savages, served to encourage them in 
their fell work, in which, when their passions were aroused, no known people 
on earth were less touched by pity. The unprotected settler in his wilder- 
ness homo was the easy prey of the torch and the scalping knife, and the burn- 
ing cabin lit up the somber forests by their continuous blaze, and the shrieks 
of women and children resounded from the Hudson to the far Potomac Be- 
fore the defeat of Braddock, there were 3,000 men capable of bearing arms 
west of the Susquehanna. In six months after, there were scarcely 100. 

Gov. Morns made an earnest appeal to the Assembly for money to ward off 
the impending enemy and protect the settlers, in response to which the As - 
semblv voted £50,000; bnt having no exemption of the proprietor's estates, 
ii W as rejected by the Governor, in accordance with his original instructions. 
ExpeditionsnndertakenagainBtNovaScotiaand at Crown Point were more fortu- 
nate than thai before DaQnesne,andthe Assembly voted £15,000 in bills of credit 
to aid in defraying the expense. The proprietors sent £5,000 as a gratuity, 
not as any part of expense that could of right be claimed of them. 

In this hour of extremity, the Indians for the most part showed themselves 
a treacherous race, ever ready to take up on the stronger side Even the Shaw- 

anese and Delawares, who had I n loudest in their protestations of friendship 

(Ot the English and readiness to tight for them, no sooner saw the French vic- 
torious than they gave ready ear to their advice to strike for the recovery of 
the lands which they had sold to the English. 

In this pressing emergency, while the Governor and Assembly were waging 
a fruitless war of words over money bills, the pen of Franklin was busy in in- 
fusing a wholesome sentiment in 'the minds of the people. In a pamphlet 
that he issued, which he put in the familiar form of a dialogue, heanswered the 

objections which had 1 D urged to a legalized militia, and willing to show 

his devotion by deeds as well as words, he accepted the command upon the 


frontier. By his exertions, a respectable force was raised, and though in the 
dead of winter, he commenced the erection of a line of forts and block-houses 
along the whole range of the Kittatinny Hills, from the Delaware to the Po- 
tomac, and had them completed and garrisoned with a body sufficient to with- 
stand any force not provided with artillery. In the spring, he turned over the 
command to Col. Clapham, and returning to Philadelphia took his seat in the 
Assembly. The Governor now declared war against the Indians, who had es- 
tablished their headquarters thirty miles above Harris' Ferry, on the Susque- 
hanna, and were busy in their work of robbery and devastation, having se- 
cured the greater portion of the crops of the previous season of the settlers 
whom they had killed or driven out. The peace party strongly objected to the 
course of the Governor, and voluntarily going among the Indians induced 
them to bury the hatchet. The Assembly which met in May, 1756, prepared a 
bill with the old clause for taxing the proprietors, as any other citizens, which 
the Governor was forbidden to approve by his instructions, "and the two 
parties were sharpening their wits for another wrangle over it," when Gov. 
Morris was superseded by William Denny, who arrived in the colony and as- 
sumed authority on the 20th of August, 1756. He was joyfully and cordially 
received, escorted through the streets by the regiments of Frauklin and Duche\ 
and royally feasted at the State House. 

But the promise of efficient legislation was broken by an exhibition of the 
new Governor's instructions, which provided that every bill for the emission of 
money must place the proceeds at the joint disposal of the Governor and As- 
sembly; paper currency could not be issued in excess of £40,000, nor could ex- 
isting issues be confirmed unless proprietary rents were paid in sterling 
money ; proprietary lands were permitted to be taxed which had been actually 
leased, provided that the taxes were paid out of the rents, but the tax could 
not become a lien upon the land. In the first Assembly, the contention be- 
came as acrimonious as ever. 

Previous to the departure of Gov. Morris, as a retaliatory act he had 
issued a proclamation against the hostile Indians, providing for the payment 
of bounties: For every male Indian enemy above twelve years old, who shall 
be taken prisoner and delivered at any forts, garrisoned by troops in pay 
of this province, or to any of the county towns to the keepers of the common 
jails there, the sum of one hundred and fifty Spanish dollars or pieces of eight; 
for the scalp of every male Indian above the age of twelve years, produced as 
evidence of their being killed, the sum of one hundred and thirty pieces of 
eight; for every female Indian taken prisoner and brought in as aforesaid, 
and for every male Indian under the age of twelve years, taken and brought 
in, one hundred and thirty pieces of eight; for the scalp of every Indian 
woman produced as evidence of their being killed, the sum of fifty pieces of 
eight." Liberal bounties were also offered for the delivering up of settlers who 
had been carried away captive. 

But the operation which had the most wholesome and pacifying effect upon 
the savages, and caused them to stop in their mad career and consider the 
chances of war and the punishment they were calling down upon their own 
heads, though executed under the rule of Gov. Denny, was planned and 
provided for, and was really a part of the aggressive and vigorous policy of 
Gov. Morris. In response* to the act of Assembly, providing for the calling 
out and organizing the militia, twenty-five companies were recruited, and had 
been stationed along the line of posts that had been established for the defense 
of the frontiers. At Kittanning, on the Allegheny River, the Indians had one 
of the largest of their towns in the State, and was a recruiting station and 

BISTORT OF h.wsyi.v LN1 \ 9S 

rallying \wm for Banding oul their murderous bands. The plan proposed and 
adopted by Gov. Morris, and approved and aooepted by Gov. Denny, 
was (" Bend ou1 a strong detachment from the militia (or the reduction of this 
stronghold Accordingly, in August, 1756, OoL Armstrong, with a force of 
three hundred nan, mades forced march, and, arriving anperoeived in the neigh 
borhood of the town, sent the main body by a wide detour from above, toconie 
,,, upon the river a fev, hundred yarda below. At 3 o'clock on the morning of 
the 7tb of September, the troops had gained their position undiscovered, ami 
at .lawn the attack was made. Shielded from view by the tall corn winch oov- 
wed all the Bats, the troops were able to reach inclose proximity to the cabins 
unobserved. Jacobs, the chief. Bounded the war whoop, and made a stout re- 
Bistanoe, keeping ap a rapid tiro from the loop holes in his cabin. Nol deair 
ing to push his advantage to the issue of no quarter, Armstrong called on the 
aavages to surrender; bul this tbej refused to do, declaring that they were 
1 would never be prisoners. Finding that they would not yield, and 
thai they were determined to sell their live- at the dearest rate, he gave orders 
to tire the huts, and the whole town was soon wrapt in names. As the heal 
began to reach the warriors, some sun-, while wrung with the death agonies; 
others broke for the river and were shot down as they tied. Jacobs, in attempt- 
ing to climb through a window, was killed. All calls for surrender were re 
ceived with derision, one declaring that he did not care for death, and i 
could kill four or live before he died. Gunpowder, small arms and valuable 
goods which had been distributed to them only the day before by the I i 
Fell into the hands of the victors. The triumph was complete, few if am 
escaping to tell the sad tale. Col. Armstrong's oeleritj of movement and 
well conceived and executed plan of action were publicly acknowledged, and 
he was voted a medal and r late by the city of Philadelphia. 

The finances of the colony, on account of the repeated failures of the 
monej bills, were in a deplorable condition. Military operations could not 
be carried on and rigorous campaigns prosecuted without ready money. \> 
cordingly, in the first meeting .f the Assembly after the arrival of the new 

iot, a bill was passed levying £100,000 on all property alike, real and 
personal, private and proprietary. This Gov. Denny vetoed. Seem- that 
nionev must be had, the Assembly' finally passed a bill exempting the proprie- 
tary estate-, but determined to las their grievances before the Crown. To 
this e,,d, two Commissioners were appointed, Isaac Nonas and Benjamin 
Franklin, to proceed to England and beg the interference of the royal Gov 
emment in their behalf. Failing health and business engagements of Norris 
prevented his acceptance, and Franklin proceeded alone. He had so often de- 
fended the Assembly in public and in drawing remonstrance, that the whole 

subject was at his fingers' ends. 

Military operations throughout the colonies, during the year 1757, con 

: under the command of the Karl of Loudoun were sluggish, and resulted 
only in disaster and di-grace. The Indians were active in 1'ennsylvauia, and 
kepi the settlers throughout nearly all the colonies in a continual ferment, 
hostile bands stealing in upon the defenseless inhabitants as they went to 
their plantings and sowings, and greatlj interfering with or prevontm 

the raising of the ordinary crops. In 1758, Loudoun was recalled, 

and Gen. Abercrombie was given chief command, with Wolfe, Amherst, ami 

ordinates. It was determined to direct operations simul- 

;sly upon three points— Fort Du Quesne, Louisburg and the forts upon 
the freat lakes. Gen. Forbes commanded the forces sent against Fort Du 
Quesne. With a detachment of royal troops, and militia from Pennsylvania 


and Virginia, under command of Cols. Bouquet and Washington, his column 
moved in July, 1758. The French were well ordered for receiving the attack, 
and the battle in front of the fort raged with great fury; but they were finally 
driven, and the fort, with its munitions, fell into the hands of the victors, and 
was garrisoned by 400 Pennsylvanians. Returning, Forbes placed his remain- 
ing forces in barracks at Lancaster. 

Franklin, upon his arrival in England, presented the grievances before the 
proprietors, and, that he might get his case before the royal advisers and the 
British public, wrote frequent articles for the press, and issued a pamphlet 
entitled " Historical Review of the Constitution and Government of Pennsyl- 
vania." The dispute was adroitly managed by Franklin before the Privy 
Council, and was finally decided substantially in the interest of the Assem- 
bly. It was provided that the proprietors' estates should be taxed, but that 
their located uncultivated lands should be assessed as low as the lowest uncul- 
tivated lands of the settlers, that bills issued by the Assembly should be re- 
ceivable in payment of quit rents, and that the Deputy Governor should have 
a voice in disposing of the revenues. Thus was a vexed question of loDg 
standing finally put to rest. So successfully had Franklin managed this con- 
troversy that the colonies of Massachusetts, Maryland and Georgia appointed 
him their agent in England. 

In October, 1759, James Hamilton was again appointed Governor, in place 
of Gov. Denny, who had by stress of circumstances transcended his instruc- 
tions. The British Government, considering that the colonies had borne more 
than their proportionate expense in carrying on the war against the French 
and Indians, voted £200,000 for five years, to be divided among the colonies, 
the share falling to Pennsylvania being £26,000. On the 25th of October, 
1760, George II died, and was succeeded by his grandson, George III. Early 
in 1762, war was declared between Great Britain and Spain, but was of short 
continuance, peace having been declared in November following, by which 
Spain and France relinquished to the English substantially the territory east 
of the Mississippi. The wise men of the various Indian nations inhabiting 
this wide territory viewed with concern this sudden expansion of English 
power, fearing that they would eventually be pushed from their hunting 
grounds and pleasant haunts by the rapidly multiplying pale faces. The In- 
dians have ever been noted for proceeding against an enemy secretly and 
treacherously. Believing that by concerted action the English might be cut 
off and utterly exterminated, a secret league was entered into by the Shawa- 
nese and the tribes dwelling along the Ohio River, under the leadership of a 
powerful chieftain, Pontiac, by which swift destruction was everywhere to be 
meted out to the white man upon an hour of an appointed day. The plan was 
thoroughly understood by the red men, and heartily entered into. The day 
dawned and the blow fell in May, 1763. The forts at Presque Isle, Le Boeuf. 
Venango, La Ray, St. Joseph's, Miamis, Onaethtanon, Sandusky and Michili- 
mackinack, all fell before the unanticipated attacks of tho savages who were 
making protestations of friendship, and the garrisons were put to the slaugh- 
ter. Fort Pitt (Du Quesne), Niagara and Detroit alone, of all this line of 
forts, held out. Pontiac iu person conducted the siege of Detroit, which he 
vigorously pushed from May until October, paying his warriors with promises 
written on bits of birch bark, which he subsequently religiously redeemed. It is 
an evidence of his gieat power that he could unite his people in so gen- 
eral and secretly kept a compact, and that in this siege of Detroit he was able 
to hold his warriors up to the work so long and so vigorously even after all hope 
of success must have reasonably been abandoned. The attack fell with great 



severity upon the Pennsylvania settlers, and thej continued to be driven in 
until Shippensbung, in Cumberland County, became the extreme outpost of 
civilization. The savages stole unawares upon the laborers in the fields, or 
came Btealthilj in at the midnigbl hour and Bpared aeither trembling age nor 
helpless infancy, firing houses, burns, crops ami even tiling «-. .inline* it>lo. 
The suffering of the frontiersmen in this fatal year can scarcely be conceived. 
Col. Armstrong with a hastily collected force advanced upon their towns 
and forts al Muncy and Great Island, which ho destroyed; but the IndiiuiH 
eseaped and withdrew before him. He sent a detachment under OoL Bouquet 
to the relief of Fori Pitt, which still held out, though closely invested by the 
dusky warriors. At Fori Ligonler, Bouquel halted and Bent forward thirty 
men, who stealthily pushed past the Indians under cover of night, and reached 
the fort, carrying intelligence that succor was- at hand. Discovering that a 
foroe was advancing upon them, the Indians turned upon the troops of Bou- 
quet, and before lie was aware that an enemy was near, he found himself sur- 
rounded and all means of escape apparently cut off. By u skillfully laid 
ambuscade, Bouquet, Bending a small detachment to steal away as if in retreat, 
induced the Indians to follow, and when stretched out in pursuit, the main 
bodj in concealment fell upon the unsuspecting savages, and routed them with 
immense slaughter, when he advanced to the relief of the fort unchecked. 

As we have already Been, the boundary line between Maryland and Penn- 
sylvania had lorn,' been in dispute, and had occasioned serious disturbances 
among the Bettlers in the lifetime of Penn, and repeatedly since. It was not 
definitely settled till L760, when a beginning was made of a final adjustment, 
though bo intricate were the conditions that the work was prosecuted tor seven 
years b] a large force of surveyors, axmen and pioneers. The charter of Lord 
Baltimore male the northern boundary of Maryland the 40th degree of lati- 
tude; but whether the beginning or end of the 10th was not specified. The 
charter of Penn, which was subsequent, made his southern boundary the 
B0of the 10th parallel. If, as Lord Baltimore claimed, his northern 
boundary was the end of the 10th, then the city of Philadelphia and all the 
settled parts of Pennsylvania would have been included in Maryland. If, as 
Penn claimed by express terms Of hi- charter, hi- southern line was the begin- 
I the 10th, then the city of Baltimore, and even a part of the District of 
Columbia, including nearly the whole of Maryland would have been swal- 
lowed up by Pennsylvania, ' It was e\ ident to the royal Council that neither 
claim could' he rightfully allowed, and nence resort was had to compromise. 
Penn insisted upon free communication with the open ocean l>y the 

Delaware Bay. Accordingly, it wasdecided thai beginningal Cape Henlopen, 
which by mistake in m writing the nap- was tifteen miles below the present 
location", opposite Cape May, a line should be run due west to a point half way 
between this cape and the shore of Chesapeake Bay; from this point "aline 
was to be run northerly in such direction that it Bhould be tangent on the west 
side to a circle with a radius of twelve miles, whose center was the center of 
the court house at New Castle. From the exact tangent point, a lino was to be 
run due north until it should reach a point tifteen miles south on the parallel 
Of latitude of the most southern point in the boundary of the city of Phila- 
delphia, and this point when accurately found by horizontal measurement, was 
t,, he the corner hound between Maryland and Pennsylvania, and subsequently, 
when Delaware was set off from Pennsylvania, was the boundary of the three 
States. From this bound a line was to be run due west live degrees of longi 
hide from the Delaware, which was to be the western limit of Pennsylvania, 
and the line thus ascertained was to mark the division between Maryland and 


Pennsylvania, and forever settle the vexed question. If the due north line 
should cut any part of the circle about New Castle, the slice so cut should be- 
long to New Castle. Such a segment was cut. This plan of settlement was 
entered into on the 10th of May, 1732, between Thomas and Richard, sons of 
William Penn, on the one part, and Charles, Lord Baltimore, great grandson 
of the patentee. But tho actual marking of the boundaries was still deferred, 
and as the settlers were taking out patents for their lands, it was necessary 
that it should be definitely known in which State the lands lay. Accordingly, 
in 1739, in obedience to a decree in Council, a temporary line was run upon a 
new basis, which now often appears in litigations to plague the brain of the 

" Commissioners were again appointed in 1751, who made a few of the 
measurements, but owing to objections raised on the part of Maryland, the 
work was abandoned. Finally, the proprietors, Thomas and Kichard Penn 
and Frederic, Lord Baltimore, entered into an agreement for the executing of 
the survey, and John Lukens and Archibald McLean on the part o£ the Penns, 
and Thomas Garnett and Jonathan Hall on the part of Lord Baltimore, were 
appointed with a suitable corps of assistants to lay off the lines. After these 
surveyors had been three years at work, the proprietors in England, thinking 
that there was not enough energy and practical and scientific knowledge mani- 
fested by these surveyors, appointed Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, two 
mathematicians and surveyors, to proceed to America and take charge of the 
work They brought with them the most perfect and best constructed instru- 
ments known to science, arriving in Philadelphia on tho 15th of November, 
1763, and, assisted by some of the old surveyors, entered upon their work. By 
the 4th of June, 1766, they had reached the summit of the Little Allegheny, 
when the Indians began to be troublesome. They looked with an evil eye on 
the mathematical and astronomical instruments, and felt a secret dread and 
fear of the consequences of the frequent and long continued peering into the 
heavens. The Six Nations were understood to be inimical to the further prog- 
ress of the survey. But through the influence of Sir William Johnson a 
treaty was concluded, providing for the prosecution of the work unmolested, 
and a number of chieftains were sent to accompany the surveying party. 
Mason and Dixon now had with them thirty surveyors, fifteen asmen, and fif- 
teen Indians of consequence. Again the attitude of the Indians gave cause of 
fear and on the 29th of September, twenty-six of the surveyors abandoned the 
expedition and returned to Philadelphia. Having reached a point 24-1 miles 
from the Delaware, and within thirty-six miles of the western limit of the 
State, in the bottom of a deep, dark valley, they came upon a well-worn 
Indian path, and here the Indians gave notice that it was the will of the Six 
Nations that this survey proceed no further. There was no questioning this 
authority, and no means at command for resisting, and accordingly the party 
broke up and returned to Philadelphia. And this was the end of (he labors of 
Mason and Dixon iq>on this boundary. From the fact that this was subse- 
quently the mark of division between the Free and Slave States, Mason and 
Dixon's line became familiar in American politics. The line was marked by 
stones which were quarried and engraved in England, on one side having the 
arms of Penn, and on the opposite those of Lord Baltimore. These stones 
were firmly set every five miles. At the end of each intermediate mile a 
smaller stone was placed, having on one side engraved the letter P., and on the 
opposite side the letter M. The remainder of the line was finished and marked 
in 1782-84 by other survevors. A vista was cut through the forest eight yards in 
width tho whole distance,' which seemed in looking back through it to come to a 


poml at the distance of two miles. In 1849, the stone at the northeast corner 
of Maryland having been removed, a resurvev of the line was ordered, and 
surveyors were appointed l>y the throe States of Pennsylvania, Delaware and 
Maryland, who called to their aid Col. James D, Graham. Some few errors 
ware discovered in the old survey, but in the main it was found to be accurate. 
John Penn, grandson of the founder, and son of Richard, had come to the 
oolonj in L753, and, having acted as President of the Council, was. in I7r>:i, 
commissioned Governor in plaoe of Hamilton The conspiracy of Pontiao, 
though abortive in the results contemplated, left the minds of tin* Indians in 
dangerous state. The more resolute, who had entered heartily into the 
of their leader, still felt, that his purposes wore patriotic, and hence 
Bought, by every means possible, to ravage and destroy the Kuglish settlements. 
The Moravian Indians at N'ain and Wichetunk, though regarded as friendly, 
ware suspected of indirectly aiding in the savage warfare by trading firearms 
and ammunition. They were accordingly removed to Philadelphia that fchej 
might be out of the way of temptation. At the old Indian town of Conestoga 
there lived some score of natives. Many heartless murders had been com- 
mitted along the frontier, and the perpetrators had been traced to this Con- 
estogn town; and while the ('oiiestoga baud were not known to be impli 
Dated in these outrages, their town was regarded as the lurking place of rovin" 
wh.. wne. For protection, the settlers in the neighboring districts oi 
Paxton and Donegal, had organized a band known as thePaxton boys. Earnest 
requests were made by Rev. John Elder and John Harris to the Government 
to remove this baud at Conestoga ; but as nothing was done, and fearful 
depredations and slaughter continued, a party of these Paxton rangers attacked 
,1 "■ town an I put the savages to the sword. Some few escaped, among them a 
known bloodthirsty savage, who were taken into the jail at Lancaster for pro 
tection ; but the rangers, following them, overpowered tho jailer, and breaking 
into the jail murdered the fugitives. Intense excitement was occasioned bj 
itbreak, and Uov. Penn issued his proclamation offering rewards for the 
apprehension of the perpetrators. Some few were taken ; but so excellent, was 
their character and standing, and such were the provocations, that no convic- 
tions followed. Apprehensions for the safety of the Moravian Indians in 
the Government to remove them to Province Island, and, feeling insecurs 
there, thej asked to be sent to England For safety, they were sent to New 
Fork, but the Governor of that province refused them permission to laud, as 
did also the Governor of New Jersey, and they were brought back to Philadel- 
phia and put in barracks under strong guard. ThePaxton boys, in a consider- 
able body, were at that time at Germantown interceding for their brethren, 
who were then in durance and threatened with trial. Franklin was sent out 
to confer with them on the part of the Government. In defending their course, 
they said : " Whilst more than a thousand families, reduced to extreme dis- 
luring the last and present war, by the attacks of skulking parties of 
Indians upon the frontier, were destitute, and were s utlered by tho public to 
depend on private charity, a hundred and twenty of the perpetrators of the 
most horrid barbarities were supported In the province, and protected from 
the fury of the brave relatives of the murdered." Influenced by the persua 
of Franklin, they consented to return to their homes, leaving onlj 
Matthew Smith and James Gibson to represent them before the courts. 



John Penn, 1763-71-James Hamilton, 1771-Richard Penn, 1771-73-John 
Penn, 1773-76. 

A DIFFERENCE having arisen between the Governor and Assembly on the 
vexed question of levying money, the Assembly passed a series of reso- 
lutions advodting that the « powers of government ought to be separa ed f rom 
he power attending the immense proprietary property, and lodged in he 
hands of the King." After an interval of fifty days-that time for reflection 
anf discussion might be given-the Assembly again convened and ad^tod. 
petition praying the King to assume the direct government of the province 
rhouTthis y policy was strongly opposed by some of the ablest members, as 
SafNorris^nd'john Dickinson^ The Quaker element was -generally m 

'"rin bataXs still continuing along the frontier, Go. Penn decla^d 
war against the Shawanese and Delaware? m July, 17 65 and sen ^Col. Bouquet 
with a body of Pennsylvania troops against them. By the 3d of October lie 
had come up to the Muskingum, in the heart of the most thickly peopled 
Indianterritory. So rapid had been the movement of Bouquet that the savages 
nad no intelSnce of his advance until he was upon them with no preparations 
for defense They sued for peace, and a treaty was entersd into by which the 
savates agreed to abstain from further hostilities until a general treaty could 
be conclucfed with Sir William Johnson, the general agent for Indian affairs 
for all the colonies, and to deliver up all English captives who had been carried 
away duriL the years of trouble. Two hundred and eight were quickly 
glthered TpVnd brought in, and many others were to follow, who were now 
widely scattered. The* relatives of many of these captives Lad proceeded with 
the train of Bouquet, intent on reclaiming those who had been dear to them. 
Some were joyfuUy received, while others who had been borne off m youth had 
bec^mrattached to their captors, and force was necessary to bring them away. 
" On the reten of the army, some of the Indians obtained leave to accompany 
their former captives to Fort Pitt, and employed themselves in hunting and 
carf vino- provisions for them on the road." 

Thereat struggle for the independence of the colonies of the British 
crown w£ now etose at hand, and the first sounds of the controversy were be^ 
e nnhJ to be heard. Sir William Keith, that enterprising Governor whose 
nead kerned to have been full of new projects, as early as 1/39 had proposed 
to lay a uniform tax on stamped paper in all the colonies, to realize funds for 
he common defense. Acting upon this hint, Grenville, the British Minister 
LotifiedThe cConists in 1763° of his purpose to impose such a tax. Against 
This they remonstrated. Instead of this, a tax on imports to be paid m com, 
was adopted. This was even more distasteful. The Assembly of Rhode 
Mand in October, 1765, submitted a paper to all the colonial assemblies, with 
a view to uniting in a common petition to the King against parliamentary 
taxation This was favorably acted on by the Assembly of Pennsylvania, and 
FrankHn was appointed .gent to -present their cause before he British Pa. 
liament The Stamp Act had been passed on the 22d of March 17bo. Its 
passage excited brjc opposition, and a resolution, asserting that the Colonial 


Assemblies had the exolusive righl bo levj taxes, was passed by the Virginia 

Assembly, and oonoarred in by all the others. The Massachusetts Assembly 

I a meeting of delegates in Now York on tho second Tuesday of Ootober, 

far up. 'ii the subject. 'I'll.' Pennsylvania Assembly adopted the 

soggestion, and appointed Messrs. Pox, Morton, Bryan and Dickenson as dole- 
i i aooording to the call and adopted a respectful pe- 

King, and a memorial to Parliament, which were signed by all 
the members and forwarded tor presentation by the Colonial Agents in En- 
glaud The Stamp Lei was to o into effect on the 1st of November. On the 
Inst day of October, the newspapers were dressed in mourning, and suspended 
publication. The publishers agreed aoi to use the stamped paper. The 
people ie mind, determined to dress in homespun, resolved not to 

me imported goods, and, to stimulate the production of wool the colonists cov- 
enanted not to eal lamb for tie- space of one year. The result, of tin 

u felt by British manufacturers who became clamorous for repeal of 
the obnoxious measures, and it was accordingly repealed on tho 18th of March, 

Determined in some form to draw a revenue from the colonies, an act was 
• >7, to la] a duu on tea, paper, printers' colors, and glass. The As- 
sembly of Pennsylvania passed a resolution on the 20th of February. 1768, 
instruct i no; its agent in London to urge its repeal, and at the session in May 

I and entered upon its minutes a circular letter from the Massachusetts 

.y setting forth the grounds on which objection to the act should be 
urged. This circular occasioned hostile feeling among the ministry, and the 

iy for foreign affairs wrote to Gov. Penn to urge the Assembly to 
take QO notice of it; but if they approved its sentiments, to prorogue their 
Bittings. This letter w;is transmitted to the Assembly, aod soon after one 
from the Virginia Assembly was presented, urging union of all the colonies 
in opposing the Beveral schemes of taxation. This recommendation was 

1. and committees appointed to draw a petition to the King and to each 

oi the Houses of Parliament To lead public, sentiment, and have it. well 

Led in the arguments used againsl taxation, John Dickinson, one of the 

ablest of the Pennsylvania legislators at this time, published a number of 

articles purporting to come from a plain farmer, under the title of the Farmer's 

which became popular, the idea that they were the work of one in 

life, helping to swell the tide of popularity. They were republished 
in all the colonies, and exerted a commanding influence Alarmed at the 
unanimity of feeling against the proposed schemes, and supposing that it was 
the amount of the tax that gave offense, Parliament reduced the rate in lTti'.t 
to one sixth of the original sum, and in 1770 abolished it altogether, except 
three pence a pound on tea But it was tho principle, and not the amount 
that was objected to, and at the next session of the Assembly in Pennsvlvania, 
their agent in London was directed to urge its repeal altogether 

It would seem incredible that the colony of Connecticut should lay claim 
to any part of the territor] of Pennsylvania, but so it was. The New En- 
gland charters gave limitless extent westward even to the shores of the Pacific 
( >eeau. and south to the northern limits of tho tract ceded to Lord Baltimore — 
the territory between tho 40th and 46th degrees of north latitude, and from 
ocean to ocean. To encroach upon N'.w S"ork with its teaming popu 
lation was not calculated to tempt the enterprise of the settler; but 
the rich virgin soil, and agreeable climate of the wide Wyoming Val 
ley. as yet unappropriated, was likely to attract the eye of the explorer. 
Accordingly, at the general conference with the Indians held at Albany 


• 1'™ fv,„ Connecticut delegates made a purchase of a large tract in 

pit, wto. w», kept w, whieh «„!« » "Jt Sir d SrenS ta'^ 

jNorinuuiuei , h - h h n d t hls assis tance, was unable to 

Lt for tLm^lv^Tnd were bringing rapidly under cultivation. To there- 
out foi themseive <m Tru mbull responded that the Susquehanna Com- 

monstrancesof Gov^Penn^ liiunDu P the cbarter of 

r^STS S| a^d^dThaT L question be submitted I to . eonv 
tne riyniouuu v-. J> t- jt statement was submitted to 

ii:tnX^::^£ sL^Lt £*,** an n^*- , >— 

Council ie Lonao y September, 1775, the matter was submitted to the 

CoTnent C ngZ ' anJa cluiittee' of that body to whom it was referred 
renorted in favor of the Connecticut claim, apportioning a trac .out of the 
ve?v bote s of Pennsylvania nearly as large as the whole State of Connec tiout 
Thfs acTfon was promptly rejected by the Assembly of Pennsylvania and a 
final decision was P not reached until 1802, when Congress decided in favor of 

^^^SFSJSSZ.™'* 1771, whereupon Gov. John 
Penn eturnedTo England, leaving the President ^^^^^^ 
il+rm at the head of the Government. John Penn, eldest son of Richard, sue 
ceeded t to , JJoprietanr interests of his father, which he held ^^junction 
Tth his uncle P Thomas, and in October of the same year, Richard, the second 
with his uncie, x V v „ rnor He uel a the office but about two years, and 

Z^ZZ^Zt^Zr^elt^ot the people, and Lso much arched 
was he to the popular cause, that upon his return to England, in 1775, he wa* 
^trusted ^ by Congress with the last petition of the colonies ever presented to 
iht Kin- In August, 1773, John Penn returned with the commission of 
Govemof superstdhig his brother Richard. Soon after his arrival the Gov- 
Z Z vfwinia Lord Dunmore, issued his proclamation, laying claim to a 
6 vast terrltog n to Monongalia Valley, including the site of the present 
citvo P tsbur-h, and upon the withdrawal of the British gamson, one Con- 
noL had laten potion of it in the name of Virginia. Gov. Penn issued a 
counter^proclamalioa, calling on all good citizens withm the borders of Penn- 


Hvlvania, to preserve their allegiance to his Glovernment, seized and imprisoned 
Oonnolly, and sen) ('• immissioners to Virginia to effeol an amicable settlement. 
These, Dnnmore refosed t > bear, ami was preparing to assert Lis authority by 
1 Kiucil refused to vote him uonej fur this purpose. 

To encourage the sale of tea in the colonies, an. I establish the principle of 
taxation, the export duty was rem >ved. The colonies took the alarm. At a 
public meeting called iu Philadelphia to consider the subjoct, on the 18th of 
olutions were adopted in which it was declared : " That the 
disposal of their own property is the inherent right of freemen; that there can 
be no property in that which another can, of right, take from us without our 
consent; that the claim of Parliament to tax America, is, in other words, a claim 
of right to levy contributions on us at pleasure.'' The East India Company 
now made preparations for sending large importations of tea into the colonies. 
The ships destined for Philadelphia and Now York, on approaching port, and 
being advised of the exasperated state of public feeling, returned to England 
« iUi their cargoes. Those sent to Boston came into the harbor; but at night a 
party disguised as Mohawk Indians boarded the vessels, and breaking open 
the packages, emptied 300 chests into the sea. The ministry, on being apprised 
of this act, closed the port of Boston, and subverted the colonipl charter. 
Early in the year, committees of correspondence had been established in all 
the colonies, by means of which the temper and feeling in each was well un- 
derstood by the others, and concert of action was secured. The hard condi • 
tions imposed on the town of Boston and the colony of Massachusetts Bay, 
aroused the sympathy of all; for, they argued, we know not how soon the heavy 
hand of oppression may be felt by any of us. Philadelphia declared at a pub- 
lic meeting that the people of Pennsylvania would continue firmly to adhere 
to the cause of American liberty, and urged the calling of a Congress of dele- 
gates to consider the general interests. 

At a meetiug held in Philadelphia on the 18th of June, 1774, at which 
nearly 8,000 people were convened, it was decided that a Continental Congress 
ought to be held, and appointed a committee of correspondence to communi- 
cate with similar oommittees in the Beveral counties of Pennsylvania and in the 
several colonies. On the 15th of July, 1774, delegates from all the counties, 
summoned by this committee, assembled in Philadelphia, and declared that 
there existed an absolute necessity for a Colonial Congress. They accordingly 
recommended that the Assembly appoint delegates to such a Congress to 
represent Pennsylvania, and Joseph Calloway, Samuel Rhoads, George Ross, 
Edward Biddle, John Dickinson, Charles Humphries and Thomas Mifflin were 

On the 4th of Septemoer, 1774, the first Continental Congress assembled in 

lelphia Peyton Randolph, of Virginia, was called to presido, and 

s Thomson, of Pennsylvania, was appointed Secretary. It was resolved 

that no more goods be imported from England, and that unless a pacification 

footed previously, no more Colonial produce of the soil be exported 

thith.r after September 10, 1775. A declaration of rights was adopted, and 

addresses to the King, the people of Great Britain, and of British America 

were agreed to, after which the Congress adjourned to meet again on the 10th 

of May, 1775. 

In January, 1775, another meeting of the county delegates was held in 
Philadelphia, at which the action of the Colonial Congress was approved, and 
while a restoration of harmony with the mother country was desired, yet if 
the arbitiary acts of Parliament were persisted in, they would at every hazard 
defend the " rights and liberties of America." The delegates appointed to 


represent the colony in the Second Congress were Mifflin, Humphries, Biddle, 
Dickinson, Morton, Franklin, Wilson and Willing. 

The government of Great Britain had determined with a strong hand to 
compel obedience to its behests. On the 19th of April, 1775, was fought the 
battle of Lexington, and the crimson fountain was opened. That blow was 
felt alike through all the colonies. The cause of one was the cause of all. 
A public meeting was held in Philadelphia, at which it was resolved to organize 
military companies in all the counties. The Assembly heartily seconded thete 
views, and engaged to provide for the pay of the militia while in service 
The Second Congress, which met in May, provided for organizing a continental 
army, fixing the quota for Pennsylvania at 4,300 men. The Assembly adopted 
the recommendation of Congress, provided for arming, disciplining and pay- 
ing the militia, recommended the organizing minutemen for service in an 
emergency, made appropriations for the defense of the city, and offered a pre- 
mium on the production of salt peter. Complications hourly thickened. Ticon- 
deroga was captured on the 10th of May, and the battle of Bunker Hill was 
fouo-ht on the 17th of June. On the 15th of June, George Washington was 
appointed Commander-in-chief of the Contiuental Army, supported by four 
Major Generals and eight Brigadiers. 

The royal Governors were now an incumbrance greatly in the way of the 
popular movement, as were also the Assemblies where they refused to represent 
the popular will. Accordingly, Congress recommended that the several col- 
onies should adopt such government as should " best conduce to the happiness 
and safety of their constituents in particular and America in general." This 
meant that each colony should set up a government for itself independent of 
the Crown. Accordingly, a public meeting was held in Philadelphia, at 
which it was resolved that the present Assembly is " not competent to the pres- 
ent exigencies of affairs," and that a new form of government ought to be 
adopted as recommended by Congress. The city committee of correspondence 
called on the county committees to secure the election of delegates to a colonial 
meeting for the purpose of considering this subject. On the 18th of June, 
the meeting was held in Philadelphia, and was organized by electing Thomas 
McKean President. It resolved to call a convention to frame a new con- 
stitution, provided the legal forms to be observed, and issued an address to 
the people. 

Having thus by frequent argumentation grown familiar with the declara- 
tion of the inherent rights of every citizen, and with flatly declaring to the 
government of Great Britain that it had no right to pursue this policy or that, 
and the several States having been recommended to absolve themselves from 
allegience to the royal governments, and set up independent colonial govern- 
ments of their own, it was a natural inference, and but a step further, to de- 
clare the colonies entirely independent of the British Government, and to or- 
ganize for themselves a general continental government to hold the place of King 
and Parliament. The idea of independence had been seriously proposed, and 
several Colonial Assemblies had passed resolutions strongly recommending it. 
And yet there were those of age and experience who had supported independ- 
ent principles in the stages of argumentation, before action was demanded, 
when they approached the brink of the fatal chasm, and had to decide 
whether to take the leap, hesitated. There were those in the Assembly of 
Pennsylvania who were reluctant to advise independence; but the majority 
voted to recommend its delegates to unite with the other colonies for the com- 
mon good. The convention which had provided for holding a meeting of del- 
egates to frame a new constitution, voted in favor of independence, and au- 
thorized the raising of 6,000 militia. 

HIST0R1 "i i'i SNS1 1\ ama. lOi 

On the 7th of June, lTTti. Richard Benry Leo, of Virginia, introduoed iu 
th.a, "ili>' United Colonies are, and of right ought to 
be, tree and independent States, and that all political connection between 
them and the State of Great Britain in, and ought to be, totally dissolved." 
It was impossible to mistake or misinterpret the meaning of this language 
Th.' issue was fairly made up. It was warmly discussed. John Dickinson, 
one }f the Pennsylvania delegates, and one who had been foremost in spoak- 

ing and writing on the popular Bide, was not ready to cut oil' all ln>| f n>c 

onoiliation, and depioted tho disorganized condition in which the colonies 
would be left if the power and protection of Britain were thus suddenly re- 
moved. The vote upon the resolution was taken on the 2d of July, and re- 
sulted in the affirmative vote of all the States except Pennsylvania aid 
Delaware, the delegates from those States being divided A committee con- 
sisting of Adams, Franklin. Jefferson, Livingston and Sherman had been, some 
time previous, appointed to draw a formal statement of tho Declaration, and 
the reasons "out of a decent respect to tho opinions of mankind," which led 
to so important an act. The work was intrusted to a sub-committee consisting ol 
Adams and Jefferson, and its composition was the work of Mr. Jefferson, though 
manvof the ideas, and even tho forms of expression, had been used again and 
■gain in the previous resolutions and pronunciamentoes of the Colonial Assem- 
blies and public meetings. It had hern reported on the 2Nth of June, and was 
sharply considered in all its parts, many verbal alterations having been made in 
the committee of five; but after the passage of the preliminary resolution, the 
result was a foregone conclusion, and on tho 4th of July it was finally adopted 
and proclaimed to the world. Of the Pennsylvania delegation, Franklin, 
Wilson and Morton voted for it, and Willing and Humphrey against, Dickin- 
son being absent. The colonial convention of Pennsylvania, boing in session 
at the time, on receiving intelligence that a majority of its delegates in Con- 
gress had voted against the preliminary resolution, named a new delegation, 
omitting tho names of Dickinson, Willing and Humphrey, and adding othert 
which made it thus constituted — Franklin, Wilson, Morton, Morris, Clymer, 
Smith, Taylor and Boss. An engrossed copy of the Declaration was made, 
which was signed by all the members on the 'id of August following, on 
which are found the names from Pennsylvania above recited. 

I he convention for framing a new constitution for tho colony met on the 
loth of July, and was organized by electing Franklin President, and on the 
28th of September completed its labors, having framed a now organic law 
and made all necessary provisions tor putting it into operation. In the mean- 
time the old proprietary Assembly adjourned on the 14th of June to the 26th 
Of August But a quorum failed to appear, and an adjournment was had to 
the 23d of September, when some routine business was attended to, chiefly 
providing for the payment of salaries and necessary lulls, and on the 28th of 
September, after a stormy existence of nearly a century, this Assembly, the 
creature of Penn, adjourned never to meet again. With the ending of tho As 
semblv ended the power of Gov. Penn. It is a singular circumstance, much 
noted by the believers in signs, that on the day of his arrival in America, 
which was Sunday, the earth in that locality was rocked by an earthquake, 
which was interpreted as an evil omen to his administration. He married tho 
daughter of William Allen, Chief Justice of the colony, and, though at times 
falling under suspicion of favoring the royal cause, yet, as was believed, not 
with reason, he remained a quiet spectator of the great struggle, living at his 
country seat in Bucks County, when; he died in February, 1795. 

Tho titles of the proprietors to landed estates weresuspended by the action 


of the convention, and on the 27th of November, 1779, the Legislature passed 
an act vesting these estates in the commonwealth, but paying .he proprietors a 
fatuity of £130,000, " in remembrance of the enterprising spirit or me 
Founder " This act did not touch the private estates of the proprietors, nor 
the tenths of manors. The British Government, in 1790, in consideration o 
the fact that it had been unable to vindicate its authority over the colony, and 
afford protection to the proprietors in the enjoyment of their chartered rights, 
voted an annuity of £4,000 to the heirs and descendants of Penn. This annuity 
has been regularly paid to the present time, 1884. 


Thomas Whakton Jr., 1777-78— George Bryan, 1778— Joseph Reed, 1778-81— 
William Moore1781-82-John Dickinson, 1783-85-Benjamin Franklin. 

THE convention which framed the constitution appointed a Committee of 
Safety, consisting of twenty-five members, to whom was intrusted the 
government of the colony until the proposed constitution shoulu be framed and 
put in operation. Thomas Rittenhouse was chosen President of this body, 
who was consequently in effect Governor. The new constitution, which was 
unanimously adopted on the 28th of September, was to take eftect from its 
passage. It provided for an Assembly to be elected annually; a Supreme Ex- 
ecutive Council of twelve members to be elected for a term of three years; As- 
semblymen to be eligible but four years out of seven, and Councilmen but 
one term in seven years. Members of Congress were chosen by the Assembly. 
The constitution could not be changed for seven years. It provided for the 
election of censors every seven years, who were to decide whether there was 
a demand for its revision. If so, they were to call a convention for the pur- 
pose. On the 6th of August, 1776, Thomas Wharton, Jr., was chosen Presi- 
dent of the Council of Safety. 

The struggle with the parent country was now fully inaugurated. The 
British Parliament had declared the colonists rebels, had voted a force of 
55,000 men, and in addition had hired 17.000 Hessian soldiers, to subdue them. 
The Congress on its part had declared the objects for which arms had been 
taken up, and had issued bills of credit to the amount of $6,000,000. Par- 
liament had resolved upon a vigorous campaign, to strike heavy and rapid 
blows, and quickly end the war. The first campaign had been conducted in 
Massachusetts, and by the efficient, conduct of Washington, Gen. Howe, the 
leader of the British, was compelled to capitulate and withdraw to Halifax in 
March, 1776. On the 28th of June, Sir Henry Clinton, with a Btrong detach- 
ment, in conjunction with Sir Peter Parker of the navy, made a combined 
land and naval attack upon the defenses of Charleston Harbor, where he was 
met bv Gen. William Moultrie, with the Carolina Militia, and after a severe 
battle^ in which the British fleet was roughly handled, Clinton withdrew and 
returned to New York, whither the main body of the British Army, under Gen. 
Howe, had come, and where Admiral Lord Howe, with a large fleet directly 
from England, joined them. To this formidable power led by the best talent 
in the British Army, Washington could muster no adequate force to oppose, 
and he was obliged to withdraw from Long Island, from New York, from 


ilirlam, fnmi \Vlut>> Plains, to cross into Now Jersey, and Munition position 

after position, until he bed reaohed the right bank of the Delaware on Penn- 

Hvlvunis il v heavy detaohmenl under Oornwallis followed, and would 

rare in pursuit, but advised to a cautious policy bj 

Sowe, he waited for ice to form on the water- of the Delaware before passing 

over. The fall of Philadelphia now seemed imminent Washington 

Baffioieni toro the whole power of the British Army. On the 2d of 

December, the Supreme Council ordered all places of business in the city to 

its tn be dismissed, ami advised preparation for removing 

oen and children and valuables. On the 12th, the Congress which was 

ion here adjourned to meet in Baltimore, taking with them all papers 

and public records, and leaving a committee, of which Kobert Morris was 

Chairman, to act in conjunction with Washington for the safety of the place. 

Gen. Putnam was dispatched on the same day wilh a detachment of soldiers 

to take command in the cit] 

In this emergency the Council issued a stirring address: "If you wish 
t i live in freedom, and are determined to maintain that best boon of heaven, 
yon have no time to deliberate A manly resistance will secure every bless- 
inactivity and sloth will bring horror and destruction. " * * May 
heaven, which has bestowed the blessings of liberty upon you, awaken you to 
a proper Bense of your danger and arouse that manly spirit of virtuous resolu- 
tion which has ever bidden defiance to the efforts of tyranny. May you ever 
have the glorious prize of liberty in view, and bear with a becoming fortitude 
the fatigues and severities of a winter campaign. That, and that only, will 
you to the superlative distinction of being deemed, under God, the 
deliverers of your country." Such were the arguments which our fathers 
made use of in conducting the struggle against the British Empire. 

Washington, who had, from the opening of the campaign before New 
York, been obliged for the most part to act upon the defensive, formed the 
plan to suddenly turn upon his pursuers and offer battle. Accordingly, on 
the night of the 25th of December, taking a picked body of men, he moved up 
several miles to Taylorsville, where he crossed the river, though at flood tide 
and tilled with floating ice, and moving down to Trenton, where a detachment 
of the British Army was posted, made a bold and vigorous attack. Taken by 
Bnrprise, though now after sunrise, the battle was soon decided in favor of 
Hermans. Some fifty of the enemy were slain and over a thousand 
taken prisoners, with quantities of arms, ammunition and stores captured. A 
triumphal entry was made at Philadelphia, when the prisoners and the spoils 
of war moved through the streets under guard of the victorious troops, and 
I away to the prison camp at Lancaster. Washington, who was 
smarting under a forced inactivity, by reason of pauoitj of numbers and lack 

of arms and material, and who had 1 n forced constantly to retire before a 

defiant foe, now took courage. His name was upon even tongue, and foreign 
Governments were disposed to give the States a fair chance in their struggle 
: ■■ nationality. The lukowarm were encouraged to enlist under the banner of 
mi. It had great strategic' value. The British had intended to push 
;' irward and occupy Philadelphia at once, which, being now virtually th 
il d of the new nat"ion. had it been captured al tins juncture, would have given 
the occasion for claiming a triumphal ending of the war. But tl 

j ined by a detachment small in numbers yel great in cour- 
ier of a powerful and well appointed army to give up 
all intention of attempting to capture the Pennsylvania metropolis in this 
campaign, and retiring into winter cantonments upon tho Raritan to await 


the settled weather of the spring for an entirely new cast of operations. 
Washington, emboldened by his success, led all his forces into New Jersey 
and pushing past Trenton, where Cornwallis, the royal leader, had brought 
his main body by a forced march, under cover of darkness, attacked the 
British reserves at Princeton. But now the enemy had become wary and vig- 
ilant and, summoned by the booming of cannon, Cornwallis hastened back to 
the relief of his hard pressed columns. Washington, finding that the enemy s 
whole army was within easy call and knowing that he had no hope of success 
with his weak army, withdrew. Washington now went into winter quarters at 
Morristown, and by constant vigilance was able to gather marauding parties 
of the British who ventured far away from their works. 

Putnam commenced fortifications at a point below Philadelphia upon the 
Delaware, and at commanding positions upon the outskirts and on being 
summoned to the army was succeeded by Gen. Irvine, and he by Gen Gates. 
On the 4th of March, 1777, the two Houses of the Legislature, elected under 
the new constitution, assembled, and in joint convention chose ihomas 
Wharton, Jr., President, and George BryanVice President. Penn had expressed 
the idea that power was preserved the better by due formality and ceremony, 
and accordingly, this event was celebrated with much pomp, the result being 
declared in a loud voice from the court house, amid the shouts of the gathered 
throngs and the booming of the captured cannon brought from the held of 
Trenton The title bestowed upon the new chief officer of the State was fatted 
by its length and high-sounding epithets to inspire the multitude with awe and 
reverence "His Excellency, Thomas Wharton, Junior, Esquire, President of 
the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, Captain General, and Com- 
mander-in-chief in and over the same." 

While the enemy was disposed to be cautious after the New Jersey cam- 
paicm so humiliating to the native pride of the Britain, yet he was determined 
to bring all available forces into the field for the campaign of 1-77, and to 
strike a decisive blow. Early in April, great activity was observed among the 
shipping in New York Harbor, and Washington communicated to Congress his 
opinion°that Philadelphia was the object against which, the blow would be 
aimed This announcement of probable peril induced the Council to issue a 
proclamation urging enlistments, and Congress ordered the opening of a camp 
for drilling recruits in Pennsylvania, and Benedict Arnold, who was at this 
time a trusted General, was ordered to the command of it. So many new ves- 
sels and transports of all classes had been discovered to have come into INew 
York Harbor, probably forwarded from England, that Washington sent Gen. 
Mifflin on the 10th of June, to Congress, bearing a letter in which he ex- 
pressed the settled conviction that the enemy meditated an immediate descent 
upon some part of Pennsylvania. Gen. Mifflin proceeded to examine the de- 
fensive works of the city which had been begun on the previous advance ot 
the British and recommended such changes and new works as seemed best 
adapted for its protection. The preparations for defense were vigorously pros- 
ecuted Tbe militia were called out and placed in two camps, one at Chester 
and the other at Downington. Fire ships were held in readiness to be used 
against vessels attempting the ascent of the river. 

Lord Howe being determined not to move until ample preparations were 
completed, allowed the greater part of the summer to wear away before he 
advanced Finally, having embarked a force of 19,500 men on a fleet of 600 
transports, he sailed southward. Washington promptly made a corresponding 
march overland, passing through Philadelphia on the 24th of August. Howe, 
respecting that preparations would be made for impeding the passage of the 


Delaware, sailed past its mouth, and moving up the Chesapeake in~t. 
barked fifty-four milt"? from Philadelphia and commenced the march north- 
activity was now manifested in the city. The 

balleta, fair bauds were bamed in rollin;.' lower- 

. of tbt> river, and 
the last the militia of the city, which had been divided into three 

classes, was called oat Washington, who had crossed the Brandywine, soon 
confrou; f How.', and brisk skirmishing at once opened 

ing thai likely to have the right of his position at Red Clay Creek, 

where he had intended to give battle, turned I / suj>erior force of 

•:ny, under cover of darkness on the night of the Bth of September, he 
w" across the Brandywine at Chad's Ford, and posting Armstrong with 
the militia upon the left, at Pyle's Ford, where the banks w. 
oipitona, and Sullivan, who was second in command, upon the right at Brin- 
ton's Ford under cover of forest, he himself took p^st with three d: i 
Sterling's, Stephens', and hi? own. in front of the main avenue of approach at 
v.-. discovering that Washington was well posted, determined to 
flank him. A on the 11th. sending Knyphausen with a division of 

Hessians to make vigorous demonstrations upon Washington's front at Chad s, 
wallis. in light marching order, moved up the Brandy- 
wine. far past flank of Washington, crossed the Brandywine at the 
f Trumbull and Jeffrey unopposed, and. moving down came upon 
Washington's right, held by Sullivan, all unsuspecting and unprepared to re- 
ceive him. Though Howe was favored by a dense fog which on that morning 
hung on all U et it had hardly been commenced before Washington 
red the move and divined its purpose. His resolution was instantly 
taken. He ordered Sullivan to en - m at Brinton's. and resolutely 
turn the left flank of Knyphausen. when he himself with the main bod;. 
move over and crush th- British Army in detail. Is was a brilliant con- 
was feasible, and promised the most complete success. But what chagrin and 
mortification, to receive, at the moment when he expected to hear the music of 
Sullivan'.- guns doubling up the left of the enemy, and giving notice to him 
to commence the passage, from that officer advising him that he had 
disobeyed his orders to cross, having received intelligence that the enemy were 
ving northward, and that he was still in position at the ford. Thus 
balked, a hud no alternative but to remain in position, and it was not 
long before the guns of Howe wer- upon his all unguarded 
mk. The; ons were made which time would permit Hin 
ah the force of Sullivan took position al iw of the hill 
on which stands the Birmingham meeting house, and the battle opened and 
ie whole daj ;■ numbers, and weakened 
liged to retire. 1 _ :;emy in possession 
Geld. Th' h nobleman. Laf .'.le gal- 
lantly serving in this fight The wounded were carried into the Birn. 
meeting ho.- the blood stains are visible to this day. enterprising 
relic hunters for many generations having been busy in loosening small slivers 
with the points of their kn; 

The British now moved cautiously toward Philadelphia. On the l'jth of 

..ber, at a point some twenty miles west of Philadelphia. Washington 

•oade a stand, and a battle opened with brisk skirmishing, but a heavy 

rain storm c powder of the pab - was completely rained on 

account of their defective cartridge boxes. On the night of the l!Oth. Gen. 

Anthony Wayne, who had been hanging on the rear of the enemy with his 


detachment, was surprised by Gen. Gray with a heavy column, who fell sud- 
denly upon the Americans in bivouac and put them to the sword, giving no 
quarter. This disgraceful slaughter which brought a stigma and an indelible 
stain upon the British arms is known as the Paoli Massacre. Fifty-three of 
the victims of the black flag were buried in one grave. A neat monument 
of white marble was erected forty years afterward over their moldering 
remains by the Republican Artillerists of Chester County, which vandal hands 
have not spared in their mania for relics. 

Congress remained in Philadelphia while these military operations were 
going on at its very doors; but on the 18th of September adjourned to meet 
at Lancaster, though subsequently, on the 30th, removed across the Susque- 
hanna to York, where it remained in session till after the evacuation in 
the following summer. The Council remained until two days before the fall 
of the city, when having dispatched the records of the loan office and the more 
valuable papers to Easton, it adjourned to Lancaster. On the 26th, the British 
Army entered the city. Deborah Logan in her memoir says: " The army 
marched in and took possession in the city in the morning. We were up-stairs 
and saw them pass the State House. They looked well, clean and well clad, 
and the contrast between them and our own poor, bare- footed, ragged troops 
was very great and caused a feeling of despair. * * * * Early 

in the afternoon, Lord Cornwallis' suite arrived and took possession of 
my mother's house. " But though now holding undisputed possession of the 
American capital, Howe found his position an uncomfortable one, for his fleet 
was in the Chesapeake, and the Delaware and all its defenses were in posses- 
sion of the Americans, and Washington had manned the forts with some of 
his most resolute troops. Varnum's brigade, led by Cols. Angell and Greene, 
Rhode Island troops, were at Fort Mercer, at Red Bank, and this the enemy 
determined to attack. On the 21st of October, with a force of 2,500 men, led 
by Count Donop, the attack was made. In two coluins they moved as to an 
easy victory. But the steady fire of the defenders when come in easy range, 
swept them down with deadly effect, and, retiring with a loss of over 400 and 
their leader mortally wounded, they did not renew the fight. Its reduction was 
of prime importance, and powerful works were built and equipped to bear upon 
the devoted fort on all sides, and the heavy guns of the fleet were brought up 
to aid in overpowering it. For six long days the greatest weight of metal was 
poured upon it from the land and the naval force, but without effect, the 
sides of the fort successfully withstanding the plunging of their powerful 
missiles. As a last resort, the great vessels were run suddenly in close under 
the walls, and manning the yard-arms with sharp-shooters, so effectually 
silenced and drove away the gunners that the fort fell easily into the Brit- 
ish hands and the river was opened to navigation. The army of Washing- 
ton, after being recruited and put in light marching order, was led to German- 
town where, on the morning of the 3d of October the enemy was met. A 
heavy fog that morning had obscured friend and foe alike, occasioning con- 
fusion in the ranks, and though the opening promised well, and some progress 
was made, yet the enemy was too strong to be moved, and the American l9ader 
was forced to retire to his camp at White Marsh. Though the river had now 
been opened and the city was thoroughly fortified for resisting attack, yet 
Howe felt not quite easy in having the American Army quartered in so close 
striking distance, and accordingly, on the 4th of December, with nearly his 
entire army, moved out, intending to take Washington at White Marsh, sixteen 
miles away, by surprise, and by rapidity of action gain an easy victory. But 
bvthe heroism and fidelity of Lydia Darrah, who, as she had often done before 


passed the guardo to go to the mill for floiir. the news of the coming of Howe 
munioated to Washington, who was prepared to receive him. rinding 
thai he could effect nothing, Howe returned to the city, having had the wean- 
some inarch at this wintry Beason with.. at effect 

,n now crossed the Schuylkill and went into winter quarters at 
Va llev For-.' The oold of that winter was intense; thetroops, half clad and 
indifferently fed, Buffered Beverely, the prints of their naked feet in frost and 
mow being often tinted with patriot blood. Grown impatient of the small 
KBOltB from Ike oumensely expensive campaigns carried on across the ocean, 
relieved Lord Uowe, and appointed Sir Henry Clinton to the 
chief command. . 

Tbt , ( aers whom Oongresa had sent to E ranee early in the fall of 

1776— Franklin, Dean and Lee had been busy in making interest for the 
united colonies al thePrench Court, and so snooessful were they, that arms and 
ammunition and loans of money were procured from time to time. Indeed, so 
persuasive had they become that it was a saying current, at court that, " It was 
fortunate for the King that Franklin did not take it into his head to ask to 
a Versailles stripped of its furniture to send to his dear 
bnerioans, for his majesty would have been unable to deny him." Finally, 
a convention was concluded, by which France agreed to use the royal army and 
navy as faithful allies of the Americans against tho English. Accordingly, a 
Beet of four powerful frigates, and twelve ships were dispatched under com- 
mand of the Count D'Eetaing to shut up the Britishfleet in the Delaware. The 
plan was ingenious, particularly worthy of the long head of Franklin. But 
by seme melms, intelligence of the sailing of the French fleet reached Che 
English cabinet, who immediately ordered the evacuation of the Delaware, 
whereupon the Admiral weighed anchor and sailed away with his entire fleet to 
New York, and D'Estaing, upon his arrival at the mouth of the Delaware, found 
that the bird hail flown. 

Clinton evacuated Philadelphia and moved across New Jersey in the direc- 
tion of New York. Washington closely followed and came up with the enenvj 
on the plains of Monmouth, on the 28th of June, 1778, where a sanguin- 
ary battle was fought which lasted tho whole day, resulting in the triumph of 
the tanerioan arms, and Pennsylvania was rid of British troops. 

The enemy was no sooner well away from the city than Congress returned 

from York and resumed its sittings in its former quarters, June 24, 1778, and 

on the following day, theOolonial Legislature returned from Lancaster. Gen 

\rnold, who was disabled by a wound received at Saratoga, from neld duty. 

was given command in the city and marched in with a regiment on the day 

following the evacuation. On tho 23d of May. 1778, President Wharton died 

suddenly of quinsy, while in attendance upon the Council at Lancaster, when 

Bryan, the Vice President, became the Acting President. Bryan was a 

philanthropist in deed as well as word. Up to thia time, African slavery had 

r .lerated in the colony. In his message of the 9th of November, he said : 

or some better scheme, would tend to abr. ry -the approbnum 

of America— from among us. * * * In dives; ig the State of slaves, you 

v , ill . qually serve the cause of humanity and po i I d offer to God one of 

the most proper and best returns of gratitude fo eat deliverance of us 

terity from thraldom; you will also se p m haracter for justice 

and benevolence in the true point of view to Europe, who a.o astonished to see 

a people eager for liberty holding negroes in bondage." He perfected a bill 

for the extinguishment of claims to slaves which was passed by the Assembly, 

1, L7SH. l,y a vote of thirty-four to eighteen, providing that no child 


of slave parents born after that date should be a slave, but a servant till the 
age of twenty-eight years, when all claim for service should end. Thus by a 
simple enactment resolutely pressed by Bryan, was slavery forever rooted out 
of Pennsylvania. 

In the summer of 1778, a force of savages and sour- faced tories to the num- 
ber of some 1,200, under the leadership of one Col. John ButJer, a cruel and in- 
human wretch, descending from the north, broke into the Wyoming Valley on 
the 2d of July. The strong men were in the army of Washington, and the 
only defenders were old men, beardless boys and resolute women. These, to 
the number of about 400, under Zebulon Butler, a brave soldier who had won 
distinction in the old French war, and who happened to be present, moved 
resolutely out to meet the invaders. Overborne by numbers, the inhabitants 
were beaten and put to the sword, the few who escaped retreating to Forty 
Fort, whither the helpless, up and down the valley, had sought safety. Here 
humane terms of surrender were agreed to, and the families returned to 
their homes, supposing all danger to be past. But the savages had 
tasted blood, and perhaps confiscated liquor, and were little mindful of capitu- 
lations. The night of the 5th was given to indiscriminate massacre. The 
cries of the helpless rang out upon the night air, and the heavens along all 
the valley were lighted up with the flames of burning cottages; " and when the 
moon arose, the terrified inhabitants were fleeing to the Wilkesbarre Mount- 
ains, and the dark morasses of the Pocono Mountain beyond." Most of these 
were emigrants from Connecticut, and they made their way homeward as fast 
as their feet would carry them, many of them crossing the Hudson at Pough- 
keepsie, where they told their tales of woe. 

In February, 1778, Parliament, grown tired of this long and wasting war, 
abolished taxes of which the Americans had complained, and a committee, 
composed of Earl Carlisle, George Johnstone and William Eden, were sent 
empowered to forgive past offenses, and to conclude peace with the colonies, 
upon submission to the British crown. Congress would not listen to their 
proposals, maintaining that the people of America had done nothing that 
needed forgiveness, and that no conference could be accorded so long as the 
English Armies remained on American soil. Finding that negotiations could 
not be entered upon with the government, they sought to worm their way by 
base bribes. Johnstone proposed to Gen. Reed that if he would lend his aid 
to bring about terms of pacification, 10,000 guineas and the best office in the 
country' should be his. The answer of the stern General was a type of the 
feeling which swayed every patriot: " My influence is but small, but were it 
as o-reat as Gov. Johntone would insinuate, the King of Great Britain has noth- 
ing in his gift that would tempt me." 

At the election held for President, the choice f eH upon Joseph Eeed, with 
George Bryan Vice President, subsequently Matthew Smith, and finally Will- 
iam Moore. Beed was an erudite lawyer, and had held the positions of Pri- 
vate Secretary to Washington, and subsequently Adjutant General of the 
army. He was inaugurated on the 1st of December, 1778. "Upon the return 
of the patriots to Philadelphia, after the departure of the British, a bitter 
feeling existed between them and the tories who had remained at their homes, 
and had largely profited by the British occupancy. The soldiers became dem- 
onstrative, especially against those lawyers who had defended the tories in 
court. Some of those most obnoxious took refuge in the house of James Wil- 
son, a signer of the Declaration. Private soldiers, in passing, fired upon it, 
and shots were returned whereby one was killed and several wounded. The 
President on being informed of these proceedings, rode at the head of the 



eitv troop, and disponed Iho Bssailants, capturing the leaders. The Academy 
legeof Philadelphia required by its oharter an oath of allegiance to 
Britain. JLn act wa passed November 27, 1779, abrog 
the former oharter, and vesting its property in a aew board An endowment 
tatee was settled upon it of Eir>.()0(> annually. The name 
of the institution was changed to the "UniverBitg of the State of Pennsyl- 

France WBS now aiding the American cause with money ami largo land 
ami naval forces. While some of the patriots remained steadfast and were 
disposed to sacrifice and endure all tor the success of the struggle, many, who 
should have been in the ranks rallying around Washington, had grown luke- 
warm The Genera] wasmortified that the French should come across the 
oeean and make greal sacrifices to help us. and ahould find so much indiffer- 
revailing among the citizens of many of the states, and bo fev< coming 
forward to till up the decimated ranks. At the request of Washington. Presi- 
dent Reed was invested with extraordinary powers, in 1780, which were used 
prudently hut effectively. During the winter .if this year, some of tho veteran 
soldiers of the Pennsylvania line mutinied and commenced the march on 
Philadelphia with arms in their hands. Borne of them had just cause. They 
bad enlisted for -'three years or the war,"' meaning for three years unless 
i closed sooner. Bui the authorities had interpreted it to mean, three 
rears, or as d i as the war should last. President Reed immediately 

rode out to meel the mutineers, heard their cause, and pledged if all would re- 
turn to camp, to have those who had honorably served out the full term of 
lischarged, which was agreed to. Before the arrival of tho Presi- 
dent, two emissaries from the enemy who had heard of the disaffection, came 
int.. camp, offering strong inducement- tor them to continue tho revolt. But 
the mutineers spurned the offer, and delivered them over to the officers, by 
whom they were tried and executed as spies. The soldiers who had so patriot 
ically arrested and handed over these messengers were offered a reward of fifty 
guineas; hut thev refused it on the plea that they were acting under authority 

of the Board of Sergeants, under whoseorder the mutiny was being conducted. 

lingly, a hundred guineas were offered to this board for their fidelity. 
Their answer showed how conscientious oven mutineers can be: "It was not 
for the sake, or through any expectation of reward; but. for the love of our 
country, that we sent the "spies immediately to Gen. Wayne; we therefore 
do not" consider ourselves entitled to any other reward but the love of our 
conntrv. and do jointly 'cept of no other." 

William Moore was elected President to succeed Joseph Reed, from No- 
vember 1 1. 1781, but held tho office less than one year, the term of three years 
fox which he had been a Councilman having expired, which was the limit of 
service. James Potter was chosen Vice President. On account of tho hostile 
attitude of the Ohio Indians, it was decided to Call out a body of volunteers, 
numbering some 400 from the counties of Washington and Westmoreland, 
where the outrages upon the Bottlers had been most sorely felt, who chose for 
their commander Col. William Crawford, of Westmoreland The expedition 
met a most, unfortunate fate. It was defeated and cut to pieces, and tho 
leader taken captive and burned at the stake. Crawford County, which was 

1 very soon afterward, was named in honor of this unfortunate soldier. 
In the month of November, intelligence was communicated to the Legislature 
that Pennsylvania soldiers, confined as prisoners of war on board of the Jer- 
sey, an old' hulk lying in the New York Harbor, were in a starving condition, 
receiving at the hands of the enemy the most barbarous and inhuman treat- 


nient. Fifty barrels of flour and 300 bushels of potatoes were immediately 
sent to them. 

In the State election of 1782, contested with great violence, John Dickin- 
son was chosen President, and James Ewing Vice President. On the 12th of 
March, 1783, intelligence was first received of the signing of the preliminary 
treaty in which independence was acknowledged, and on the 11th of April 
Congress sent forth the joyful proclamation ordering a cessation of hostilities. 
The soldiers of Burgovne, who had been confined in the prison camp at Lan- 
caster, were put upon the march for New York, passing through Philadelphia 
on the way. Everywhere was joy unspeakable. The obstructions were re- 
moved from the Delaware, and the white wings of commerce again came flut- 
tering on every breeze. In June, Pennsylvania soldiers, exasperated by delay 
in receiving their pay and their discharge, and impatient to return to their 
homes, to a considerable number marched from their camp at Lancaster, and 
arriving at Philadelphia sent a committee with arms in their hands to the 
State House door with a remonstrance asking permission to elect officers to 
command them for the redress of their grievances, their own having left them, 
and employing threats in case of refusal. These demands the Council rejected. 
The President of Congress, hearing of these proceedings, called a special ses- 
sion, which resolved to demand that the militia of the State should be called 
out to quell the insurgents. The Council refused to resort to this extreme 
measure, when Congress, watchful of its dignity and of its supposed supreme 
authority, left Philadelphia and established itself in Princeton, N. J., and 
though invited to return at its next session, it refused, and met at Annapolis. 
In October, 1784, the last treaty was concluded with the Indians at Fort 
Stanwix. The Commissioners at this conference purchased from the natives 
all the land to the north of the Ohio Eiver, and the line of Pine Creek, which 
completed the entire limits of the State with the exception of the triangle at 
Erie, which was acquired from the United States in 1792. This purchase 
was confirmed by the Wyandots and Delawares at Fort Mcintosh January 21, 
1785, and the grant was made secure. 

In September, 1785, after a long absence in the service of his country 
abroad, perfecting treaties, and otherwise establishing just relations with other 
nations, the venerable Benjamin Franklin, then nearly eighty years old, feel- 
in» the infirmities of age coming upon him, asked to be relieved of the duties 
of "Minister at the Court of France, and returned to Philadelphia. Soon after 
his arrival, he was elected President of the Council. Charles Biddle was 
elected Vice President. It was at this period that a citizen of Pennsylvania, 
John Fitch, secured a patent on his invention for propelling boats by steam. 
In May, 1787, the convention to frame a constitution for the United States 
met in Philadelphia. The delegation from Pennsylvania was Benjamin Frank- 
lin, Robert Morris, Thomas Mifflin, George Clyraer, Thomas Fitzsimons, Jared 
Ingersoll, James Wilson and Gouverneur Morris. Upon the completion of 
their work, the instrument was submitted to the several States for adoption. A 
convention was called in Pennsylvania, which met on the 2 1st of November, and 
though encountering resolute opposition, it was finally adopted on the 12th of De- 
cember. On the following day, the convention, the Supreme Council and offi- 
cers of the State and city government, moved in procession to the old court 
house, where the adoption of the constitution was formally proclaimed amidst 
the booming of cannon and the ringing of bells. 

On the 5th of November, 1788, Thomas Mifflin was elected President, and 
George Ross Vice President. The constitution of the State, framed in and 
adapted to the exigencies of an emergency, was ill suited to the needs of State 


in its relatione to the new nation. Accordingly, a conven tion gambled *<? 
the purpose of preparing a new constitution in November 1789, which was 
finally adopted on September 2, 1790. By the provisions of this instrument. 
*v e Executive Council was abolished, and the executive duties were vested in 
the hands of a Governor. Legislation was intrusted to an Assembly and a 
Senate. The judicial system was continued, the terms of the Judges extend- 
ing through good behavior. 


Thomas Mifflin, 1788-99-Thohas McKean, 1799-1808-Simon Snyder .1808-17- 

wf^IAM FINDLAY, 1817-20-JOSEPH HeISTER. 1820-23-JOHN A. SHULZE, 18>3 

-29— George Wolfe. 1829-35-Josefh Ritner, 1835-39. 

THE first election under the new Constitution resulted in the choice of 
Thomas Mifflin, who was re-elected for three successive terms, giving him 
the distinction of having been longer in the executive chair than any other 
person, a period of eleven years. A system of internal improvements was now 
commenced, by which vast water communications were undertaken and a moun- 
tain of debt was accumulated, a portion of which hangs over the State to this 
rlav In 1793 the Bank of Pennsylvania was chartered, one-third ot the cap- 
ital stock of which was subscribed for by the State. Branches were established 
at Lancaster Harrisburg, Reading, Easton and Pittsburgh. The branches 
were dTsconi nued in 1810; in 1843, the stock held by the State was sold, and 
Tn 1857 it ceased to exist. In 1793, the yellow fever visited Phila- 
rlplnhia It was deadly in its effects and produced a panic unparalleled. 
Gov Mifflin, and Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the United States Treasury 
were attacked. " Men of affluent fortunes, who gave daily employment and 
subsistence to hundreds, were abandoned to the care of a negro .after their 
wives children, friends, clerks and servants had fled away and left them to 
Their We. In Borne cases, at the commencement of the disorder no money 
could procure proper attendance. Many of the poor perished without a hu- 
man bein- to hand them a drink of water, to administer medicines or to per- 
£rm any charitable office for them. Nearly 5,000 perished by this wasting 

^ThTwhisky insurrection in some of the western counties of the State 
which occurred in 1794, excited, by its lawlessness and wide exten , general 
Seres? In act of Congress, of March 3, 1791, laid a tax ondisti led spirits 
of TcS pence per gallon." The then counties of Washington Westmoreland, 
Allegheny and Fayette, comprising the southwestern quarter of the State, 
were° almost exclusively engaged in the production of gram Being far re- 
moved from any market, the product of their farms brought them scarcely any 
"turns The consequence was that a large proportion of the surplus grain 
was turned into distilled spirits, and nearly every other farmer was a distiller 
This tax was seen to bear heavily upon them, from which a non-producer of 
spirits was relieved. A rash determination was formed to resist its collection, 
and a belief entertained, if all were united in resisting, ^ ™* ld n be ,^ ke * *£ K 
Frequent altercations occurred between the persons appointed United States 
Collectors and these resisting citizens. As an example, on the 5th of Septem- 

BIST0E1 OP i'iA\svi.\ am \ Hf, 

791, a party in disguise sel apon Robert Johnson, a Collector fur Alle- 
gheny and Washington, tarred and Feathered him, oal off his bair, took away 
his horse, and 1 ** Tt him in this plight d> proceed. Writs for the arrest of the 
perpetrators were issued, but none dared to venture into tho territory to serve 
them. On Ma] 8, 1792, the law was modified, and the tax reduced. In Soptom 
bar, 1792, President Washington issuod his proclamation comnmndingall per 
ul mi it to tli»> law, and to forbear fromforther opposition. Butthesemeas 
ores had no effect, and the insurgents began to organize for forcible resist. 
anoe. One Maj. Rffaofarlane, who in command of a party of insurrectionists, 
was killed in an encounter with United States soldiers at the house of Gen. 
Neville. The feeling now ran very high, and it was hardly safe for any per- 
son to breathe a whisper against the insurgents throughout all this district. 
"A breath," tridge, "in favor of the law, was sufficient to ruin 

.my man. A clergyman was not thought orthodox in the pulpit unless against 
the law. A physician was not oapable of administering medicine, unless his 
principles were right in this respect. A lawyer could get no practice, nor 
a merchant at a country store get custom if for tho law. On the contrary, to 
talk against the law was the way to office and emolument. To go to the 
Legislature or to Congress you must make a noise againsf it. It was the Shib 
boleth of safety and the ladder of ambition " One Bradford hail, of his own 
notion, issned a circular letter to the Colonels of regiments to assemble with 
their commands at Braddock's field on the 1st of August, where they appoint- 
ed offici ?s and moved on to Pittsburgh. After having burned a barn, and 
made some noisy demonstrations, they were induced by some cool heads to re- 
turn. These turbulent proceedings coming to the ears of the State and Na- 
tional authorities at Philadelphia, measures were concerted to promptly and 
effectually check them. Gov. Mifflin appointed Chief Justice McKean, and 
Gen. William Irvine to proceed to the disaffected district, ascertain the facts, 
and ti) to bring the leaders to justice. President Washington issued a proc- 
lamation commanding all persons in arms to disperse to their homes on or be 
fore the 1st uf September, proximo, and called out the militia of four States 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland and Virginia — to the number of 13,000 
men. to enforce his commands. The quota of Pennsylvania was 4,500 infan- 
rtillery, and Gov. Mifflin took command in person. 
Gov. Richard Howell, of New Jersey, Gov. Thomas S. Lee, of Maryland, and 
Gen. Daniel Morgan, of Virginia, commanded the forces from their States, 
and Gov. Benrj Lee. of Virginia, was placed in chief command. President 
Washington, accompanied by Gen. Knox. Secretary of War. Alexander Hamil- 
ton, Secretary of the Treasury, and Richard Peters, of the United States Dis- 
trict Court, set out on the 1st of October, for the seat of the disturbance. On 
Friday, the President reached Harrisburg, and on Saturday Carlisle, whither 
tho army had preceded him. In the meantime a committee, consisting of 
Jamee Ross, Jasper Yeates and William Bradford, was appointed by President 
Washington to proceed to the disaffected district, and endeavor to persuade 
misguided citizens to return to their allegiance. 

A. meeting of 260 delegates from the four counties was held at Parkinson's 
Ferry on the 1 i 1 1 1 of August., at which the state of their cause was considered, 

: ims adopted, and a committee of sixty, one from each county, v 
pointed, and a sub-committee of twelve was named to confer with lite United 
States Commissioners, McKean and Irvine. These conferences with the State 
and National Committees were successful in arranging preliminary conditions 
of settlement. On the 2d of October, the Committee of Safety of the insur- 
gents met at Parkinson's Ferry, and having now learned that a well-organized 


army with Washington at its head, was marching westward for enforcing 
obeXeSe to the laws, appointed a committee of two, William Findley and 
David ReVdick, to meet the President, and assure bim that he disaffected were 
Soosed to return to their duty. They met Washington at Carlisle, and sev- 
eral conferences were held, and assurances given of implicit obedience; but 
the President said that as the troops had been called out, the orders for he 
march would not be countermanded. The President proceeded forward on the 
Uth of October to Chambersburg, reached Williamsport on the 13th and Fort 
Cumberland on the Uth, where he reviewed the Virginia and Mary and forces, 
^Tarrived at Bedford on the 19th Remaining a few days, and being satis- 
fled that the sentiment of the people had changed, he returned to Philadel- 
nhia arrival on the 28th, leaving Gen. Lee to meet the Commissioners and 
S; such conditions of pacification as should seem just. Another meeting erf 
the Committee of Safety was held at Parkinson's Ferry on the 24th at which 
assurances of abandonment of opposition to the laws were received and the 
same committee, with the addition of Thomas Morton and Ephriam Douglass, 
™SS to return to headquarters and give assurance o this disposi ion 
Thev did not reach Bedford until after the departure of Washington. But at 
Uniontown they met Gen. Lee, with whom it was agreed that the citizens 
of these four counties should subscribe to an oath to support the Constitution 
and obey the laws. Justices of the Peace issued notices that books were opened 
Lr subsSng to the oath, and Gen. Lee issued a Jficious address urging 
readv obedience. Seeing that all reqnirments were being faithfully can led 
out an ordei was issued on the 17th of November for the return of the army 
and its dtbandment. A number of arrests were made and trials and convic- 
tions were had, but all were ultimately pardoned. 

With the exception of a slight ebulition a the prospect of a wa with France 
iu 1797, and a resistance to the operation of the " Homestead Tax in Lehigh, 
Berks and Northampton Counties, when the militia was called ou^ the re- 
mainder of the term of Gov. Mifflin passed m comparative quiet By an act 
Tthe Legislature of the 3d of April, 1799, the capital o the State was re 
moved to Lancaster, and soon after the capital of the United States to Wash- 
[n° ton, the house on Ninth street, which had been built for he residence of the 
Snt of the United States, passing to the use of the University of Pennsjl- 

Val Durinc the administrations of Thomas McKean, who was elected Governor 
in 1799 and Simon Snyder in 1808, little beyond heated political contests 
markedthe even tenor of the government, until the breaking-out o the roub- 
^ which eventuated in the war of 1812. The blockade of the coast of France 
n 1806 and the retaliatory measures of Napoleon in his Berlin decree swept 
American commerce, which had hitherto preserved a neutral attitude and prof- 
fted by European wars, from the seas. The haughty conduct of Great Britain 
n boarding American vessels for suspected deserters from the British Navy 
under cover of which the grossest outrages were committed, American seaman 
beinc dragged from the decks of their vessels and impressed into the English 
se vice, infuced President Jefferson in July, 1807, to issue ,hie 'P«*Jr^3 
ordering all armed vessels to leave the waters of the United States, and 
forbidding any to enter, until satisfaction for the past and security for the 
future should be provided for. Upon the meeting of Congress in December 
an embargo was laid, detaining all vessels, American and foreign, then in 
American waters, and ordering home all vessels abroad Negotiations were 
conducted between the two countries, but no demiite results were reached and 
in the meantime causes of irritation multiplied until 1812, when President 

BISTORT OF PBNN81 i.\ kNl L 1 1" 

Madison deolared war against Great Britain, known as the war of 1812. 
Pennsylvania promptly seconded 1 1 * * » National Government, the message of 
3nyder on the occasion ringing lik<> a silver olarion. The national call 
for 100.000 men requireil 1 1,000 from this Slate, lint so great was the enthtl- 
iveral braes this number tendered their services. The State force 
was organized in two divisions, to the oommand of the first of which Maj 
(Jen. Isaac Morrell was appointed, and to the second Maj. Gen. Adanmon Tau- 
nehiH. Gunboats and privateers were buill in the harbor of Erie and on the 
Delaware, and the defenses upon the latter were put in order and suitable 
armaments provided. At Tippecanoe, at Detroit, at Queonstown Heights, at 
the River Raisin, at Fort Stephenson, aud at the River Thames, the war was 
waged with varying success. Upon the water, Commodores Decatur, Hull, 
Jones, Perry, Lawrence, Porter and McDonough made a bright chapter in 
American history, as was to be wished, inasmuch as the war had been under 
taken to vindicate the honor and integrity of that branch of the service. Napo- 
leon, having met with disaster, and his power having been broken, 1-1,000 of 
Wellington's veterans were sent to Canada, and the campaign of the next year 
was opened with vigor. But at the battles of Oswego, Chippewa, Lundy's 
Lane, Fort Erie and Plattsburg, the tide was turned against the enemy, and 
the country saved from invasion. The act which created most alarm to 
Pennsylvania was one of vandalism scarcely matched in the annals of war- 
fare. In August, 1814, Gen. Ross, with 6,000 men in a flotilla of sixty sails, 
moved up Chesapeake Bay, fired the capitol, President's house and the various 
offices of cabinet ministers, and these costly and substantial buildings, the nation- 
al library and all the records of the Government from its foundation were utterly 
destroyed. Shortly afterward, Ross appeared before Baltimore with the design 
of multiplying his barbarisms, but he was met by a force hastily collected under 
Gen. Samuel Smith, a Pennsylvania veteran of the Revolution, and in the brief 
engagement which ensued Ross was killed. In the severe battle with the 
corps of Gen Strieker, the British lost some 300 men. The fleet in the mean- 
time opened a fierce bombardment of Fort McHenry, and during the day and 
g night 1,500 bombshells were thrown, but all to no purpose, the gal- 
lant defense of Maj. Armistead proving successful. It was during this awful 
night that Maj. Key, who was a prisoner on board the fleet, wrote the song of 
the Star Spangled Banner, which became tho national lyric. It was in the ad- 
ministration of Gov. Snydei in February, 1810, that an act was passed making 
Harrisburg the seat of government, and a commission raised for erecting public 
buildings, the sessions of the Legislature being held in the court house at Har- 
risburg from 1812 to 1821. 

The administrations of William Findley, elected in 1817, Joseph Heister, 
in 1820, and John Andrew Schulz in 1828, followed without marked events. 
Parties became very warm in their discussions and in their management of po- 
litical campaigns. The charters for the forty banks which had been passed in 
a fit of frenzy over the veto of Gov. Snyder set a flood of paper money afloat. 
The public improvements, principally in opening lines of canal, were prose- 
cuted, and vast debts incurred. These lines of conveyances were vitally need- 
ful to move the immense products and vast resources of the State 

Previous t t 1820, little use was made of stone coal. Judge 

Obediah Gore, a blacksmith, used it upon his forge as early as 1769, and 
f uiil the heat stronger and more enduring than that produced by charcoal. 
In 1791, Phillip Ginter, of Carbon County, a hunter by profession, having on 
one occasion been out all day without discovering any game, was returning at 
night discouraged and worn out, across the Mauch Chunk Mountain, when, in 

HIST0R1 OF PENN81 i \ \m \ 



VI All 





1 18,211 
338 903 

1 18,087 


517, in; 


690 156 





Btfl . 

Total Ton« 


:::::.:::::: :.. 

I 'i. 

1 1-0 

81 860 


s 1 . 85 1 
309 J71 

468 1 17 
175 091 

573. 27)! 






1,688, 125 
2,517, 198 
3,951 670 

2 902,821 


3 890,593 



(i 69l,8it0 

6 866,877 
6 321,984 
8 195,042 

'• 159 38c 







71 511 


|OH, Mil 

122 800 




3,186 094 
3 781,286 




9,504 W8 





21, 163 

10, 1 



57, OS! 

1 19,842 
179 1 16 
181 990 
478 418 












818, KM 



1 108,418 

1,268 598 




3 882 808 




1, 148,916 


1,998 171 

8 3 1 


6 608.511 





6,759 868 










15 849 898 



31,281 951 

30 115 121 

19,713 172 

18,501 'Hi 


!6 i ! 689 

38, 500,014 

38 [30 091 

31 798 039 


the fathering shades he stumbled upon something which seemed to have a 
glistening appearance, that he was induced to pick up and carry home. This 
specimen'was taken to Philadelphia, where an analysis showed it to be a good 
quality of anthracite coal. But, though coal was known to exist, no one knew 
how to use it. In 1812, Col. George Shoemaker, of Schuylkill County, took 
nine wagon loads to Philadelphia. But he was looked upon as an imposter 
for attempting to sell worthless stone for coal. He finally sold two loads for 
the cost of transportation, the remaining seven proving a complete loss. In 
1812, While & Hazard, manufacturers of wire at the Falls of Schuylkill, in- 
duced an application to be made to the Legislature to incorporate a com 
pany for the improvement of the Schuylkill, urging as an inducement the im- 
portance it would have for transporting coal ; whereupon, the Senator from 
that district, in his place, with an air of knowledge, asserted "that there was 
no coal there, that there was a kind of black stone which was called coal, but 
that it would not burn." 

White & Hazard procured a cart load of Lehigh coal that cost them $1 a 
bushel, which was all wasted in a vain attempt to make it ignite. Another 
cart load was obtained, and a whole night spent in endeavoring to make a fire 
in the furnace, when the hands shut the furnace door and left the mill in de- 
spair. "Fortunately one of them left his jacket in the mill, and returning for 
it in about half an hour, noticed that the door was red hot, and upon opening 
it, was surprised at finding the whole furnace at a glowing white heat. The 
other hands were summoned, and four separate parcels of iron were heated 
and rolled by the same fire before it required renewing. The furnace was 
replenished, and as letting it alone had succeeded so well, it was concluded to 
try it again, and the experiment was repeated with the same result. The 
Lehigh Navigation Company and the Lehigh Coal Company were incorporated 
in 1818, which companies became the basis of the Lehigh Coal and Naviga- 
tion Company, incorporated in 1822. In 1820, coal was sent to Philadelphia 
by artificial navigation, but 365 tons glutted the market." In 1825, there 
were brought by the Schuylkill 5,378 tons. In 1826, by the Schuylkill, 
10,265 tons, and by the Lehigh 31,280 tons. The stage of water being in- 
sufficient, dams and sluices were constructed near Mauch Chunk, in 1819, by 
which the navigation was improved. The coal boats used were great square 
arks, 16 to 18 feet wide, and 20 to 25 feet long. At first, two of these were 
joined together by hinges, to allow them to yield up and down in passing over 
the dams. Finally, as the boatmen became skilled in the navigation, several 
were joined, attaining a length of 180 feet. Machinery was used for jointing 
the planks, and so expert had the men become that five would build an ark 
and launch it in forty-five minutes. After reaching Philadelphia, these boats 
were taken to pieces, the plank sold, and the hinges sent back for constructing 
others. Such were the crude methods adopted in the early days for bringing 
coal to a market. In 1827, a railroad was commenced, which was completed 
in three months, nine miles in length. This, with the exception of one at 
Quincy, Mass., of four miles, built in 1826, was the first constructed in the 
United States. The descent was 100 feet per mile, and the coal descended by 
gravity in a half hour, and the cars were drawn back by mules, which rode 
down with the coal. "The mules cut a most grotesque figure, standing three 
or four together, in their cars, with their feeding troughs before them, appar- 
ently surveying with delight the scenery of the mountain; and though they 
preserve the most profound gravity, it is utterly impossible for the spectator 
to maintain his. It is said that the mules, having once experienced the com- 
fort of riding down, regard it as a right, and neither mild nor severe measures 

HISTORY OP IT.wsyi.v LNIA. 1-1 

will indnoe them to descend in anj other way." Bituminous coal was disoov- 
•red and its qualities utilized not much earlier than the anthracite A trad 
of ooal land was taken up in Clearfield Couuh in I7S,">, In- Mr. S. Boyd, and 
in l s,| l he sent an ark down the Susquehanna to Columbia, which caused 
much surprise to the inhabitants thai "an artiole with which they were wholly 
unacquainted Bbonld be brought to their own <loors." 

During the administrations of George Wolf, elected in 1821), and Joseph 
Etitner, elected in 1835, a measure of great beneficence to the State was passed 
an.l bronght into a good degree of successful operation -nothing less than a 
broad system of public education. Schools hail been early established in 
Philadelphia, ami parochial schools in the more populous portions of the 
From the time of early settlement. In 174',), through the influence of 
Dr. Franklin, a charter was obtained for a "college, academy, and charity 
of Pennsylvania," ami from this time to the beginning of tbo present 
century, the friends of education were earnest in establishing colleges, tin 
Colonial < lovernment, and afterward the Legislature, making liberal grants 
from the revenue- accruing from the sale of lands for their support, the uni 
varsity of Pennsylvania being chartered in 17">'_\ Dickinson College in 1783, 
Franklin and Marshall College in 1787, and Jefferson College in 1802. Com- 
mencing near the beginning of this century, and continuing for over a period 
of thirty years, vigorous evrtions were put forth to establish county acad 
emies. Cine ranted for these institutions at the county seats of 

; rtj "lie counties, and appropriations were made of money, varying from 
$2,000 to $6 000, and iii several instances of quite extensive land grants. In 
1809, an act was passed for the education of the ''poor, gratis." The Asses 
BOT8 in their annual rounds wore to make a record of all such as were indi- 
gent, and pay for their education in the most convenient schools. But few 
were found among tii" spirited inhabitants of the commonwealth willing to 
admit that they were so poor as to be objects of charily. 

By the act of April I, 1834, a general system of education by common 
was established I'nfortunately it was complex and unwieldy. At the 
next session an attempt was made to repeal it. and substitute the old law of 
1809 for educating the " poor, gratis," the repeal having been carried in the 
Senate. But through the appeals of Thaddeus Stevens, a man always in the 
van in every movement for the elevation of mankind, this was defeated. At 
the next session, lSllll, an entirely new bill, discarding the objectionable feat- 
ures of the old one. was prepared by Dr. George Smith, of Delaware County, 
and adopted, and from this time forw ard has* been in efficient operation It may 
irange that so long a time should have elapsed before a general system of 
education should have been secured. But the diversity of origin and lau- 
roage, the antagonism of religious seats, the very great sparseness of popula- 
tion in many parts, made it impossible at an earlier day to establish schools, 
in was improved by engrafting upon it the feature of the 
County Superintendeney. and in lS.V.i h\ providing for the establishment of 
twelve Normal Schools, in as many districts into which the State was divided, 
for the .professional training of teachers. 



David R Porter, 1839-15— Francis R. Shpnk, 1845-48— William F. Johnstone 
1848-52— William Bigler, 1853-55— James Pollock, 1855-58— William F. 
Packer 1858-61 -Andrew G. Curtin, 1861-67— John W. Geary, 1867-73— 
John F. Hartranft, 1873-78— Henry F. Hoyt, 1878-82— Robert E. Pat- 
tison, 1S82. 


N 1837, a convention assembled in Harrisburg, and subsequently in Philadel- 
— phi a, for revising the constitution, which revision was adopted by a vote of 
the people. One of the chief objects of the change was the breaking up of 
what was known as "omnibus legislation." each bill being required to have 
but one distinct subject, to be definitely stated in the title. Much of the pat- 
ronage of the Governor was taken from him, and he was allowed but two terms 
of three vears in any nine years. The Senator's term was fixed at three years. 
The terms of Supreme Court Judges were limited to fifteen years, Common 
Pleas Judges to ten, and Associate Judges to five. A step backward was taken 
in limiting suffrage to white male citizens twenty-one years old, it having pre- 
viously been extended to citizens irrespective of color. Amendments could be 
proposed once in five years, and if adopted by two successive Legislatures, 
and approved by a vote of the people, they became a part of the organic law. 
At the opening of the gubernatorial term of David R. Porter, who was 
chosen in October, 1838, a civil commotion occurred known as the Buckshot 
War which at one time threatened a sanguinary result. By the returns, 
Porter had some 5,000 majority over Ritner, but the latter, who was the in- 
cumbent, alleged frauds, and proposed an investigation and revision of the 
returns. Thomas H. Burrows was Secretary of State, and Chairman of the 
State Committee of the Anti- Masonic party, and in an elaborate address to the 
people setting forth the grievance, he closed with the expression " let us treat 
the election as if we had not been defeated." This expression gave great 
offense to the opposing party, the Democratic, and public feeling ran high 
before the meeting of the Legislature. Whether an investigation could be had 
would depend upon the political complexion of that. body. The Senate was 
clearly Anti-Masonic, and the House would depend upon the Representatives of 
a certain district in Philadelphia, which embraced the Northern Liberties. 
The returning board of this district had a majority of Democrats, who pro- 
ceeded to throw out the entire vote of Northern Liberties, for some alleged 
irregularities, and gave the certificate to Democrats. Whereupon, the minor- 
ity of the board assembled, and counted the votes of the Northern Liberties, 
which gave the election to the Anti-Masonic candidates, and sent certificates 
accordingly. By right and justice, there is no doubt that the Anti-Masons 
were fairly elected. But the majority of a returning board alone have 
authority to make returns, and the Democrats had the certificates which bore 
prima facie evidence of being correct, and should have been received and 
transmitted to the House, where alone rested the authority to go behind the 
returns and investigate their correctness. But upon the meeting of the House 
the Secretary of the Commonwealth sent in the certificates of the minority of 
the returning board of the Northern Liberties district, which gave the major- 
; 'v to the Anti -Masons. But the Democrats were not disposed to submit, and 


is that two delegations trom the disputed district appeared, 
demanding Beats, and apon the organization, two Speakers vere elected and 
took the platform Thomas s. Onnningham for the Ami Masons, and Will, 
iam Hopkins for the Democrats. At this stage of the game, an infuriated 
lobby, collected trom Philadelphia and surrounding cities, broke into the, 
two Souses, and. interrupting all business, threatened the lives of members, 
and compelled them to seek safety in flight, when thoj took uncontrolled pos 
session of the chambers and indulged in noisy and impassioned haranguee 
From the caj)it<il, the mob proceeded to the court house, where a "committee 
of safety" was appointed. For several days the members dared not enter 
either House, and when one of the patties of the House attempted to assemble, 
the person who had hern appointed to act as Speaker was forcibly ejected. All 
business was at an end, and the Kxceutive and State Departments wereclosed. 
At this juncture, Gov. Kitner ordered out the militia, and sit the same time 
called on the United States authorities for help. The militia, under Gens. 
Pattis, ,n and A lexander, came promptly to the rescue, but the Presidentrofused 
to furnish the National troops, though the United States storekeeper at, the 
Frankford Arsenal turned over a liberal supply of ball and buckshot cartridges. 
The arrival of the militia only served to fire the spirit of the lobby, and the] 
immediately commenced drilling and organizing, supplying themselves with 
arms and fixed ammunition. The militia authorities were, however, able to 
clear the capitol, when the two Houses assembled, and the Senate signified the 
willingness to recognize that branch of the House presided over by Mr. Hop- 
kins. This ended the difficulty, and Gov. Porter was duly inaugurated. 

Francis R. Shunk was chosen Governor in 1845, and during his term of 
office the war with Mexico occurred. Two volunteer regiments, one under 
command of Col. Wynkoop, and the other under Col. Roberts, subsequently 
Col. John W. Geary, were sent to the field, while the services of a much 
larger number were offered, but could not be received. Toward the close of 
his lirst term, havii I ness, and feeliug his end approach- 

ing, Gov. Shunk resigned, and was succeeded by the Speaker of the Senate, 
William F. Johnston, who was duly chosen at the next annual election. Dur- 
ing the administrations of William Bigler, elected in 1851, James Pollock in 
1S51, and William F. Packer in 1857, little beyond the ordinary course of 
events marked the history of the State. The lines of public works undertaken 
at the expense of the State were completed. Their cost had been enormous, 
and a debt was piled up against it of over $40,000,000. These works, vastly 
ive, were Btill to operate and keep in repair, and the revenues therefrom 
failing to meet expectations, it w&c determined in the administration of Gov. 
Pollock to --I'll them to the highest bidder, the Pennsylvania Kailroad Com- 
pany purchasing them for the buuj of $7,500,000. 

In the administration of Gov. Packer, petroleum was first discovered in 
quantities in this country by boring into the bowels of the earth. From the 
earliest settlement of the country it was known to exist As early as July 18, 
1627, a French missionary, Joseph Delaroche Daillon, of the order of Recol- 
lets, described it in a letter published in Pr!L'. in Segard's L'Histoire du 
Canada, and this description is confirmed by the journal of Charlevois, L721. 
Fathers Dolli aaries of the order of St. Sulpiee, made a 

map of this section of country, which they sent to Jean Talon, Intendent of 
Canada, on the 10th of November. 1670, on which was marked at about the 
point where is now the town of Cuba. \. V.. "Fontaine do Bit time." The 
Earl of Belmont, Governor of New York, instructed his chief engineer, 
Wolfgang W, R ier, in September 3, 1700, in his visit to the Six Nations, 


;l To go and view a well or spring which is eight miles beyond the Seneks' 
farthest castle, which they have told me blazes up in a flame, when a lighted 
coale or firebrand is put into it; you will do well to taste thesaid water, and 
wive me your opinion thereof, and bring with you some of it." Thomas Cha- 
bert de Joncaire, who died in September, 1740, is mentioned in the journal of 
Charlevoix of 1721 as authority for the existence of oil at the place mentioned 
above, and at points further south, probably on Oil Creek. The following 
account of an event occurring during the occupancy of this part of the State 
by the French is given as an example of the religious uses made of oil by the 
Indians, as these fire dances are understood to have been annually celebrated: 
•'While descending the Allegheny, fifteen leagues below the mouth of the 
Connewango (Warren) and three above Fort Venango (Oil City), we were 
invited by "the chief of the Senecas to attend a religious ceremony of his tribe. 
We landed and drew up our canoes on a point where a small stream entered 
the river. The tribe appeared unusually solemn. We marched up the stream 
about a half a league, where the company, a large band it appeared, had 
arrived some davs before us. Gigantic hills begirt us on every side. The 
scene was really sublime. The great chief then recited 'the conquests and 
heroisms of their ancestors. The surface of the stream was covered with a 
thick scum, which burst into a complete conflagration. The oil had been 
gathered and lighted with a torch. At sight of the flames, the Indians gave 
forth a triumphant shout, and made the hills and valley re-echo again." 

In nearly all geographies and notes of travel published during the early 
period of settlement, this oil is referred to, and on several maps the word petro- 
leum appears opposite the mouth of Oil Creek. Gen. Washington, in his will, 
in speaking of his lands on the Great Kanawha, says: " The tract of which the 
125 acres is a moiety, was taken up by Gen. Andrew Lewis andrnyself, for and 
on account of a bituminous spring which it contains of so inflammable a nat- 
ure as to burn as freely as spirits, and is as nearly difficult to extinguish." 
Mr. Jefferson, in his Notes on Virginia, also gives an account of a burning 
spring on the lower grounds of the Great Kanawha. This oil not only seems 
to have been known, but to have been systematically gathered in very early 
times. Upon the flats a mile or so below the city of Titusville are many acres 
of cradle holes dug out and lined with split logs, evidently constructed for 
the purpose of gathering it. The fact that the earliest inhabitants could 
never discover any stumps from which these logs were cut, and the further fact 
that trees are growing of giant size in the midst of these cradles, are evidences 
that they must have been operated long ago. It could not have been the work 
of any of the nomadic Indian tribes found here at the coming of the white 
man, for they were never known to undertake any enterprise involving so 
much labor, and what could they do with the oil when obtained. 

The French could hardly have done the work, for we have no account of 
the oil having been obtained in quantities, or of its being transported to 
France. May this not have been the work of the Mound-Builders, or of colo 
nies from Central America? When the writer first visited these pits, in 1855, 
he found a spring some distance below Titusville, on Oil Creek, where the 
water was conducted into a trough, from which, daily, the oil, floating on its 
surface, was taken off by throwing a woolen blanket upon it, and then wring- 
ing it into a tub, the clean wool absorbing the oil and rejecting the water, and 
in this way a considerable quantity was obtained. 

In 1859, Mr. E. L. Drake, at first representing a company in New York, 
commenced drilling near the spot where this tub was located, aDd when the 
company would give him no more money, straining his own resources, and his 

HIST0B1 OF i'i ansvi.v \M.\. 125 

credit with his friends almost to the breaking point, and when about to give 
up in despair, finally struck a powerful can mi of pure oil. From this time 
forward, the territory down the vallej of Oil Creek and np all its tribrj 
whs rapidly aoqnired and developed for oil land. In some places, the oil was 
scut up with immense force, al the rate of thousands of barrels each day, and 
great trouble was experienced in bringing it cinder control and storing it. [n 

BOme eases, the force of the gas was so powerful on being accidentally fired, 
a- to defy all approach for many days, and lighted up the forests at night 

with billows of light 

Tho oil has been found in paving quantities in MeKean, Warren, Forest, 
Crawford, Venango, Clarion. Butler and Armstrong Counties, ohieflj along 
the upper waters of the Allegheny River and its tributary', the Oil Creek. It 
was first transported in barrels, and teams wore kept busy from the first dawn 
until far into the night. As soon as practicable, liues of railway were con 
struct, .,1 from nearly all the trunk lines. Finally barrels gave place to im- 
mense iron tanks riveted upon cars, provided for the escape of the gases, and 
later groat pipe lines were extended from the wells to the seaboard, ami to tho 
Great Lakes, through which the fluid is forced by steam to its distant destina- 
tions Its principal uses are for Ulunii nation and lubricating, though many 
of its products are employed in the mechanic arts, notably for dyeing, mixing 
of paints, and in the practice of medicine. Its production has grown to be 
enormous, and seems as yet to show no sign of diminution. We give an ex- 
hibit of the annual production sine ry, compiled for this work by 
William 11 Sinter, editor of the Oil City Derrick, which is the acknowledged 
authority on oil matters: 

Production of the Pennsylvania Oil Fields, compiled from the Derricl,' 
Hand-book, December, 1S83: 

82,000 1873 9,849,608 

500.000 1874 11,102,114 

1861 8,118,000 i^7o B,948,749 

8,066,606 1876 9.142,940 

2,611 899 1*77 18.052,718 

DM 8,116,182 1878 15,011,425 

8.497,712 1879 20 

1806 8,597,512 1880 24,788,950 

8.847,806 1881 29,674,458 

8,715,741 1882 81,789,190 

4,186,476 1888 24,885,966 

1870 5,808,046 

1871 5,278,076 A grand total of 248,749,558 

is;: 6,605 774 

In the fall of 1860, Andrew G. Curtin was elected Governor of Pennsyl 
vania. and Abraham Lincoln President of the United States. An organized 
rebellion, under the specious name of secession, was thereupon undertaken, 
embracing parts of fifteen States, commonly designated tho Slave States, and 
rnment established under the name of the Confederate States of America, 
i Executive and Congress, which commenced the raising of troops for 

On the 12th of April, an attack was made upon a small garrison of United 
States troops shut up in Fort Sumter. This was rightly interpreted as tho 
t in a great drama. On tho 15th, the President summoned 75,000 vol- 
unteers to vindicate the national authority, calling for sixteen regiments from 
Ivania, and urging that two be sent forward immediately, as the capital 
was without defenders 

The people of the State, having no idea that war could be possible, had no 


preparation for the event, There chanced at the time to be five companies in 
a tolerable state of organization. These were the Ringold Light Artillery, 
Capt. McKnight, of Reading; the Logan Guards, Capt. Selheimer, of Lewis- 
town; the Washington Artillery, Capt. Wren, and the National Light Infan- 
try, Capt. McDonald, of Pottsville; and the Allen Rifl&s, Capt. Yeager, of 

On the 18th, in conjunction with a company of fifty regulars, on their way 
from the West to Fort McHenry, under command of Capt. Pemberton, after- 
ward Lieut. Gen. Pemberton, of the rebel army, these troops moved by rail 
for Washington. At Baltimore, they were obliged to march two milesthrough 
a jeering and insidting crowd. At the center of the city, the regulars filed 
off toward Fort McHenry, leaving the volunteers to pursue their way alone, 
when the crowd of maddened people were excited to redoubled insults. In the 
whole battalion there was not a charge of powder; but a member of the Logan 
Guards, who chanced to have a box of percussion caps in his pocket, had dis- 
tributed them to his comrades, who carried their pieces capped and half 
cocked, creating the impression that they were loaded and ready for service. 
This ruse undoubtedly saved the battalion from the murderous assault made 
upon the Massachusetts Sixth on the following day. Before leavi ng, they were 
pelted with stones and billets of wood while boarding the cars; but, fortu- 
nately, none were seriously injured, and the train finally moved away and 
reached Washington in safety, the first troops to come to the unguarded and 
imperiled capital. 

Instead of sixteen, twenty-five regiments were organized for the three mouths' 
service from Pennsylvania. Judging from the threatening attitude assumed 
by the rebels across the Potomac that the southern frontier would be con- 
stantly menaced, Gov. Curtin sought permission to organize a select corps, 
to consist of thirteen regiments of infantry, one of cavalry, and one of artillery, 
and to be known as the Pennsylvania Reserve Corps, which the Legislature, in 
special session, granted. This corps of 15,000 men was speedily raised, and the 
intention of the State authorities was to keep this body permamently within 
the limits of the Commonwealth for defense. But at the time of the First 
Bull Run disaster in July, 1861, the National Government found itself with- 
out troops to even defend the capital, the time of the three months' men being 
now about to expire, and at its urgent call this fine body was sent forward and 
never again returned for the execution of the duty for which it was formed, 
having borne the brunt of the fighting on many a hard-fought field during the 
three years of its service. 

In addition to the volunteer troops furnished in response to the several 
calls of the President, upon the occasion of the rebel invasion of Maryland in 
September, 1862, Gov. Curtin called 50,000 men for the emergency, and 
though the time was very brief, 25,000 came, were organized under command 
of Gen. John F. Reynolds, and were marched to the border. But the battle of 
Antietam, fought on the 17th of September, caused the enemy to beat a hasty 
retreat, and the border was relieved when the emergency troops were dis- 
banded and returned to their homes. On the 19th of October, Gen. J. E. B. 
Stewart, of the rebel army, with 1,800 horsemen under command of Hampton, 
Lee and Jones, crossed the Potomac and made directly for Chambersburg, 
arriving after dark. Not waiting for morning to attack, he sent in a flag of 
trace demanding the surrender of the town. There were 275 Union soldiers in 
hospital, whom he paroled. During the night, the troopers were busy picking 
up horses — swapping horses perhaps it should be called — and the morning saw 
them early on the move. The rear guard gave notice before leaving to re- 

HISTORY Of N n\m i.v \M \. 127 

Boreal] families tram the neighborhood of the public buildings, ho they in 
tended to fire them. There waa a large amounl of fixed ammunition in them, 

which had b i captured from Longstreet's train, besides Governmenl atores 

of Bhoes. clothing and mushetB. At 1 1 o'clock the station house, round house, 
railroad machine Bhopa and warehouaea were fired and consigned t.. 
destruction The fire'departmeni waa promptly out; but il was dangerous to 
approach the burning buildings on account of the ammunition, and all 

The year 1862 waa one of intense exoitemenl and activity. From about tb<> 
LstofMay, 1861, to the end of L862, there were recruited in the State of Penn 
sylvania, one hundred and eleven regiments, including eleven of cavalry and 

tin- [ ■ three years' service; twenty- five regiments for three months; 

nonths; fifteenof drafted militia; and twenty five called oul 
Eorthee m aggregate of one hundred and ninety-three regiments— a 

grand total of over 200 000 men a greal army in itself. 

] :i jane, 1863, Gen. Kobert E. Lee, with his entire army of Northern Vir- 
ginia, invaded Pennsylvania The Army of the Potomac, under Gen. Joseph 
followed. The latter was superseded on the 28tb of JunebyGen. George 
Q. Meade. The vanguards of the army met. a mile or so out of Gettysburg on the 
Ohambersburg pike on the morning of the Isl of July. Hill's corpa of the 
rebel army waa held in check by the Bturdy fighting of a small division of 
cavalry under ( '.en. Buford until in o'clock, when Gen. Reynolds came to his 
relief with the First Corps. While Wringing his forces into action, Reynolds 
was killed, and the command devolved on Gen. Abner Doubleday, and the 
fighting became terrible, the Union forces being greatly outnumbered. At '1 
o'clock in the afternoon, the Eleventh Corps, (ion. O. O. Howard, came to the 
i But now the corps of Ewell had joined hands with Hill, 

and a full two thirds of tl ntire rebel army was on the held, opposed by 

inly the two weak Onion corps, in an inferior position. A -tardy fight Was 
however maintained until 5 o'clock, when the Union forces withdrew through 
the town, and took position upon rising ground covering the Baltimore pike. 
During the night tli - aion army came up, with the exception of the 

Sixth Corps, and took position, and ai 2 o'clock in the morning Gen. Meade 
and stall' came on the held. During the morning hours, and until 4 o'clock in 
the afternoon, the two armies were getting into position for the de 
atruggle. The Third Corps, Gen. Sickles, occupied the extreme left, hi 
abutting on the Little Round Top at the Devil's Den, and reaching, en 
through the rugged ground to the Peach Orchard, and thence along the Em- 
mettsburg pike, where it joined the Second Corps, Gen Hancock, reaching 
over Cemetery Hill, the Eleventh Corps, Gen, Howard, the First, Gen. Double- 
day, an I ih"" Twelfth. Gen Slocum. reaching across Culp'a Hill— the whole 
• -hap... To this formation the rebel army conformed, Longstreet op- 
the Union left, Hill opposite the center, and Ewell opposite the Union 
right. At 4 P. M. the battle was opened by Longstreet, on the extreme leftof 
Sickles, and the light ing rritic, the rebels making strenuous efforts 

to gain Little Bound Top But at the opportune moment a part of the Fifth 
(leu. Svkos. was brought upon that key position, and it was aai ed to 
ion aide. The slaughter in front of Round Top at the wheat-neld and 
the Peach Orchard was fearful. The Third Corps was driven back from its 
advanced position, and its commander. Gen. Sickles, was wounded, losing a 

leg. In a noor atracted position, the Union line was made secure, where it 

for the night Jual al dusk, the l.iisiana Tigers, some 1,800 men, 
made a desperate charge on Cemetery Hill, emerging suddenly from a hillock 


just back of the town. The struggle was desperate, but the Tigers being 
weakened by the fire of the artillery, and by the infantry crouching behind the 
stone wall, the onset was checked, and Carroll's brigade, of the Second Corps, 
coming to the rescue, they were finally beaten back, terribly decimated. At 
about the same time, a portion of E well's corps made ,an advance on the ex 
treme Union right, at a point where the troops had been withdrawn to send to 
the support of Sickles, and unopposed, gained the extremity of Culp's Hill, 
pushing through nearly to the Baltimore pike, in dangerous proximity to the 
reserve artillery and trains, and even the headquarters of the Union com- 
mander. But in their attempt to roll up the Union right they were met by 
Green's brigade of the Twelfth Corps, and by desperate fighting their further 
progress was stayed. Thus ended the battle of the second day. The Union left 
and right had been sorely jammed and pushed back. 

At 4 o'clock on the morning of the 3d of July, Gen. Geary, who had been 
ordered away to the support of Sickles, having returned during the night and 
taken position on the right of Green, opened the battle for the recovery of his 
lost breastworks on the right of Culp's Hill. Until lOo'clock, the battle raged 
with unabated fury. The heat was intolerable, and the sulphurous vapor 
hung like a pall over the combatants, shutting out the light of day. The 
fighting was in the midst of the forest, and the echoes resounded with fearful 
distinctness. The Twelfth Corps was supported by portions of the Sixth, 
which had now come up. At length the enemy, weakened and finding them- 
selves overborne on all sides, gave way, and the Union breastworks were re- 
occupied and the Union right made entirely secure. Comparative quiet now 
reigned on either side until 2 o'clock in the afternoon, in the meantime both 
sides bringing up fresh troops and repairing damages. The rebel leader hav- 
ing brought his best available artillery in upon his right center, suddenly 
opened with 150 pieces a concentric fire upon the devoted Union left center, 
where stood the troops of Hancock and Doubleday and Sickles. The shock 
was terrible. Rarely has such a cannonade been known on any field. For 
nearly two hours it was continued. Thinking that the Union line had been 
broken and demoralized by this fire, Longstreet brought out a fresh corps of 
some 18,000 men, under Pickett, and charged full upon the point which had 
been the mark for the cannonade. As soon as this charging column came into 
view, the Union artillery opened upon it from right and left and center, and 
reDt it with fearful effect. When come within musket range, the Union 
troops, who had been crouching behind slight pits and a low stone wall, 
poured in a most murderous fire. Still the rebels pushed forward with a bold 
face, and actually crossed the Union lines and had their hands on the Union 
guns. But the slaughter was too terrible to withstand. The killed and 
wounded lay scattered over all the plain. Many were gathered in as prisoners. 
Finally, the remnant staggered back, and the battle of Gettysburg was at an 

Gathering all in upon his fortified line, the rebel chieftain fell to strength- 
ening it, which he held with a firm hand. At night-fall, he put his trains 
with the wounded upon the retreat. During the 4th, great activity in build 
ing works was manifest, and a heavy skirmish line was kept well out, which 
resolutely met any advance of Union forces. The entire fighting force of the 
rebel army remained in position behind their breastworks on Oak Ridge, until 
nightfall of the 4th, when, under cover of darkness, it was withdrawn, and 
before morning was well on its way to "Williamsport. The losses on the Union 
side were 2,834 killed, 13,709 wounded, and 6,643 missing, an aggregate of 
23,186. Of the losses of the enemy, no adequate returns were made. Meade 

Ilismuv OP PJBNN8YLYAHIA. 129 

18,62] prisoners taken, and the losses by killed and wounded must 
have been greater than on the I'uion side. On the rebel Bide, Mnj. Gens. 

II I. Pender, Primble and Beth were wounded. Pender mortally. Brig. 

Gena BarkBdale and Garnetl were tailed, mil Somms mortally wounded. 
Kemper, Axmistead, Scales, G. T. Andorson, Hampton, ,1. M. 
James and Jenkins were wounded; Archer waa taken prisoner and Pefti^rew 
onnded and subsequently killed at Falling Waters. In the Union arms 
Maj. (ieu Reynolds and Brig, (ions. Vincent. Weed. Willard and Zook were 
killed. Maj. Gens. Sickles. Hancock, Doubleday, Gibbon, Barlow, Warren 
and Butterlield, and Brig. Gena Graham, Paul, Stone, Barnes and Brooke 
were wounded. A National Cemetery was secured on the center of the field, 
where, as Boon as the weather would permit, the dead were gathered and care- 
folly interred Of the entire number interred, :!.*> 12, Maine had 104; New 
Hampshire, 49; Vermont, 61; Massachusetts, 159; Rhode Island, 12; Con- 
necticut, 22; New York, 807; New Jersey, 7*; Pennsylvania, f>34; Delaware, 
16; Maryland, 2'.'; West Virginia, 11; Ohio, 1-1; Indiana, 80; Illinois, <>; 
Michigan, 171; Wisconsin, 7o; Minnesota. 52; United States Regulars, 138; 
unknown, 979. In the center of the field, a noble monument has been erect- 
ed, and on the 19th of November, L864, the ground was formally dedicated. 
when the eminent orator, Edward Everett, delivered an oration, and President 
Lincoln delivered the following dedicatory address: 

" Fourscore and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth upon this conti- 
nent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that 
all men are created equal Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing 
whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long en- 
dure. ^Ye are met on a great battle field of that war. We are met to dedi- 
cate a portion of it as the final resting place of those who here gave their 
lives that this nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we 
should do this. But in a larger sense we cannot dedicate, we cannot conse- 
crate, we cannot hallow this ground The brave men, living and dead, who 
straggled here have consecrated it far above our power to add or detract. 
The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can 
never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather to be dodi- 
□ the unfinished work that they have thus far so nobly carried on. 
It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us — 
that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to the cause for which 
they here gave the last full measure of devotion — that we here highly resolve 
that the dead .-hall not have died in vain: that the nation shall, under God. 
have a new birth of freedom, and that the government of the people, by the 
people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth.'' 

on as indications pointed to a possible invasion of the North by the 
rebel army under Gen. Lee, the State of Pennsylvania was organized in two 
military departments, that of the Susquehanna, to the command of which 
Darius N Couch was assigned, with headquarters at Harrieburg, and that of 
the Monongahela, under W. T. H. Brooks, with headquarters at Pittsburgh. 

calls for the militia were made, and large numbers in regiments, in 
idrons came promptly at the call to the number of over 86, 
0<K> men, who were organized for a period of ninety days. Fortifications 

town up to cover Harrisburg and Pittsburgh, and the troops were moved 

tened points. But before they could be brought into action, the great 

decisive conflict had been fought, and the enemy driven from northern soil. 

ler Gen. Brooks were moved into Ohio to aid in arresting a 

raid undertaken by John Morgan, who. with 2.000 horse and four guns, had 

crossed the Ohio River for a diversion in favor of s 


In the beginning of July, 1864, Gen. Early invaded Maryland, and made 
his way to the threshold of Washington. Fearing another invasion of the 
State, Gov. Curtin called for volunteers to serve for 100 days. Gen. Couch 
was still at the head of the department of the Susquehanna, and six regiments 
and six companies were organized, but as fast as organized they were called to 
the front, the last regiment leaving the State on the 29th of July. On the 
evening of this dav, Gens. McCausland, Bradley Johnson and Harry Gilmore, 
with 3,000 mounted men and six guns, crossed the Potomac, and made their 
way to Chambersburg. Another column of 3,000, under Vaughn and Jackson 
advanced to Hagerstown, and a third to Leitersburg. Averell, with a small 
force, was at Hagerstown, but finding himself over-matched withdrew through 
Greencastle to Mount Hooe. Lieut. McLean, with fifty men in front of Mc 
Causland, gallantly kept his face to the foe, and checked the advance at every 
favorable point. On being apprised of their coming, the public stores at Cham- 
bersburg were moved northward At six A. M. , McCausland opened his bat- 
teries upon the town, but, finding it unprotected, took possession. Ringing the 
court house bell to call the people together, Capt. Fitzhugh read an order to 
the assembly, signed by Gen. Jubal Early, directing the command to proceed 
to Chambersburg and demand $100,000 in gold, or $500,000 in greenbacks, 
and, if not paid, to burn the town. While this parley was in progress, hats, 
caps, boots, watches, clothing and valuables were unceremoniously appropriated, 
and purses demanded at the point of the bayonet. As money was not in hand 
to meet so unexpected a draEt, the torch was lighted. In less than a quarter 
of an hour from the time the first match was applied, the whole business part 
of the town was in flames. No notice was given for removing the women and 
children and sick. Burning parties were sent into each quarter of the town, 
which made thorough work. With the exception of a few houses upon the 
outskirts, the whole was laid in ruins. Retiring rapidly, the entire rebel 
command recrossed the Potomac before any adequate force could be gathered 
to check its progress. 

The whole number of soldiers recruited under the various calls for troops 
from the State of Pennsylvania was 366,000. By authority of the common- 
wealth, in 1866, the commencement was made of the publication of a history 
of these volunteer organizations, embracing a brief historical account of the 
part taken by each regiment and independent body in every battle in which it 
was engaged, with the name, rank, date of muster, period for which he en- 
listed, casualties, and fate of every officer and private. This work was com- 
pleted in 1872, in five imperial octavo volumes of over 1,400 pages each. 

In May, 1861, the Society of the Cincinnati of Pennsylvania, an organiza- 
tion of the officers of the Revolutionary war and their descendants, donated 
$500 toward arming and equipping troops. By order of the Legislature, 
this sum was devoted to procuring flags for the regiments, and each organiza- 
tion that went forth, was provided with one emblazoned with the arms of the 
commonwealth. These flags, seamed and battle stained, were returned at the 
close of the war, and are now preserved in a room devoted to the purpose in 
the State capitol— precious emblems of the daring and suffering of that great 
army that went forth to uphold and maintain the integrity of the nation. 

When the war was over, the State undertook the charge of providing for 
all soldiers' orphans in schools locuted in different parts of its territory, fur- 
nishing food, clothing, instruction and care, until they should be grown to 
manhood and womanhood. The number thus gathered and cared for has been 
some 7,500 annually, for a period of nineteen yearB, at an average annual ex- 
pense of some $600,000. 


At the election in 180R, John W. Geary, a veteran General of 1 1 n » [ate war. 
was chosen Governor. During his administration, settlements were made with 
the Genera] Government, extraordinary debts incurred during the war were 
paid) and a large reduction of the old debt of $ lO.IIOO.IKHI inherited from the 
, itfon of the canals, was made. A convention for a revision of the con- 
stitution was ordered bj act of April 11, 1872. This convention assembled in 
Harrisbnrg November 18, and adjourned to meet in Philadelphia, where it 
convened on the 7th of January. L878, and the instrument framed was adopted 
on the 18th of December, 1873. By its provisions, the number of Senators 
was increased from thirty-three to fifty, and Representatives from 100 to 201, 
subject to further increase in proportion to increase of population; biennial, 
in place of annual sessions; making tho term of Supreme Court Judges twenty - 
one in place of fifteen years; remanding a large class of legislation to the ac- 
tion of the courts; making the term of Governor four years in place of three, 
and prohibiting special legislation, were some of the changes provided for. 

In_January, 1S73, John F. Hartranft became Governor, and at the election 
in 1878, Henry F. Hoyt was chosen Governor, both soldiers of the late war. 
Ip the summer of 1877, by concert of action of the employes on the several 
lines of railway in the State, trains were stopped and travel and traffic were in- 
terrupted for several days togefher. At Pittsburgh, conflicts occurred between 
the railroad men and the militia, and a vast amount of property was destroyed. 
The opposition to the local military was too powerful to be controlled, and 
the National Government was appealed to for aid. A force of regulars was 
promptly ordered out, and the rioters finally quelled. Unfortunately, Gov. 
Hartranft was absent from the State at the time of the troubles. 

At the election in 1882, Robert E. Pattison was chosen Governor, who is the 
present incumbent. The Legislature, which met at the opening of 1883, having 
adjourned after a session of 156 days, without passing a Congressional i 
tionment bill, as was required, was immediately reconvened in extra session I , 
the Governor, and remained in session until near the close of the year, from 
June 1 to December 5, without coming to an agreement upon a bill, and 
finally adjourned without having passed one. This protracted sitting is in 
marked contrast to the session of that early Assembly in which an entire con- 
stitution and laws of the province were framed and adopted in the space of 
three days. 




1790 1829. I»ob- 

-as Mifflin .' 27,725 George Wolf,. 78,219 ^^■^^■ == Z^Sa 

Giles Lewis 7 


John W. Geary 290,552 

LtUJ .'ilium -■> - ■-?, ci TTC 

Arthur St. Clair 2,802 Joseph Eitner 51,776 

George E. Baum 

1793. Frank R. Williams., 

Thomas Mifflin 18,590 i 833 . 

F. A. Muhlenberg 10,7Ub GeQrge Wolf 91,335 A sa Packe r 285,956 

179g Joseph Ritner 88,165 w . p. Kelly. 

Thomas Mifflin.. 

W. J. Robinson.. 

1 nomas uumin ou '„„ T v ™-. oarm 

F. A. Muhlenberg 1,011 « I^r....................... 94,0.3 

Henry A. Muhlenberg.'.'.'".'.'"" 4oi5S6 John F. Hartranft 353,387 

Charles R. Buckalen 31,vt>0 

1838. S.B.Chase 1,197 

William P, Schell 12 


Thomas McKean 47,879 

James Ross, of Pittsburgh 9,499 


James Ross, of Pittsburgh 9,499 Cyrus L. Pershing 292,145 

James Ross. 7,538 David R. Porter lob.oW K J A udley Brown! 13,244 

1QnQ John Banks 113,473 s. Negley 1 

1808. T.J. Lemoyne. 763 pWenSle 1 

SnTder 67,97.5 George F. Horton.. 18 j_ w ^ rown 1 

S ae 39 575 Samuel L. Carpenter 4 . Keinnard 1 

?';!",' .. 4:t)0C Ellis Lewis 1 p. -r.Cr.lsaan 1 

John Spayd. 
W. Shields.... 
Charles Nice. 

Jack Ross , 

W. Tilghman 


Simon Snyder 52,319 

William Tighlman 3,609 

Scatt' record for whom l,b/0 


G. D. Coleman 

1 qaa James Staples. . 

1 1 °* ± - Richard Vaux. 

2 Francis R. Shunk 100,022 rraig Biddle.... 

1 Joseph Markle 156,040 Francis W. Hu; 

Julius J. Lemoy 
John Haney 


Henry C. Tyle 

W. D. Brown 

George Y. Lawrence.. 
A. L.Brown 


H. M. Hoyt 319,490 

„ , ci noq Emanuel C. Reigart 11,247 « n fl r e T jj. Dill 297,137 

Simon Snyder 51,099 Le e .. B 1,861 ™ ^,i as0D 81758 

cXrttm" . : lie C^M.Keta. . Franklin H Lane 3 53 

td i'S 4 Abyah Morrison 3 s Matson 2 

J - K - Kust 1QIQ JohnMeKee 1 

1817 18 * B - D. Kirk 1 

m -„- t- jh„- fifiTil William F. Johnston 168,522 E.L.Miller 1 

William .Findlay 66,ddl Umgstreth 16S.225 J. H. Hopkins 1 

Joseph Hiester 59,2,. E B (iazzam 48 A. G. Williams 1 

Moses Palmer J Scattering 1110 record) 24 Samuel H. Lane 1 

Aaron Hanson J ° j onn Fertig 1 

1851. James Musgrove 1 

William Bigler 186,489 silas M. Bally 1 

William F. Johnston 178,034 A. S. Post 9 

Kimber Cleaver 1,850 C. A. Cornen 3 

„„.. ' SethTocum 1 

1854. Edward E. Orvis 1 

James Pollock 203,822 

William Bigler 166,991 

John Seffer.. 
Seth Thomas.. 
Nicholas Wi 

Benjamin R. Morgan * 

William Tilghman ' 

Andrew Gregg 1 


Joseph Hiester 67,905 

William Findlay 66,300 

Scattering (no record) 21 


Rush Bradford 2,194 KobertE PaUis0Q 355,791 

1 0-7 James A. Beaver 315,589 

i00 '- John Stewart 43,743 

William F. Packer 188,846 Thomas A. Armstrong 23,996 

David Wilmot 149,139 Alfred C. Pettit 5,196 

J. Andrew Shulze 81,751 Isaac Hazlehurst 28,168 e. E. Pattison.. 

Andrew Gregg 64,151 James Pollock 

Andrew Shulze 1>2 George R. Barret 

John Andrew Shulze 7,311 William Steel 

Andrew Gragg 53 F. P. Swartz.. ........... 

Andrew Greg 1 Samuel McFarland.. 

John A. Shulze 754 George F. Horton 

Nathaniel B. Boileau 

( ant. G 
John Gi 


R. E. Beaver.. 
J. H. Hopkins.... 

W. H. Hope 

R. H. Patterson.. 

— Stewart 

J. A. Brown 

R. Smith 

— Cameron.. 


J Andrew G. Curtin 262,346 James McNali: 

Isaac Wayne 1 Henry D. Foster...' 230,239 T. A. Armstrong 

George Bryan 1 


1863. R. E. Pattison 

A.G. Curtin 269,506 William N. Drake.. 

Se',,,ennf(no record) 1,1U Thomas M. Howe 1 G. A Grow 




story of Cumberland County. 

History of Cumberland County, 


Geography— Geology— Topography, etc. 

CUMBERLAND COUNTY, although extending into the mountains along 
its northern and southern boundaries. lies mostly in the picturesque valley 
between the two great ridges. The North Mountain was called by the Indians 
Kau-t<i-ti>i-(iini)k, signifying "endless mountains," or, as some authorities give 
it. main or principal mountain. It extends in a long, smooth-topped ridge 
from northeast to BOUthwest, broken only by occasional gaps through which 
highways have been constructed leading into the counties to the northward of 
Cumberland. The South .Mountain trends in the same general direction as its 
neighbor on the north, but its surface is far more uneven. Both are covered 
with a thick growth of timber and shrubbery, in which appear such varieties as 
pine, oak, ash. willow, maple, poplar, chestnut, spruce, elm, cedar, alder, 
sumac, etc. The timber in the valley was never a heavy growth, and consisted 
mainly of a few varieties of oak. A thick brush grew in portions of the valley. 
and was easily cleared away; it was therefore a comparatively light task to 
prepare the soil for cultivation. 

Probably nowhere in the State are the colors of autumn brought out with 
more pleasing effect than in the South Mountain region of the county of Cum- 
berland. A writer upon the subject has given the following line description: 
"In the dry, burning summer month — a month in which it is hard to believe 
there are any nights — the leaf, panting, as it were, in the furnace, knows not any 
repose. It is a continual and rapid play of aspiration and respiration; a too- 
powerful sun excites it. In August, sometimes even in July, it begins to turn 
yellow. It will not wait for autumn. On the tops of the mountains yonder, 
where it works less rapidly, it travels more sh.wly toward its goal; but it will 
arrive there. AYhen September has ended, and the nights lengthen, the 
wearied trees grow dreamy; the leaf sinks from fatigue. If the light did but 
succor it still ! But the Ughl itself has grown weaker. The dews fall abun- 
dantly, and in the morning the sun no longer cares to drink them up. It looks 
toward other horizons, and is already far away. The leaves blush a marvelous 
scarlet in their anger. The sun is, as it were, an evening sun. Its long, 
oblique rays are protruded through the black trunks, and create under the 
woods some luminous and still genial tracks of light. The landscape is illum- 
inated. The forests around and above, on the hills, on the flanks of the 
mountains, seem to be on fire. The light abandons us, and we are tempted to 


think that it wishes to rest in the leaf and to concentrate within it all its rays. 
Summer is comparatively monotonous; it wears always the same verdure. 
Autumn is a fairy spectacle. Where the trees huddle close together, every 
tone of color is intermingled — pale, golden tints with glowing or slightly bur- 
nished gold, scarlet, and crimson, and every hue of blushing carnation. Every 
leaf shows color. The vivacity of the maple contrasts sharply with the gloom 
of the pine; lower down this hill, the rusty hues of the oaks; lower still, and 
all around, the drooping and fallen brambles and wild vines blend their glow- 
ing reds with the wan yellow of the grasses. It is the festival of the foliage. 

The valley in which Cumberland County is located is, with exceptional 
instances, slightly rolling, and in places nearly level. The lands along the 
Conodoguinet and other streams are more or less broken, and there is sufficient 
variety to make the landscape very attractive from almost any point of view. 

The principal and largest stream in the county is the Conodoguinet Creek, 
which rises in Franklin County and flows through Cumberland in a winding 
course, which grows exceedingly tortuous as it approaches the Susquehanna 
River, into which it empties at West Fairview, near the center of the eastern 
boundary of the county. The Conodoguinet affords abundant water-power, 
which is utilized in various places for driving the machinery of mills. Next in 
size is the Yellow Breeches (called by the Indians Callapasscinker), forming in 
part of its course the boundary line between Cumberland and York Counties. 
Its head is in the mountains in the southwest portion of Cumberland County, 
and it is a clear and very rapid stream, fed by many springs and very rarely 
freezing over in winter. Considering the size of the stream the power it affords 
is wonderful ; upon it and its various branches are mills, forges and furnaces. 
Tributary to the Conodoguinet, Main's Run is the chief from the South. 
It rises at the foot of South Mountain, flows northward and forms the boundary 
line along its course (eight miles) between Cumberland and Franklin Coun- 
ties, passing through Shippensburg, and emptying into the Conodoguinet a 
few miles north of that place. Other streams of more or less importance in 
the county are Newburgh Run, Peebles Run, Hollow Run, Brandy Run, 
Whiskey Run, Back Run, Big Run, Lick Run, Stine's Run, Parker's Run, 
and others, all discharging into the Conodoguinet from the North ; Milesburn's 
Run, Quartersman's Run, Big Spring, Green Spring, Letort Creek, and others 
from the South, besides Cedar Run, Log Run, Mountain Creek, Spruce Run, 
Clark's Run, and many smaller ones. A number of the streams in the county 
have their sources in large springs, some of them furnishing excellent water- 
power, notably one which rises at Springfield, south of Newville, Letort' s, 
Silver Spring, Big Spring, etc. At Mount Rock, seven miles west of Car- 
lisle, a stream issues from a large spring in the limestone, sinks into the earth 
after a short course, passes under a hill and reappears on the other side. 
Springs in various places are strongly impregnated with sulphur and other 
mineral substances. Carlisle Springs, in Middlesex Township, four miles 
northeast of Carlisle, was at one time a favorite summer resort, and a hotel 
was erected for the accommodation of guests; but the building was burned and 
the business of the Springs declined. 

The agricultural resources of the county are very great, "equal," says Dr. 
Egle, ' 'to any other county of the same population in the State. The farms 
are highly cultivated and produce large crops of corn, wheat, oats, ■ etc, while 
fruits, of most kinds grown in the latitude; are generally abundant. The min- 
eral belt of the county lies principally in the South Mountain region, where 
great quantities of iron ore exist. It has been the source of much wealth, and 
numerous furnaces and forges have turned out a vast product of pig metal and 
forged iron from the ores close at hand. 


Owlogical— While not of great variety, the geologies] formations which 
appear in Cumberland County are very interesting, from the fad thai they 
tell of an early period in the historj >'( the earth as we now Bee it. Leaving 
the red sandstone of Fork and Adams Counties, with it- Boft, crumbling shales 
imd beautiful conglomerates, a bed of primary rock is found in the long ridge 
of the South Mountain, and overlying it is a " hard, white, compaoi sandstone, 

almost purelj silicious, and sometimes exhibiting evident I the heating 

ageno] of the rocks beneath bj its excessive hardness, its ringing sound when 

struck, its splintery fracture, and occasional discoloration." 11 Nexl 

this sandstone, in regular order, and extending from the northern base of the 

S, ,uth Mountain moiv than half wa\ across I he valley to the northward, is a 

belt of limestone, the presence of which gives to the soil of the region its agricul- 
tural value. It is easilj traced in n continuous line from the Delaware Kiver 
westward and Bouthwestward into Maryland and Virginia. It has generally a 
bluish color, is very hard and sometimes is grayish or nearly black. It is 

largely used as ballast along the line of the Cumberland Valley Railroad, be 
ing broken into fragments for the purpose, and forming a solid road bed. For 
the most part it i- quite pure, and when burned yields excellent lime; but in 
place- it contain- sand, clay and oxide ,.f iron easily discernible. There are 
also, sometimes met with in this formation, bands and nodules of chert, or 
tlint. usually of a dark color; and fossil -hells and zoophyte- peculiar to the 
era in which the rock was laid down are found plentifully in some localities. 
It i- a well known fact that upon a limestone -oil the agriculturist meets with 
BXCellenl reward for his labors, and such is the case here, some of tin 
agricultural district- in Pennsylvania lying along this formation in the beauti- 
ful Cumberland Valley. 

Above this limestone, however, in a district which in Cumberland County 
is included in a strip extending southward from the base of the North, or Kit- 
tatiimv Mountain, is a black or bluish slate, sometimes varying in color to gray, 

Olive Or yellowish. The land- where this exists are colder and not so valuable 
for farming purposes as those lying upon the limestone, though in the latter 

it is often □ Bsary to blast and quarry away outcropping ridges of the rock 

in order that the plan- of cultivation may lie more easily carried out. The 
slate land- are made fairly productive by the use of lime and other manures. 
A peculiar feature i- a d_\ ke or -earn of trap rock, or greenstone, which extends 
entirely aero-- the valley east of the center of the county, and which doubt- 
less forms a continuation of the -ame ridge seen both to the south and north 
of this county, penetrating the mountains in both directions. It is of igneous 
origin, and was forced upward from the intensely heated interior, through 
the overlying formations, to the surface. The contiguous rocks were so dis- 
colored and hardened by the upheaval of the trap that in some places they 
bear little resemblance to the body of the rock of which they really form a 

Along the border of the limestone district, or in the soil above it. are vain- 
able beds of iron ore. which in some localities have been and are being exten- 
sively worked. In Penn Township. Cumberland County, on Mountain Creek, 
a detached bed of limestone appears, surrounded by the white or mountain 
sandstone. Growing on the latter, in an extremely thin soil, is timber which 
affords fuel for the furnaces. Connected with this isolated limestone district 
is a deposit of brown argillaceous and hematite iron ore, which has been 
worked since a very early period in the history of the county. "Along the 
northern side of the South Mountain, near the contact of the white sand-tone 

•Trego's Geography of Pennsylvania, 1843. 


with the limestone, iron ore is abundant and is extensively mined for the sup- 
ply of furnaces. Further north and wholly within the limestone formation, 
pipe ore and other varieties of excellent quality may be obtained in many 

The rocks of the NorthMountain are coarse gray and reddish sandstone, val- 
uable neither for building nor mineral purposes. Like the South Mountain 
they are covered with a dense growth of the varieties of timber which flourish 
in the region. Of the ores which occur in the limestone formations of the val- 
ley, a valued writer speaks as follows: "Beneath the surface are inexhaustible 
deposits of magnetic iron, conveniently near to valuable beds of hematite, 
which lie either in fissures', between the rocky strata, or over them in a highly 
ferruginous loam. This hematite is of every possible variety, and in immense 
quantities. When it has a columnar stalactite structure, it is known under 
the name of pipe ore, and it is found abundantly along the slopes of the valley 
of the Yellow Beeches. It usually yields a superior iron, and at the same 
time is easily and profitably smelted. It generally produces at least 50 per 
cent of metallic iron. The beds are frequently of extraordinary extent, and the 
actual depth to which they reach has not been determined. Over a space of 
ten acres a number of holes have been opened, from sixteen to forty-two feet 
in depth, without going through the vein. Together with the magnetic ore 
these hematite beds, many of which remain untouched, are sufficient for sup- 
plying a large part of the manufacture of the United States. But in the val- 
ley there are traces, also, of sulphuret of copper (the blue vitriol of commerce), 
red and yellow ochre and chrome ores, alum earth, copperas ores, porcelain 
earth, and clay for stone- ware, common glazed ware and fire bricks ; also epsom 
salts, shell lime, marl, manganese, and valuable marbles. * * * In every part of 
the limestone region tho earth resounds under the tread of the traveler, and 
numerous sink-holes communicate with caverns or running streams beneath 
them. These constitute a natural drainage, which is amply sufficient for all 
the ordinary demands of the highest culture. Two or three caves have been 
discovered and entered, which have been esteemed as curiosities. The most 
wonderful of these is on the bank of the Conodoguinet, about a mile north from 
Carlisle. It is under a small limestone cliff, not more than thirty feet high 
above the surface of the creek; but through a semi-circular arched entrance, 
froni seven to ten feet high and ten in width, it descends gradually to an ante- 
chamber of considerable size. From this a vaulted passage large enough to 
allow one to walk erect extends 270 feet, to a point where it branches off in 
three directions. One on the right is somewhat difficult on account of the 
water which percolates through the rocks on every side, but leads to a large 
chamber of great length. The central one is narrow and crooked, and has 
never been completely explored on account of a deep perpendicular precipice 
which prevents all progress beyond about thirty feet. The other passage is 
smaller and has but little interest. In different parts are pools of water, sup- 
posed by some to be springs, but as they have no outflow they are more prob- 
ably formed from drippings from the surrounding rocks. Human bones have 
been found in it. and no doubt it has been used as a place of refuge or tempo- 
rary lodgment by the Indians. No such articles as are usually deposited 
with their dead have yet been discovered. " f 

Another cave has been discovered on the bank of the Conodoguinet. in the 
township of West Pennsborough, about one and a half miles north of Greason. 
The opening is about 10 feet wide and 6 feet high, extending back about 10 

"History of Cumberland County," 1S79. 


bet; then 8 (eel wide and L6 teel high (or a diatanoe of 38 feet. Then 

another room is reached LOzlO feet, and LS feet high, fr which a pas 

■age leads to a similar r a aol bo Large, bnl with a high oeiling; thence 

a long narrow passage ..pens into a n i 10 tee! in oircumference and 

the aame height as the others, and from this another small passage lead? 
to near the place of entrance. This oave abounds in stalactites and many 
curious shapes. 

It l- said that the white men who first came to the valley were greatly im 
with it- beauty and the natural productions of the soil. The grass 
waa rich and luxuriant, wild fruits were abundant, and there was a great vari 
ety of tree- in place-, including numerous species of oak, black and white 
walnut (butternut), hickory, white, red and sugar maple, cherry, locust, sassa- 
fras, chestnut, ash, elm. iinden. beech, white pine and scrub pine. There 
was also a shrub growth of laurel, plum, juniper, persimmon, hazel, wild cur- 
rant, gooseberry, blackberry, raspberry, -pice bu-h and sumach, while in the 
open country the strawberry, dewberry and wintergreen made a luscious car- 
peting and furnished to the Indians in their season a tempting and welcome 
partial supply of d » «l 


Pioneers— " Louther Manor," etc.— Taxes Paed from 1736 to 1749— Earliest 
Lot of Taxables in Ci mbebland Coi my First Settlers in the North 
Valley— Taxables intiik Coxtnttin 1768— Early Settlers -Who am- 
kals and Fish— Custom*) and Habit — Formation of Townships and Boe- 
oughs— Lands. 

BEFORE any attempts at permanent settlement were made in the valley the 
region was known to and explored by traders among the Indians, who had 
posts in various places on the frontier. Some of these traders were in reality 
emissaries of the French ( rovernment, sent among the Indians for the purpose of 
seducing them from their allegiance to the English, and the proprietary gov- 
ernment regarded them with Watchful jealousy. On the 22d of July, 1707, 
Gov. Evans laid before the council at Philadelphia an account of his journey 
among the Susquehanna Indians, in which he mentions Martines Chartieres as 
being located at Pequehan (now Pequea), at the mouth of the creek of the same 
name in Lancaster County, where was an Indian town also bearing the name. 
Nicole Godin was a trader near Peixtan, and he was decoyed and captured dur- 
ing the journey, put on a horse with his legs tied under the animal's belly, and 
taken to Philadelphia and imprisoned. Peter Bezallion. who had a license, re- 
sided near the mouth of Peixtan or Paxton Creek, and James Le Tort was also 
a trader in the region. Bezallion and Le Tort were both in prison in 17o'.i for 
sundry offenses. Chartieres was known as "Martin Chartieres, the French 
glover of Philadelphia."* Other traders were in the neighborhood. The 
post of Chartieres, or as it is more commonly given, Chartier, was on the east 
bank of the Susquehanna, about three miles below Columbia, Lancaster 
County, and the Penns gave him a large tract of land on Turkey Hill, in that 
county. He died, in April. 1718, much esteemed. His son, Peter Chartier, 

•Noim on Lancaster County in Day's Hist. Coll., p. S91. 


after living a few years at his father's place, moved to the neighborhood of 
New Cumberland, in the southeast corner of Cumberland County, where he 
established a trading post. He subsequently removed to a point on the Ohio 
River below Pittsburgh, where a creek now bears his name. He was all his 
life an Indian trader, and finally becoming a resident among the Indians, took 
sides with them against the English.* Peter Chartier was not, however, one 
of the first actual settlers in this county, for it was not until 1740 that he pur- 
chased 600 acres of land lying in the southeast corner of what is now Lower 
Allen Township, bounded east by the Susquehanna, and south by the Yellow 

James Le Tort (now written Letort) was a French-Swiss, who acted as an 
Indian interpreter and messenger to the government. He was also a trader, 
and very early built a cabin at the spring at the head of the run which now 
bears his name. His first cabin is said to have been burnt by the Indians. It 
was built as early as 1720. So far as known, he was the first white man to 
have an abode, even temporarily, in what is now Cumberland County. His 
location was near Carlisle, at a place since known as Beaver Pond. Letort 
was a man of excellent reputation. He received £12 annually from the 
government for his services. 

Before the Indian title to the lands west of the Susquehanna had been 
extinguished, the Government authorized Samuel Blunston, of Lancaster 
County, to issue to the settlers licenses allowing them to go and improve the 
land, a title to which should be granted as soon as the land office should be 
opened. These documents were known as " Blunston' s licenses," and many 
of the earlier settlers held them previous to 1736. 

Andrew Ralston. — Authentic information points to the fact that this per- 
son settled at the "Big Spring," either in Newton or West Pennsborough 
Township, in 1728. Ralston was a native of County Armagh, Ireland, and 
upon applying at the land office for a warrant, soon after it was opened, he 
stated that he had occupied the land "ye past eight years." The following is 
a verbatim copy of the license directed to be issued to him at that time.f 

Lancaster County, ss. 

By Order of the Proprietary: 

These are to license and allow Andrew Ralston to Continue to Improve and Dwell on 
a Tract of Two Hundred acres of land on the Great Spring, a branch of Conedogwainet, 
Joyning to the Upper Side of a Tract Granted to Randel Chambers for the use of his son, 
James Chambers; To be hereafter surveyed to the s'd Ralston on the Comon Terms Other 
Lands in those parts are sold, provided the same has not been already Granted to any 
other person, and So much can be had without Prejudice to other Tracts before Granted. 
Given under my hand this third day of January, Ano: Dom: 1736-7. Sa: Blunston. 
Pensilvania, ss. 

Indorsed: License to Andrew Ralston, 200 acres. 

The land was subsequently surveyed to him by Samuel Blunston, surveyor 
of Lancaster County, of which it was then a part. Mr. Ralston had two 
daughters, who married a Hayes and a Dickey, and a son, David, who 
remained at Big Spring for many years, but finally removed to Westmoreland 
County, and died about 1810. 

Tobias Hendricks located in the valley before Andrew Ralston, possibly 
previous to 1725. He was a son of Tobias Hendricks, of Donegal. It is posi- 
tively certain he was west of the Susquehanna in 1727, for in a letter to John 
Harris, dated May 13 that year, he speaks of his father "at Donegal," and 
requests Mr. Harris to forward a letter to him. He also alludes to " a trader" 
at the Potomac of whom he purchased skins, and also of the ' ' grate numbers 

•Samuel Evans, in Notes and Queries, Tart I, p. 17. 
tNotes and Queries, Part I, p. 19.— Dr. H. W. Egle. 


i *n«ning this side of ye Sasquahannah. " The Sootch Irish emigration had 
then began and the vallej was being rapidly settled.* Whether Bendricks 
e a permanent Bettler is not stated. 
The Chambers Brothers. Poor brothers, James, Robert, Joseph and 
Benjamin Chambers, from Count] Antrim, [reland, were among the verj 6rsi 
to cross the Sosqnehanna and settle apon lands in the North Valley. The] 
landed al Philadelphia in 1726, and pnshing westward located at the month of 
Fishing Creek, on the east hank of the Susquehanna, a few miles above Har- 
rry, where they 1 milt a mil] which was a great convenience for the 
' settlers over I huge tract of country. Benjamin, the youngest, was but eighl 
age when the brothers came to this country, and he died Febru 
ary IT. 1788, aged eighty years. No! long after their settlement at Pishing 
Creek the brothers became attracted b) the prospect for procuring fine farms 
west of the river, and in or before 1730 crossed over and settle. i at di 
places: "James at the head of Green Spring, near Newville; Robert at the 
Middle Spring, near Shippensburg; and Joseph and Benjamu 

Palling Spring and the Con icheagui 1 . where Chambers 

burg now stands." Joseph soon returned to Fishing Creek: the others 
remained where tiny had settled and became prominent and influential citizens 
in man. 

It would appear thai the land included in the Louther .Manor, in thi i 
era part of the county, was ver) earl} the home of white settlers. That tract. 
being first laid out as a hunting ground for the Delawaresand Shawnees, three 
men were appointed to visit the Indians whither the] had gone upon tic 
branches of the Ohio, and induce them to return. The] had left this region 
partly on account of the encroachments of white settlei upon their lands, and 
partly through the efforts of emmissaries of the French in the guise of trader.-. 
The three persons mentioned indited a document as follows: 

I'ksii-i ■ \ n k . I Nov. ye 19th, 1781. 
.</ Peter Chartiere, This is to Acquaint Thee that Bj the Comisioners' and the 
Qovernour's ordei V\ i ou quehanna, To Laj out a Tract ot I 

ivainel & Thi t reeks Bveor su miles Sack from the oi 

dcr to accomodate the Shaawna In. linn- oi sucl others as ma] see in to Settle then- To 

■ also orders to I lis] is ill Person Set 

tied on lb ["hose woods may Remain free to ye I ml cm- for Plant- 

Hunting, And We Desire thee to Comunicate this to the Indians who Live About 

Thy Assured Ff'ds, 

Johh Wright, 
Tom is Hendricks, 
Bam'j r.i.i s 

As seen elsewhere the Indian- did not return; the above simpl] shows that 
white persons had settled in the eastern part of the count) as early as 1731, 
ami probablj earlier, Peter Chartier had been appointed a trader by the 

court at Ll and lie married a Shawanese squaw. His -; 

sertion to t : has been noted. 

"The intlnx of immigrants into North or Cittatinny Valley," says Mr. 
Rnpp, "increased East after 17'U. In IT In the number of taxable* was about 

800, .and the population rising to 3,000. As earl] as 1735 a r I was laid out 

from Harris* Ferry toward the Potomac river. November I. 1735, the court 
at I ter appointed Handle chambers, Jacob Peat, James Silvers, Thomas 

Eastland, John Lawrence and Abram Endless, to lay out said road. These 

uidQurlea, Part I, p. 18, 
■ink, Pelxtan orPaxton, was the original name of the manor. 

in name of stream. Delaware language, 

«Fruu articleon Luuther Manor, by I>r. .1. A. .Muo . 


gentlemen made a report February 3, 1736, of their views of the road, which 
was opposed ' by a considerable number of the inhabitants on the west side of 
the Susquehanna in those parts, ' and praying for a review. The court then or- 
dered that William Rennick, Richard Hough, James Armstrong, Thomas 
Mayes, Samuel Montgomery and Benjamin Chambers view the road, and to 
make such alterations in it as to them may seem necessary for the public good, 
and report their proceedings to next court. They made the following report, 
May 4, 1736 : ' That they had reviewed the eastern most part of the said road, 
and find it very crooked and hurtful to the inhabitants, etc. , and therefore have 
altered the said road and marked it in the manner following, to-wit : From the 
said ferry, near to a southwest course about two miles; thence a westerly 
course to James Silvers', then westward to John Hogg's meadow; then west- 
ward to a fording place on Le Tort' s spring, a little to the northward of John 
Davison'6; thence west northerly to the first marked road in a certain hollow; 
thence about southwest a little to the south of Robert Duning' s, to the former 
marked road; thence along the same to the Great Spring head, being as far as 
any review or alteration to them appeared necessary,' which so altered as 
above said, and altered from the return to go by James Silvers' house, was al- 
lowed to be recorded. ' ' 

The North Valley (now constituting Cumberland and Franklin Counties) 
was divided in 1735 into two townships, called Pennsborough and Hopewell, 
and the line dividing them was thus described: ' ' That a line running northerly 
from the Hills to the southward of Yellow Breeches (crossing in a direct line 
by the Great Spring) to Kightotinning Mountain, be the division line; and 
that the easternmost township be called Pennsborough and the western Hope- 
well." Hopewell was divided in 1741 "by a line beginning at the North 
Hill, at Benjamin Moor's; thence to Widow Hewre's and Samuel Jamison's, 
and on a straight line to the South Hill, and that the western division be 
called Antrim, and the eastern Hopewell." This was before the organization 
of Cumberland County. 

Taxes and Collectors. — Table of taxes paid, and names of collectors in town- 
ships in what is now Cumberland County, from 1736 to 1749: 

1736 — Pennsborough, £13 17s. 6d. ; James Silvers, collector. Hopewell, 
£5 2s. 

1737— Pennsborough, £13 9s. 9d. East part of Hopewell, £3 2s. ; west 
part of Hopewell, £2 19s. 

1738— Pennsborough, £20 14s. Od. East part of Hopewell, £10 0s. 3d.; 
west part of Hopewell, £7 7s. 9d. 

1739 — Pennsborough, £23 16s. 8d. ; William Tremble, collector. South 
part of Hopewell, £11 8s. Id. ; Jacob Snebly, collector. North part of Hope- 
well, £6 lis. 6d. ; Abraham Endless, collector. 

1740 — West part of Pennsborough, £11 4s. 7d. ; Robert Dennin, collector. 
East part of Pennsborough, £14 18s. 7d. ; John Walt, collector. East Hope- 
well, £4 0s. 2d. ; James Laughlin, collector. West Hopewell, £4 19s. 3d. ; 
Philip Davis, collector. 

1741 — Pennsborough, £17 15s. lOd. ; Robert Redock, collector. Hopewell, 
£3 8s. 9d. ; James Montgomery, collector. 

1742 — West end of Pennsborough, £7 19s. 2d. ; William Weakly, collector. 
East end of Pennsborough, £16 7s. 8d. ; John Swansey, collector. Hopewell, 
£5 lis. 4d. ; David Herren, collector. 

1743 — East end of Pennsborough, £9 0s. 6d. ; John Semple, collector; West 
end of Pennsborough, £10 7s. 3d. ; Robert Miller, collector. Hopewell, £6 
16s. lid. ; Henry Hallan, collector. 

history OP CUMBBBLAMD 0OUNT1 11 

17H West end of Pennsborough, £22 Lb.; John Mitchell, collector; east 
end of PennsboTongh, t'l" l'Js. Til.; Thomas Fisher, collector. Hopewell, 
jL I • » 18b. 2d | Tli t; . oolleotor. 

171.". Weal Pennsborough, E2S Lb. Lid. ; James Chambers, collector; East 
Pennsborough, 618 l- ; John M>« 'i .-i.-l. m. .-> .Il.i-1. .r. Hopewell, £1- It's. Id.; 
William Thompson, colli 

IT 4 < > East Pennsborough, £10 5a.; John Rankin, collector; \\ . I I'ouns 
borough, £13 Is. 8&; James McFarlin, collector. Hopewell, £9 17s. 9d.; 
John Erwin, collector. 

L747— East Pennsborough, £10 L2s. ; Joseph Green, oolleotor; West l'enns- 
barough, £13 I s -. 6d.; Patrick Davis, collector. Hopewell, £12 7s. Til.; John 
Onrrej . collector. 

ITts East Pennsborough, £12 2s.; Christopher Huston, collector; West 
1 orough, £14 L4s. 6d. ; William Dunbar, collector. Hopewell. £13 13s. 

8d ; James W alter, collector. 

L749 East Pennsborough, £23 L6s. 6d.; Tobias Hendricks, collector; West 
borough, £28 8s. 9cL; Archibald McAllister, collector. Hopewell, £43 
Ba 9A; John Kirkpatriok, collector. 

in Township we do not give as it was outside the present limits of 
Cumberland County, being in Franklin. 

Earliest List of Taxables. The earliest list of taxables in Cumbe 
County, as given by Mr. Rupp in the history of Dauphin, Cumberland and other 
counties, is a- follows: 

East Pennsborough, 1750. Tobias Hendricks, Widow Jane Woods. Samuel 

Calhoon, Thomas Spray. Thomas Kenny, -lames Shannon, James Dickey, John 

Bigham, Samuel Chambers. William Barrehill, William Noble, William Craw 

ford. William Met Ihesney, Richard Fulton. John MoClellan, William I lose. A dam 

in, William Shannon, JohnSemple, Charles West, Christopher H 

Walker Buchanan. 1 >a\ id II 1. .lames Armstrong. Hugh Wharton, Edward El- 

iot, Francis McGuire, William Findley, Josias McMeans, Hugh Mahool, Rob 
rithers, William Ross, Benry Qnigly, William Morton. John Armstrong. 
John Buchanan. Nathaniel Nelson, John Nailer. Andrew Armstrong, Thomas 
MoCormick, John Dickey, John McCracken, Widow Clark. Widow McMeans, 
Eliot, Robert Eliot, Jr., James Corrithers, William Gray, Alexander 
Lamferty, John Willey, Robert Duning, Joseph Junkin, William Walker, 
Alex Armstrong, Moses Star, James Crawford, Roger Cook. Hugh Cook, Will- 
iam Miller, John MoCormick, Jamer Silvers, John Stevenson, James Coleman, 
David Waason, John Hunter, William Douglas, John Mitchel, Andrew Mile 
kin. John Mil. 'Liu. Patrick Holmes, James Finley, Peter Shaver (Shaver was a 
trader among the Indians and waa employed by Gov. Thomas, in 1741, to car- 
ry tetters to the Shawanese Indians on the Ohio inviting them to come to Phil- 
adelphia., loin. Erwin, William Carrithers, Widow Quigly, Samuel Martin, 
William Hamilton. Robert . John Waugli. Thomas Rankin, Richard 

Rankin. John Clendenin. Joseph Waugli. Widow Roberts, Thomas Henderson, 
i Hamilton, William Marshal. William Miller, Wilson Thomas, VI. ■•■. 
Crocket. Widov» Branan, Thomas Calvert. William Griffith. Robert Bell, Will- 
Lam Orr, James McConnel, John Bowan, Robert McKinley, Samuel Fisher, 
auel McCormiok, Rowland Chambers, Robert Helton, Lsaac 
Rutlidge, Rowland McDonald. Walter Gregory, Widow Stewart. James Mc 
Tear, Peter Leest or. LMor Title, Joseph Willie, Anthony McCue, James Beaty, 
William Crocket, Andrew Miller, Robert Roseborough, Joseph Green, James 
Douglas, Widow Steel, Widow McKee, Joseph Reynolds, Jr. Freemen Will 
iam Hogg. Ceorge Crogham, Esq. , Jonathan Hogg, Samuel Huston, John Gilke- 


son, Robert Airs, Abraham Hendricks, Archibald Armstrong, Joseph Ferret, 
Clime Horal, Daniel Campbell, William McDonald, Matthew Lindham, J. 
Armstrong, Cornelius Brown, Hugh Shannon, Robert Walker, Nathaniel Wil- 
son, Matthew Brown (two silversmiths at William McChesney' s), John Adams, 
David Kenworthy, James Gaily, William McTeer, Edward Ward, Arthur Er- 
win, James Clark, William Cranula — total 190, 

West Pennsborough 1751. — William Queery, William Lamont, Archibald 
McAllister, William Carithers, John Davison, Allen Leeper, Neal McFaul, 
John McClure (the less), William Logan, John Atchison, Thomas McCoy, 
Charles Gillgore, Andrew Griffin, William Dunbar, William Harkness, Will- 
iam Patton, Samuel McClure, Robert Walker, James Kirkpatrick, John Swan- 
sy, Arthur Clark, Adam Hays, James McMeans, John Deniston, John Mcln- 
tire, James McFarland, William Laughlin, Robert Brevard, Robert McQueston, 
James Peebles, John McClure (mountain), Alex McClure, John Langley, John 
Gordon, William Livingston, Robert Guthrie, William Anderson, John Glass, 
John Logan, William Duglass, Alex Erwin, Alex Logan, William Townsley, 
William Parker, Margaret Parker, Andrew Forbush, John Morrison, David 
Kollogh, George Brown, Francis Cunningham, Alex Robb, Anthony Gillgore, 
Jacob Peebles, Samuel Wilson, Allen Scroggs, David Kenedy, Mary Dunn- 
ing, William Carithers, John Carithers, John Chestnut, Thomas' Patton, 
Andrew Ralston, John McClung, Ezekiel Dunning, James Lea, John Lusk, 
Alex McBrtde, James McNaught, William Blackstock, James Crutchlow, Will- 
iam Dunlap, Thomas Evans, Steven Cesna, James Weakly, David Hunter, 
Josh Cornelius, Alex Weyly, Lewis Hutton, James Warnock. David Dunbar, 
David Miller, John Wilson, Josh Thomson, Josh Dempsay, Samuel Lindsay, 
Paul Piercy, Owen McCool, Pat Robeson, Thomas Parker. Freemen — Samuel 
Wilson, James McMunagle, David McCurdy, Pat Reynolds, Andrew- McAdams, 
John McCurdy— total 95. 

Middleton, 1751. — AYilliam Trent, Thomas Wilson, John Elder, John 
Chambers, Robert McNutt, James Long, John Mahafy, James Reed, John 
Moor, John Craighead, James Dunlop, Patrick Hawson, Walter Denny, James 
Gillgore, Patrick Davison, Thomas Elder, Henry Dinsmore, John Mitchell, 
Samuel Lamb, James Williams, James Matthews, Alexander Sanderson, 
James Henderson, Matthew Miller, John Davis, William Graham. William 
Campbell, William Parkeson, Francis McNichley, John McKnaught, John 
Calhoun, William Peterson, John Robb, Robert Graham, Samuel McLucass, 
Daniel Williams, George Sanderson, Alexander Sanderson, Joseph Clark, John 
McClure, Jonathan Holmes, James Chambers, Thomas Armstrong, William 
Waddel, James • McConnell, Richard Nicholson, John Neely, John McC'rea, 
John Stuart, Archibald Kenedy, John Jordan, William Jordan. George Tem- 
pleton, James Stuart, Richard Venable, Widow Wilson, David Dreanan, John 
Dinsmore, Samuel Gauv, William Davison, Samuel Bigger. Thomas Gibson, 
John Brown, John McKinley, Robert Campbell, John Kinkead, Samuel Wil- 
son, Robert Patterson, John Reed, Robert Reed, James Reed. William Reed, 
William Armstrong, James Young, Robert Miller, William Gillachan, Josh 
Davies, William Fleming, John Gilbreath, Richard Coulter, Richard Kilpat- 
rick, Andrew Gregg, Robert Thomson, John Dicky, James Brannan, John Mc- 
Clure, John Buyers, Arthur Foster, Harmanus Alrichs,* John Armstrong, 
John Smith, William Buchanan, William Blyth, John McAllister, William 
Montgomery, John Patterson, Robert Kilpatrick, Archibald McCurdy, William 
Whiteside, John Woodle, William Dillwood, William Huston, Thomas Lock- 

i liis own handwriting 

QovumM >• 1 1 f/iAM 

HIST0R1 OP CUilBERU 1 ."> 

win. I. Thomas Bendereoi ' o, James Donning, William w 

Gi \ Lexander I ' [c Bride, R< herl R< ibb, I 

John Bell, Arthur 
Bnohanan, Roberl Guthrie, Berrj Cackel, Cornelius MoAdam . Lndrev Wo 
Intire, Alexander Roddy, Josh Price, Eugh Laird, William Widov, 

i . Abraham Snnford, Mi — Moor, Joseph Gaylie, Charles Mahaufy, 

: Kerr, Hugh Creanor, Will - Wil] 

Chadwi Middleton and Carlisle Lndrev< Holmes, Jonathan 

I 1 ' ■ ael, William w il on, Patrick Loag, 

I Patterson, William Kinaird, GeorgeCrisp, Hugh Laird, V, i : 
James Tait, Patrick Kearney, Arthur Poster, James i Elmore, 

i ban Hains, William Rai tee < tambel, John 

w 1- total, L58. 

Hopewell Township, 1751. Roberl Gibson, David Heron, Moses Do 

- Donald, I Daniel McDonald, John Eliott, Alexander 

McClintock, James McFarland, Joshua McClii 

Thomson, Josh Thomson, Josh Thomson, Jr., Roberl McDowell, James Mc 
Powell, Robert Rusk, John Sorogs, William Walker, William Con 
Thomas Gaw] Hamilton, John Laughler, Josh Gair, Samuel W 

, David Kidd John Hodge, Roberl MeOombs, Thomas 
Micky, John n. Andrew Mcllvain. George Han 

John Thomson, William' Montgomery, Roberl Simeon, John 

Brown, Allen Nisbit, John Neebit, Jr., John Nesbit, Sr., Ji 

drew Peeble, John ' Patrick Hannah, John Tr ble, Moses Stuart, 

William Reigny, John Moorhead, James '■ ■ iuel Stuart, Robei 

inson, David Newell, Ji Murray, Joseph Boggs, John 

LyBee, Andrew Leokey, John Montgomery, John Beaty, James Walker, \\ illiam 
Bmyley, Jan re, Roberl Meek, Dr. William McGofreck, James Jack, 

I June, Charles Cumins. Samuel Wier, 
John McCune, Jr., Josh v rahan, Alien Kollogh, James Young, 

Francis Newell, John Quigly, Roberl Stuart, Samuel Montgomery, Daniel 
Mickey. Andrew .1 Roberl Chambers, W ill 

iam Thomson, Edward L ander Scrogg, John ughlin, 

John Laughlin, Jr., Robert Du y, David Simrel, Samuel Walker, U>ra 

ham Walker, .lames Paxfc I i dey, Samuel Cellar, W. Mc< 

John Miller, Daniel O'Cain, John 
■■' .aw I Magaw- Ed | John Reynolds, I n 

ble, William Andei Dunlop, John Reym 

William Dunlop, Widot orge Cumin,, Thomas Finley, Al< 

Fairbairn, John Mason, J •!, William Gibson, II. -race Brattan, Jo] 

era, Patrick Mullan, .lames Blair, Peter Walker, John Stevenson 
, John Ignue. Freemen — Joh Ibsh Edmonson, John Callwell, 

iichison (skinni r), P. Miller total, L34. 
First Settlers. The first Bottlers in the North Valley and the region to the 
northward, embraced in what v.- ad County, were mostly Scotch-Irish, 

n tearless and aggressive \ pie who were impatient at the delays of thi 

office, and b ; as L740 12 to settle on Ian ch the Indiau 

title ha fully extinguished. A I -them. 

and the settlements were icipally on the Juniata River, Shearman's 

Creek, Tuscarora Path (or Path Valley), in the little and big caves formed bj 
theKittatiuny andTn-carora Mountains and by the Big and Little Conolloways. 
The Indians verj naturally regarded them as in1 

e matters in their own way if the Government failed to pul a st. i] 


proceedings. Measures were promptly adopted. ''The secretary of the 
provLce, Mr. Richard Peters, and the interpreter, Mr. Conrad Weiser, were 
directed to proceed to the county of Cumberland, in which the new settlements 
lay and to expel the intruders. They were joined by the magistrates of the 
county.V defegates from the Six Nations, a chief of the Mohawks and Andrew 
Montour, an interpreter from Ohio. The commissioners met with little resist- 
ance in he execution of their duty, a few only of the settlers, under an a£ 
prehension of imprisonment, making a show of opposition. All readily entered 
fnto recognizance for their appearance at the next sessions and many aided to 
reduce their own habitations to ashes in the presence of the magistrates and 

attendant Indians."* 

' e FollowingTs the report of the proceedings made to the governor by Mr. 
Peters, under date of July 2, 1750: 
T ° 3 ^ a ^Z^u?2k^-m.WeLlT^r^e A your Honor's orders to give 


"" A? M? Cr'oX" "' m'l With «v. Indian,. in™ from SU.mokin. two of trtiej «,. 

"'SKX'SS ™ held M U» i».»»ce of th. Indian., in tie pre.™, of Mr 
M £ ,."d Mr "rogh.n, °*>™ mentioned, wherein they eiprtsed .hem..he, «. 

"^.nfoVce' SK^i-rS rnf.VwU'niriSeWed on. , in return from the 

•Rupp'a Cumberland, etc., p. 378. 


one such proclamation, and had nothing to Baj for themselves, bul craved mercy. Here 
upon the said William Wb i and William Galloway, David Hiddleston and 

George Cahoon, being convicted bj Bald justices on their view, the under Bherifl was 

I with them and he look William White, David Siddleston and George Oah 

ted, and bai h me dis 

tance from the under sheriff, they called to us "You may take our lands I houses and 

do what you please with them; we deliver them to you with all our hearts, bul we will 
not !•■ '''■" 

The nest morn in- being Wednesdaj the 38dof May, the said justices went to the log 
house or cabin of Andre w|Lycon, and finding none there bul children, and bearing thai tin 

father and ther were expected sooti, and William Wh become 

security, jointly and severally, and to enter into recognizance as well foi Lndri 
pearaoce and : moval as for their own, this proposal w as accepted, and Will 

lain While. David Hiddleston and < leorge < 'ahnon a recognizance of one hun- 

dred pounds, and executed bonds to the proprietaries in the sum of five hundred pounds 
that ii,r\ were trespassers and had do manner of right, and had delivered 

Em to me for the proprietaries. When the magistrates went to the cabi 'log 
11 Galloway (which they had delivered up as aforesaid the day 
ifter thei were convicted and were flying from the sheriff), all the goods belong 

and w illiam were taken out, and the i qui intj . I 

■ ies. And then • as held.Y hat should 

it] cabin; and after great deliberation all agreed thai if some cabins 
were not destroyed the] would tempi the trespassers to ncourage others 

to come there should lassersgo away, andsowbal was doingwould signify 

nothing, since the possession of them was at such a distance from the inhabitants could 
not be kept from the proprietaries, and Mr. Weiser also giving; it as his opinion ths 

the cabins were left standing the Indians would conceive such a conti mptible opini 

rnment that they would come themselves in the winter, murder the i pie and 

M l their 1 On these i considerations, the cabin, by my order, was burnl by 

the under sheriff and compan] 

Then went to the house , David Siddleston, who had en 

tered into bond as aforesaid, and he having voluntarily taken oul all the things which 

were in the cabin, and left me In i ession, thai empt] and unfurnished cabin « 

in Bre b] the under sheriff by m] ordi i 
The Dgthe24tb ol Ma] Mr. Weiser and Mr Galbreath, withtheunder 

sheriff at n our way to the mouth of the Juniata called al Andrew Lycon'swith 

the intent only to inform him thai his neighbors were bound for his appearance and im 
mediate removal, and to . laution him no! to bring himself or them into trouble by a re 

fusal But hi pn sen ted a loaded gun to the magistrates and sheriff; said he would si I 

the first man thai dan igher On this he was disarmed, convicted, am 

sheriff. This whole transaction happened in sight of a tribe 
,,f [ndis - ccidenl had in the night time fixed their tent on that plantation; and 

- behavior gn i -■ the Bhickcalamiee insisted ur burning 

tlie cabin or thi j would do il themselves Whereupon, when every thing was taken out of 
v Lycon all the while assisting) and possession being deliverea to me, the empt] 
cabin ■■ t sheriff and Lj eon « as earned to jail 

Mr. Benjamin Chambers and Mr. George Croghan had about an hour before separat 
,., | f, ■,,„, eting them acrain in Cumberland Count] the] reported to me 

(hey had! tal Bheerman'e Crei k, oi Cittle Juniata, situate about six miles over the Blue 

Mountain, and found there James Parker, Thomas Parker, Owen McKeib, John Mi I llan 
Richard Eirkpatrick, James Murray. John Scott, Henry Gass, John Cowan, Simon Girtee 
Hint John Kllough, who had settled lands and erected cabins or log houses thereon and 
having convicted them ol the trespass on their view the] had bound them reco 

nlzancec | of hundred pounds to appear and answer for their trespasses 

on t he first day of the nej rl ol Cumberland, to be held ai Shippensburg, 

and that the said trespassers had likewise entered into bonds to the proprietaries in five 
hundred pounds penalty to remove off immediately, with all theii servants, cattle and el 
• ession of their houses to Mi n for the pro 

prietarii - use and lb tson b id ordi red some of the meanest of those cabins to 

be s, ■ unities were nol large nor the improvements considerable 

On Monday, the 88th of May, we were met at Snippet ■ lei Smith, William 

Maxwell, George Croghan, Benjamin Cb toberl Chambers, William Allison, Will- 

lamTrent,Joh d Miller, Hermanus Alricks, and James Galbretb 

of Cumberland County, whi i that the ] pie in the Tu in Big 

Cove, and at Aucqutck would Bubmit, Mr. Weiser most earnestly pressed that he might be 
I any further attendance, bavinp abundan try business to do al home; 

and the other magisti i with much reluctance, at last consenting, be left us. 

i in w he 80th of May, the magistrates and company, being detained two 

days by rains, proi eeded over the luttochtinny Mountains and entered Into theTuscarora 


Path or Path Valley, through which the road to Alleghany lies Many settlements were 
loomed in this valle/'and alfthe people were sent for and ^^n^^ns^^ 
viz.: Abraham Slack. James Blair, Moses Moore, Arthur I) u nl p,A; , n der B cU. , 
David Lewis Adam McCartie, Felix Doyle, Andrew Dunlap, Robert Yv ilson, Jacob lyatt, 
J c bPvatt Jr , William Ramage, Reynolds Alexander, Samuel Patterson, Robert Baker 
John Aims rong and John Potts, who' were all convicted by their own confession to the 
iv "str es of the like trespasses with those at Shearman's Creek, and were bound in 
he like r , , "^izan ces to appear at court, and bonds to the proprietaries to remove with all 
thei fan dies' servants, cattle, and effects, and having all voluntarily given possess on of 
the r ho^cs to me, some ordinary log houses to the number of eleven were burnt to the 
Sound, he trespassers, most of them cheerfully and a very few of hem with reluctance, 
can-vim.- out all heir goods. Some had been deserted before and lay waste. 

At Aucquiek, Peter Falconer, Nicholas De Long, Samuel Perry and John Charlcton 
were convicted on the view of the magistrates, having entered into the hke recogniz- 
Inces and executed the like bonds. Charlton's cabin was burned and fire set to another 
that was iust be-un consisting only of a few logs piled and fastened to one another. 

Thellke, ae'diWal ISigC.'ove (now within Bedford County) against Andrew Don- 
nald on John Mt .'■ clelland.Chailes Stewart.James Downy, John Macmean. Robert Kende 1, 
Samuel Br William Shepperd. Roger Murphy Robert Smith, WiUiam t Dickey WlU- 

, „, William Macconnell. Alexander Macconnell James Campbell .William 
Carrell John Martin, John Jamison, Hans Patter, John Maccollin, James W ilson and 
John Wis n who coming before the magistrates, were convicted on their own confes- 
sion o tie ke trespasses as iu former casts, and were all bound over in like recogniz- 
ances an executed' the like bond to the proprietaries. Three waste cabins of no value 
were b ned at the north end of the cove by the persons that claimed a right to them. 

The Tittle Cove (in Franklin County) and the Big and Little Connolloways being the 
onlyplacesremiimnSo ^oe visited, as this was on the borders of Maryland the magis- 
trates declined iroiiv there and departed for their homes. 

Iboti he |ear mo or 1741 one Frederic Star, a German, with two or t «e "»«o( 
his countrymen, made some settlements at the very place where we found ^ i ham White 
1 e (4 a 1 ways and Andrew Lvcou (on Big Juniata situate at the distance of twenty miles 
from i 1 noJth thereof and aoout ten miles north of the Blue Hills aplace muches eemed 
bv the Indians for some of their best hunting ground.-( Votes Axsem Vol IV. p.U>i,) 
which ii" em in settler.) were discovered bv the Delawares at Shamokin to the deputie of 
he Six Nat ons a hey came down to Philadelphia in the year 1742 to hold a treaty with 
Ms government; and they were so disturbed as to inquire with a peculiar warmth of Gov- 
ernor Thomas if these people had come there by the orders or with the privity .of the gov- 
em en ■ X-in.. that f it was so this was a breach of the treaties subsisting between the 
Six N-thn ud the proprietor. William Penn.who in the most solemn manner engaged to 
tl em n y of the people to settle lands until they had purchased them from 

tne co . c 1 of e SW Nations. The Governor, as he might, with great truth, disowned 
anv'kn we geoVthese persons' settlements, and on the Indians requesting that they 
s,n Id immediately be thrown over the mountains, he promised to «su^.s proclamat on 
and if this had no effect to put the laws in execution against them. The Indians, in toe 
same treaty publicly expressed some very severe threats against the inhabitants s of Mary 
" for settling lands for which they received no satisfaction, and said if they would not 
do the, tusce" they would do justice to themselves; and would certainly have commit- 
ted il lie 'if a treaty had not been on foot between Maryland and the Six Nations 
under the rnediatfon of Governor Thomas, at which the Indians consented to sell lands 
a receive a valuable consideration for them, which put an end to the danger 

The proprietaries were then in England, but observing on perusing -the treaty with 
what asoerit v they had expressed themselves against Maryland, and that the Indians had 
nusl ca u'e U co , la n of the settlements at Juniata, so near Shamokin, they wrote to the r 
lovemor in verv'pressing terms, to cause those trespassers to be immediately removed, 
fnrl 1, tl the proprietaries and Governor laid their commands on me to see this done, 
which I accordingly did in June, 1743, the Governor having first given them notice by a 

Pr0 lTthartimTnon°e n nad m p resumed to settle at a place called Big Cove-having this 
mm! fr m its bchi " enclosed in the form of a basin by the southernmost range of the K t- 
och i. i H 11 a fTuM-arora Hills, which last end here and lose- themselves in other hi Us 
This Bi- Cove is about five miles north of the temporary line and not far west of the place 
where me line terminated. Between the Big Cove and the temporary line lies he L ttle 
Cove so-called from being likewise encircled with hills; and to the west of the Little 
Cove' toward Potowmec, lie two other places called the Big and Little Conollaways, all ot 
thVm situated on the temporary line, was it to be extended toward Potowmec _ . 

In the yet T41 o 1743 information was likewise given that people were beginning to 
settle in those Places some from Maryland and some from this province. But as the two 
fovernme'sw'. then not on very good terms, the Governor did not think proper to 
?ak any otl e notice of these settlements than to send the sheriff to serve his proclama- 


ti.Mi on them, and thought !( amp] scasion to lament the vast Inconveniencies which 

attend unsettled bound I i this the French war came on, and the people in thi Be 

idvantage of the confusion of the little and little Btolc 

that at the end of lb ailies had settled thi 

without frequent prohibitions on the pa 
reat danger they ran i by the 1 as these settlements were on 

lands i ■ • • t purchased of them At the close of the war Mr M 1 1 

aiy, delivered a partii this government to them, 01 

their removal, that they might not occasion a breach with the Indians; but It bad no 

best of my remembrance, .-ill the places settled by Pi i 
In the unpurcb lie province till 

the presumption to go into Path Valley or Tuscan 

and onto a place called Aucquick. lying to the no and likewise into 

called Sheanu i I be « aters oi I of the 

Path Valle] th m Harris' Fen 

lastly thi 

complaining that their hunti ery day more and more taken from 

and ihat there must infallibly arise quarrels bi ■ these settlers 

which would in the end bain of friendship, and pressing i 

terms their spi jovernmenl in 1748 sent the sheriff and threi 

i ■ unto these pi le; but they, nol 

continued their settlements in opposition to all this, and as if those people were prompted 
by a dee >od as mat . 

lands within the purchased parts of the province. 

The bulk of the seti during the administration of Presidenl Palmer; 

and it is well known to your Honor, though 'hen in I ids attention to the 

safety of the city and o ould not permit him to 

Finding such a general submissio ' Andrew Lycon.and 

vainly b I would be effectual] there was no kindni 

which I did not do for tl ■ here they wen poo 

. they might jro direi the two millions ol acres lately purchased 

of the Indians; and wh I | d to have several of my 

own plantations vacant, I offered 1 1 ; provide 

for themselves. Then I told them that if. after this lenity and good usage, thej would dare 
to stay after the time limited for their departure, no d I be shewed them, but 

would feel tfa he law 

It may lie proper to add that the ire burn t were oi no 

considerable value, being such ds the country people erect in a day or two and co t only 

the Charge Of an entertainment. 

Alter the close - war, the valley, which had been bo sadly 

devastated, soon began to wear an air of great prosperity. When it be 

positive assurance thai th u of whom the | pie had lived for 

years, were to trouble thei if the afflicted was great, being 

d. however, by the recoiled • awful -eon,.- through which 

o - who had LefM their I tes to seek 

safety in the older Bettled counties to the easi qow returned to then 
in the valley, immigrants of a desirable class also came in and took 

advantage of the chances offei im in the new country. In 1762 of 

141,000 acres of land in the county, 72,000 acres had been patented and 
warranted by actual settlers. About the same time ilTiil <il') a few Gi 
had Bettled in the eastern part of the county, near the Susquehanna. Louther 
Manor was resurveyed and opened for settlemenl (1764 65), and twi 
later it was again surveyed and divided into twenty eighl lots or parcels, con 
taining from 150 to 500 acres each, which lots were purchased principally by 
Scotch Irish in Lancaster and Cumberland Counties, though some were sold to 
Qermans. Robert WhitehiU is -aid to have erected the first stone house on 
the manor. Among purchasers of manor lands who were of Scotch [rish 
nativity were Isaac Hendricks, ('apt. John Stewart. John Boggs, John Arm 
• lames Wilson. Robert Whitehill. Moses Wallace, John Wilson. Sam 
ue] Wallace. ■]■,:■.:■,,■- MoCurdy, David Moore, Rev. William Thompson (Episoo 


pal minister at Carlisle). Alex Young, Jonas Seely. Among the Germans were 
John Mish, Conrad Eeinninger, Caspar Weaver. Christopher Gramlich, Philip 
Kimmel, Andrew Kreutzer. 

Prominent settlers about the same time in various parts of the county were 
Ephraim Blaine, who built a grist-mill in 1764 on the Conodoguinet about a 
mile north of Carlisle; Robert Collander. who also built a mill near the conflu- 
ence of the Conodoguinet and Letort's Spring, in Middlesex Township; \\ ill- 
iam Thompson, a captain in the Indian war. and later a general in the Revo- 
lution; William Lvon. justice, judge and military officer; John Holmes elected 
sheriff October 5, 1765; William McCoskry, coroner in 1 / 64: Stephen Duncan, 
Rev. George Dnffield (pastor of a Presbyterian Church as early as 1 .68); John 
Montgomery. Esq.. Dr. Jonathan Kearsley. Robert Miller. Rev. John Steel 
(captain in the Indian war)-all at Carlisle: George Armstrong, member of the 
Assembly, and Walter Gregory, both in Allen. James Car-others. Esq James 
Galbraith, Esq., James and Matthew Loudon.* in East Pennsborough; 
George Brown Ezekiel Dunning (sheriff in 1764), John Byers an extensive 
farmer near Alexander Spring and subsequently a member of Council all of 
West Pennsborough; William Buchanan, James Blame, John McKnignt 
(iudo-e), Thomas Wilson (judge)— all of Middleton. 

Shippensburg, the oldest town in the county, had become a prosperous 
settlement also A company of twelve persons had settled there m June 
1730, and were soon joined by others. Hopewell Township, which was formed 
as a part of Lancaster County in 1735, had settlements outside of Shippeus- 
bur* (then in its limits) as early as 1731. And it is easy to see that upon the 
breaking out of the war of the Revolution the number of residents m the 
territory now included in Cumberland County was quite considerable 

The* following interesting sketch, written by Thomas Craighead, Jr of 
Whitehill, December 16, 1845, and published in Rupp's History of Dauphin 
Cumberland and other counties, is worthy of insertion in this connection, and 
will doubtless be new to many: 

* * * The facts, incidents, etc., I communicate, I record as they occur to 
mv mind I will confine myself to my youthful neighborhood and such facts as I heard 
rebUe 1 v those who have, by reason .if aye. -one beyond the bourne whence none return. 
I need not trm you that the first settWof new countries have to encounter trials 
hardships and dangers. These my ancestors, in common with others, experienced I on tiieu 
first com tnXio this county. tfothwithstanding their multiplied rials and difficulties 
they had ever in mind the fear and worship of one common Creator ^ ancestor rf 
mine, who early immigrated to America, was a student of theology under the Rev Tuck 
nev of Boston' who had been a member of the General Assembly at Y\ estminster l ou 
wKd on Consulting the history of the Presbyterian Church of this county, that the 
Mine of'Cn.iX>rf appears at an ewlv period. In establishing churches in this county 
CrSghead appears as one of the first ministers. The first sermon preached west of the 
Swuchann. was delivered by the Rev. Thomas Craighead, then residing, as I believe in 
DoTgal Townsliip. Lancaster County. Soon after, these congregations were organized in 
wha tl now Cumherland and Franklin, viz.:. One in the lower settlement near Cariwle 
„" .,, Rie Snrine near Newville, and one in the Conogocheague settlement. Thomas 
Crai' .e fpVe , ehed at Big Spring When divine service was first held, the settlers went 
with their e ins to he r preaching. These defensives were then deemed necessary to deter 
the in ans f n ah ek n tf then."' However, the peaceful disposition of the true Christian 
had its saUitary influence upon the untutored Indian-the Indian feared and respected he 
ronsisten rotes or of religion. Religious influence was felt-at Big Spring protrac ed 
meetii •' w ' urfrf for public worship So powerful, it is said, were the influences of the 
KSrttfhattiSi worshippers felt loth, even after having exhausted their stores of provis- 
ions to 'disperse I have heard it from the lips of those present, when Thomas Craighead 
ddWeredoSfof his parting discourses, that his flow of eloquence seemed s upernatural- 

. ;«M.« r ana .^izfi£*?£ msxsusss a ar'C^ 

driven out bv the Indians, ami rtiocaiea on i™»T ..' ~ ... .._ i—hihiild bum on shipboard during 
which ^ « desJi "ipUve of outrages during the Indian wars, and has been much quoted. 

BISTORT OF 01 Mi:i:i:i..\NT> COTJHTY. 21 

ha eontinaed In bursts while ''••< audiencewas melted to tears himself how- 

hurried to pronounce the blessing, waving his band, and asbe pronounced 
U,» be sank down, expiring without a groan or struggle Hit 
remains resi where the church now stands as the onlj monument to bl 

John Craigh >1 ["homes, settled at an early date on Yellow Breeches Creetc, 

near Carlisle Bis son John officiated a short time as pastor at BigBpring He thru re 
, n , lV ,.,l , . b<j was there placed as pastor, w ben the Revolution was the 

absorbing quest iy, be was an ardent \\ big, and tearless ol consequent 

Government bad an eye on him, but the people were with him, Be preached liberty or 
death from the pulpit; the young men's bosoms swelled with enthusiasm for military glory 
- they marched to the tented field, and Beveral were killed, still be urged them not to be 
daunted On one occasion be brought all his eloquence to bear on the subject, until the 
congregation arose to their feet as if ready to march. An old lady who bad Just lost a son 
in battle hallooed out: " Stop, Mr. Craighead I [ just want to tell yi losssuch 

apnrty boy as I have in the war, ye will ne be so keen for fighting. Quit talking and gang 
yersel to the « it v. re alwavsprcaehing t« the boys :iin>ut it. but ! (liniia think ye d be 
very likely to gang yersel Jisl go and try it!" He did try it. and the next d;n . he and 
M, ' Co iper I think a preacher also, Bet about to raise a company. They did raise one, 

Of thechoio St spirits that ever did live; marched in Short order, mid joined tin- army under 
Washington, in the Jerseys. He fought and im-achcd alternately. Iireasted all danger, re- 
lying on his God and the justice of bis cause for protection, 

o„eda\ to battle, a i anuon ball struck a tree near him, a splinter of Which 

nearlv knocked him down. "God bless me," says Mr. Cooper, '-you were marly knocked 

nil yes," says he very cooly, "though you are a cooper you could not have 

set me up." lie was a great humorist. * » » When he marched his companj 

tmped near where 1 am now writing, at the lion. Robert W liitelnll B, who opened 

his cellar, which was well stored with provisions and barrels of apple brandy. Col. Heu- 

drick's daughter- assisted in preparing victuals for them. They fared sumptuously with 
this brave man. Tin v next encamped at Boyd's, in Lancaster County; he fell in love 

with Jennie Boyd and married her. He died of a cancer on his breast, leaving no children. 

m had been educated in Europe for the ministry, but on his return he found 
iot business to live by. He stopped at Philadelphia, took to tailoring, took 

f no,l care when he went into good company to tie up his forefinger, for fear of his being 
laoovered but being a handsome little man and having a good education he W8S COUXted 

bv the tUU of the day. He fell in with an English heiress, of the name of Montgomery, 
[think, married her, and Bpent the fortune all but a few webs of liuen. with which hepur^ 
chased from the proprietor BOO acres oi ! land on Yellow Breeches. * * . * 

His other two sons. Thomas and .lames, were farmers; they had great difficulty in paying 
the balance due on their land. They took their produce to Annapolis (no business done in 
Baltimore then); prices got dull; they stored it; the merchant broke; all seemed gone; they 

applied for more time; built a saw-mill. Tliev had made the inonex . but the war came on 
Thomas was drafted; his son John, thirteen years old. and my father drove the baggage 
wagon. It took the money to equip and bear their expenses while going to and 111 1 amp 
Thomas took the ramp fever ami his son the small-pox. Gen. Washington gave them a 
furlough to return home. A younger son, Janus, met them below Lancaster, and drove 
m home. He often stopped and looked into the wagon to see if they were still liy- 
: . D e got them home, and thej both recovered By some mistake in recording their 
furlough, Here was a tim- imposed on Thomas for leaving camp a few days before his time 

was up. When the bailiff came to collect it he was up on a barrack building « beat. 1 be 
officer was on horseback. He told him he would come down and pax- him Became 
down, took a hickory withe that happened to lie near, caught his little horse by thi tell 
and whipped the officer, asking him if he was paid, until he said he was paid. Thai 

tine. He was paid off with Congress money; broke up again with a chest full of 

money. By this time thini up; all prospered. John Craighead, his lather. 

had been an active member of the Stonv Kidge convention, which met. to petition parlia 

ment for redress of grievances. He was closely watched by the Tories, and one Pollock 

having him apprehended as a rebel, but the plot was found out and Pollock 

mid to 1 mtv. Near the place where this convention met. at the stony ridge. 

inel Lamb lived on his land. There was a block house, where the neighbors flew 

>m hostile Indians, * * * Lamb was a stone mason, built stone 

Chimneys for the rich farmer- who became able to hew logs and put up what was called a 

square log house. They Used to Baj he plumbed his corners with spittle that is, he spit 

dow n the corner to see'if it was plumb. Indeed, many chimneys are standing to this day 

and look like it; but he had a patriotic family. When the army rendezvoused at Little 

York, four of his sons wen in the army— two officers and two common soldiers. His 

daughters had a web of woolen in the loom, they colored the woof with sumach lurries, and 

it as red as they could, for all war habiliments were dyed red as possible; made coats 

by guess for their brothers, put them in a tow-cloth wallet, slung it over their young 

brother, Samuel, to take to camp. He hesitated, the country being nearly all forest and 


full of wolves, bears, etc. One of them, Peggy, asked him: "What are you afraid of? 
Go on! Sooner come home a corpse than a coward! " He did go on, and enlisted during 
the war; came home, married Miss Trindle, of Trindle Spring, removed to Kentucky, 
raised a large family. * * * It seems as if there was something in the blood, 
as one of his sons in the last war* was a mounted volunteer in Gen. Harrison's army. 
At the battle of Tippecanoe he rode a very spirited horse, and on reining him to keep him 
in the ranks, his bridle bit broke. Being an athletic, long-legged young fellow, and his 
horse running at full speed toward the ranks of the enemy, he brandished his sword, hal- 
looing: "Clear the way, I am coining!" The ranks opened, let him through, and he es- 
caped safe and got back to.his camp.f Peggy Lamb deserves a notice. She afterward 
married Capt. William Scott, who was a prisoner on Long Island, and she now (1845) i p. 
joys a captain's half pay; lives in Mechanicsburg, near her native place, a venerable old 
lady infull strength of intellect, though more than four-score years have passed over tiei 
She" well deserves the little boon her country bestows upon her. The first horse. I remem- 
ber to ride alone was one taken in the Revolution by William Gilson, who then lived on 
the Conodoguinet Creek, where Harlacher's mill now is. He was one of Hindman's rifle- 
men, and after the battle of Trenton, he being wounded in the leg, two of 
soldiers were helping him off the field; they were pursued by three British Light Horsemen 
across an old field and must be taken. They determined to sell themselves as dearly as 
possible. Gilson reached the fence, and propped himself against it. "Now," says he. 
"man for man: I take the foremost. " He shot him down, the next was also shot, the third 
was missed. The two horses pursued their courses, and were caught by Gilson and his 
companions and brought into camp. His blue dun lived to a great age. Gilson was offered 
£1,500 for him. Gilson removed to Westmoreland County. His wife was also a Trindle. 
He left a numerous and respectable family. I wish 1 was aide to do those families more jus- 
tice for their patriotism and integrity to their country. They have left a long line of off- 
spring, who are now scattered far and wide over the Union. If they would but all take their 
forefathers for examples ! I come now within my own remembrance of Cumberland County. 
I have seen many a pack-horse loaded with nail' rods at Ege's Forge to carry out to Somer- 
set County and the forks of Yougheigany and Red Stone Fort, to make nails for their log 
cabins, etc. I have seen my father's team loading slit iron to go to Fort Pitt. John Rowan 
drove the team. I have known the farmer's team to haul iron from the same forge to 
Virginia; load back corn for feed at the forge. All the grain in the county was not enough 
for Us own consumption. I have known fodder so scarce that some farmers were obliged 
to feed the thatch that was on their barns to keep their cattle alive. James Lamb bought 
land in Sherman's Valley, and he and his neighbors had to pack straw on horses across the 
mountain. He was on the top of the mountain waiting until those going over would get up, 
as they could not pass on the path. He hallooed out : " Have they any more corn in Egypt '.'" 
I saw the first mail stage that passed through Carlisle to Pittsburgh. It was a great wonder; 
the people said the proprietor was a fool. I think his name was Slough. I happened a 
short time ago to visit a friend, Jacob Ritner, son of that great and Mod man, ex-Gov. 
Ritner. who now owns Capt. Denny's farm, who was killed during the Revolutionary war. 
The house had been a tavern, and in repairing it Mr. Ritner found some books, etc., which 
are a curiosity. Charge, breakfast, £20; dinner, horse-feed. £30; some charges still more 
extravagant. But we know it was paid with Congress money. The poor soldier on his 
return had poor money, but the rich boon, liberty, was a prize to him far more valuable. 
As late as 1808 I hauled some materials to Oliver Evans' saw-mill at Pittsburgh. I was 
astonished to see a mill going without water. Mr. Evans satisfied my curiosity by showing 
and explaining everything he could to me. He looked earnestly at me and said: " Y'ou may 
live to see your wagons coming out here by steam." The words were so impressed that I 
have always remembered them. I have lived to see them go through Cumberland County, 
and it seems to me that I may see them go through to Pittsburgh; but I have seen Mr. 
Evans' prophecy fulfilled beyond what I thought possible at that time. But things have 
progressed at a rate much faster than the most gigantic minds imagined, and we are on- 
ward still. * * * * Yours, truly, etc., Thosias Craighead, Jr. 

In truth, could Mr. Craighead now peep at the region he knew for so many 
years, he would be even more greatly surprised. The ' ' steam wagons * ' have 
reached Pittsburgh and gone beyond it to the shores of the distant Pacific 
Ocean, over mountains beside which the Alleghenies would be but pigmy foot- 
hills. Side by side is the great telegraph, and even the human voice, by 
means of the delicate instrument known as the telephone, can be heard almost 
across the continent. The most wonderful strides toward, the perfection of 
civilization have been taken since Mr. Craighead was laid to rest, and the end 
is not yet. 

*Warof 1812. 

fPretty tough story. [Ed.] 

/'ri//J J<ru 


In a pamphlet history of thi of Big Spri 

Newville, Cumberland County, published in L878 by James B. Scouller, occiu 
the following passages: . 

■ firs* known settlement ade m J <oU, 

and at ao great distance from therivi 
and pae North Valley, or the Kittoehtinnj 

following the Conodoguinet and Yellow Breechi Qg also 

■ring, Letorl SprL B Spring, Mi I 

Falling Spring, RockySpringa league, 

until in 1736 a line of settlements extended from the v 
through to the western part of the pn Maryland. In L748 then 

ibles iu the valley, and in L751 the number bad increased to 1,100 
indicating a population of at least 5, OCK) inhabitant ,with theexc. 

of about fiftj Gei i klin Count] , from 

id, and the descendants of those wh I 

mty. [b L75] a sudden and large increase in the tl<>\\ of immi 
I. which ministered greatly to the rapid settlement i 
county. This tidal we ' '■ ,I " N '' 1 

I wrote tlni-: ' I must own from my own 

imilies from I 
gives me mor< troul ther people. Before we were broke 

in n pon ends and < >* t! "' case is 

qnite altered and belligerent ch this i pie, 

which kept them g broil with theirGerman aeigh 

bora, ,! , witb time, for in 1 i 13 Secret nrote in 

ae strain as had done his predecessor, and even the Quaker 

(orbearam f the Prop] 

[750, thi ' :| ^ organized, positive ordei 3 

were issued to all the agi lore land in either Fork or Lancaster 

:1 . and to make offers to those of them 

who would remove from these counties to the North Valley. Th.-so nllVrs w.-n- 
so libera] thai large aumbers accepted, and built their huts among tl 

if the native inhabitants, whom they found to be peaceful but by ao 
means non resistant." 

A. pamphlet containing an historical ski lisle, together with the 

charter of the borough and published in L841, also says: "In the year L755 

proprietaries to their agents that they 
take esp i gration of [rishmen to Cumberland 

County, ft was their desire to ] pie York with Germans and Cumberland 

with Irish. I igling of the two nations in Lancaster County had pro 

duced si i ii us rii its at elect ions.")"" 

In the year 1749 the total revenue from ta cation in tl ity of Cumber- 
land was only E117 7s. 84, and the amount of ■■vis.- oll.-rt.-.l in tin- 
for the year ending June 1. IT:.:'., was £55. In 1 762 the county contained 
cables, 37,820 acres of warranted land, 21,500 aci arranted 

land, 19,304 acres ' | atei ti d land, 201 town lots, and there was paid £726 in 
rente and £4,641 10s. in taxes. "The proprietaries were the owners of land 
5,167 acres in Middleton Townshi].. near Carlisle, ana ?,000 in 

•Logan was him»elf an Irishman, bat hud been !,ies " K,t 

he was at thla in..-., >... i own ] pie. 

tTh ,. . ties, that, 'inll 

William Uli 

merelv r , ny r.-r which he would 

He chose, Simberland and ■ oew election wu ordered for Northampton Elei tlona were aamewhal 

becauae of the rj>:ir»'- j.-jiulntion 


East Pennsborough, of which 1,000 had been given up to Peter Chartier (and 
now in the hands of his assigns) and Tobias Hendricks, who took care ol the 
whole manor. They also were the owners of sixty-four lots m Carlisle, eight 
of which were rated at £100 and the remainder at £15 each The manor 
lands were valued for taxes, 3,000 of those in Middleton at £100 per hundred, 
and those in East Pennsborough at £75 per hundred, on which they paid a 
tax of 6s. on the pound. Before 1755 the proprietary estates had not been 
included in any general land-tax bill, but in that year the proprietaries had 
yielded the point and consented to be taxed on all really taxable property (that 
is, appropriated lands, all real estate except unsurveyed waste land, lots m 
town and rents of all kinds), and on equal terms with the other owners. 
There was, however, so much dispute on various points connected with this 
matter, that no collections were made on the proprietaries, but in consider^- 
tion of the dangers of the province they had made a donation ol ±»,UUU_ 
In 1759, therefore, when the tax was levied, it was made retrospective tor the 
five years (1755-59) inclusive, which had been in dispute, allowing them credit 
for the £5.000 which had been given, f" . 

Taxables in 1762.— The following is a list of the taxables in the county m 


East Pennsborough Township, 1762,— James Armstrong, Andrew Armstrong, 
Samuel Anderson, James Armstrong, Samuel Adams, Samuel Bell William 
Brians, William Beard, John Beard, Walter Buchanan, William Bell, David 
Bell, John Buchanan, John Biggar, James Carothers, Esq., William Chestnut, 
Thomas Clark, William Carothers, Thomas Culvert, Samuel Chambers, John 
Clendening, Adam Calhoon, Samuel Calhoon, Robert Carothers, John Crosier, 
John Chambers, William Culbertson, William Cronicle, John Carson, 1 nomas 
Donallson, Robert Denny, William Duglas, John Dickey, James Dickey, An- 
drew Ervin, William Ervin, James Ervin, JohnErvin, John Edwards, John Ful- 
ton, James Galbreath, James Gattis, John German, William Gray, Samuel Gaily, 
Samuel Hustin, Tobias Hendricks, John Hickson, WilliamHarris, Patrick Holmes 
John Hamilton, Widow Henderson, Clement Horril, Jonathan Hogg, David 
Hogg, Joseph Junkin, Robert Jones, James Kerr, James Kile, Widow Keny, 
Brian Kelly, Matthew Loudon, Alex Laverty, Widow McClure, ^illiam Mar- 
tial Edward Morton, John Morton, Robert McKinly, James McConall Sam- 
uel McCormick, John MeCormick, Francis Maguire, James McCormick, ihom- 
as McCormick, Matthew McCaskie, James McKinstry, William Mateer, VV ill- 
iam Millar, Edward Morton, Andrew Milligan, John McTeer, Thomas Mur- 
ray, Shedrick Muchmore, James McConnell, Jr., Brian McColgan. James Nea - 
er, Nathaniel Nilson, Nathaniel Nilson (again), William Noble, John Urr, VViiJ- 
iam Orr William Oliver, William Parkison, James Purdy, ^ llham Plunket, 
John Quicrley, David Rees, William Ross, James Reed, Nathaniel Reaves, 
Archibald°Stuart, Robert Steel, John Semple, Francis Silvers, David Semple, 
Robert Samuels, John Shaw, Mr. Seely, William Speedy, Thomas Spray, Hen- 
ry Taylor Henry Thornton, John Trimble, Benjamin Vernon, John A\ llliams, 
William Walker, George Wood, John Wood, John Waugh, James Waugh, 
John Willey, Henry Warton, Samuel Williamson — 126. 

Carlisle, 1762.— John Armstrong, Esq., Samuel Allen, Harmanus Alncks, 
Nicolas Albert, William Armstrong, Thomas Armstrong, John Anderson, 
John Andrews, Widow Andrews, Mary Buchanan, Widow Buchanan, Thomas 
Bell William Blyth, James Bell, William Bennet, William Blair, James Bar- 
clay' William Brown, Thomas Blair, Joseph Boyd, Charles Boyle, Isaac 
Burns, James Brandon, John Chapm an (wagoner), John Crawford, Henry 

•See Indian History. 
fDr. Wing, p. 64. 


Oreighton, William Crocket, Roberi Orunkelton, Roger Connor, William 
Caldwell, Geo t, Samnel Coulter, Andrevi Colhoon, James ( - 

Simon Callins, Roberi Callender, William Christy, John Chapman, w 
chuk. John Craig, Thomas Copling, Jacob Cart, Thomas Christy, Widovi Col 

boon, Michael Dill, Q ge Davidson, James Duncan,, Samnel Davidson (nol 

Thomas Km. .-an. Ezekiel Dunning, Thomas Donallan, William Devin 
port, William Denny, Widovi Dunning, A, lam Duglas, Stephen Duncan, Deni 
Dougherty, Re\ George Duffield, James Eokles, James Earl, David Franks, 

Stephen Foulk, John Fortner, James Ferguson, Ji ■- Fleming, Th 

Fleming, ttarj Gallahan, William Gray, Joseph Galbreath, James G 
William German, John Gamble, Daniel Gorman, Eloberl Gorral, Roberi Gib 
son, Roberi Guthrie, Abraham Eolmes, A. lam Hoops. Barnabas Hughes. 
Joseph Hunter, Jacob Hewick, Jacob Houseman, John Hastings, George 
Hook, John Huston, John Hunter, Joseph Jeffreys, Thomas Jeffreys, John 

i,. John Kelly, Benjamin Kid, Andrev. Kinkaid, John Kerr, John Kin 

kaid. John Kearsley, Roberi Little, Agnes I th, William Lyon, William 

BfoOurdy, William Slain. David McCurdy, John McCurdy, Widow Mclntyre, 
Roberi Miller, James McCurdy, John Montgomery, EsqT, Hugh MoCormick 
William McCoskry, James McGill, John Mordough, Widow Miller, John 
McKnight, Esq., Han-, Morrison, Patrick McWade, William Murphy. John 
Mather, Widovi Miller, John McCay, Hugh MoCurd, William Miller, Roberi 
MoWhiney, Andrew Murphy, Philip Nutart. Joseph Nikon, Oulberi Niokelson, 
. i.. hi. On-.' Tli. .mas I'arkcr. ' William Parker, Philip Pendergrass, John Patti 
son, Charles Pattison, William Plunket, William Patterson, James Taylor Pol- 
lock, James Parker, James Pollock, Thomas Patton, John Pollock, William 
Reaney, William Roseberry, William Husk. Mary Rogers, John Robison, Rob 
art Robb, James Robb, William Rodeman, Widow Ross, Henry Smith, Ezekiel 
Smith. John Soott, Roberi Smith. William sharp. Widow Steveson, Charles 
Smith. Widow Sulavan, James Stakepole, John Starret, John Steel, John 
Smith. William Bpear, Timothy Shaw, P< -tor Smith, Rev. John Steel, Joseph 
Smith. Rowland Smith. William Spear, for court house, James Thompson, 
Samuel Thompson, Wilson Thompson, .lames Thomas, James Templeton, 

.. White, William War.l. Roger Walton. Samuel . William Watson, 

William Wadle, Edward Ward, Francis West. William Whiteside, Widovi 
Welch. Thomas Walker, Abraham Wood, William Wallace, John Welch, 

James W Is, Nathaniel Wallace, Widow Vahan, John Van Lear, James 

Young- L90. 

Alien Township, 1762. — Fohn Anderson, James Atkison, George Arm 
Uei Lrmstrong, William Abernathy, George Armstrong, .lame.-, 

William l'.o\l.-. .kmi.s Beatty. Rol.ert Bryson, William Boyd, William 
-. George Crocket, John Clark, Roger Cook. James Crawford, Rowland 
Chambers, Samuel Chmningham, Philip Cuff, James Crocket. William Crosby. 
Thomas Davis, William Dickey, John Dunlap. William Elliott. Widow Erazcr, 
Henry Free, John Glass, Walter Gregory. John Grindle, Richard Oil-on, John 
(iilki'-on. Jam.-. Gregory, John Gibson. John Giles, William Hamersly, Roberi 
Hannah. Thomas Hamerslv, Isaac Hendricks, Charles Inhuff, Nicholas King, 
Long, Henrj Longstaff, Hugh Laird. James McTeer, John McTeer. 
William MoCormick, William Martin. John M.-Main. Rowland McDonald, 
Widovi McCurdy, Anthony McCue, Hugh McHool, Andrew Miller, John Me 
Nail. Samu.J Martin, Thomas MoGee, John Nailer, Richard Peters, Richard 
Peters, Esq., Henry Quigley, Richard Rankin, Thomas Rankin, John Rutlidge, 
Robert Rosebary, [saac Rutledge, John Sands, Widow steel, Thomas Stewart. 
James Sample, Charles Shoaltz, Moses Starr, Peter Tittle, William Trindle, 


Alex Trindle, David Willson, John Willson (weaver), John Willson, Alex 
"Work, Ralph Whiteside, George Wingler — 81. 

West Pennsbaroiigh Township, 1762. — John Armstrong, Esq., Jacob 
Arthur, Peter Ancle, Laurence Allport, John Byers, Eobert Bevard, George 
Brown, Thomas Butler, James Brown, "Widow Bratton, William Blackstock, 
James Bevard, "William Bevard, John Buras, William Garothers, James 
Carothers, William Clark, John Campbell, Widow Crutchlow, David Cronister, 
Matthew Cralley, John Denny, Ezekiel Dunning, William Dunbar, William 
Duulap. John Dunlap, John Dunbar, James Dunning, John Dunning, George 
Davidson, John Dunning, William Dillwood, Robert Erwin, William Eakin, 
Thomas Eakin, Thomas Evans, William Ervin, John Ervin, Alex Erwin, 
William Ewing (at Three Springs), Thomas Ewing, William Ewing, Andrew 
Forbes, Alex Fullerton, Andrew Giffin, James Graham, Rob Guthrie, James 
Gordon, William Gattis, Thomas Gray, Samuel Henry, John Hodge, Adam 
Hays, William Harkness, James Hunter, Joseph Hasteen. Thomas Holmes, 
Barney Hanley, David Hall, Henry Hanwart, Joseph Kilgore, John Kerr, 
Matthew Kerr, Charles Kilgore, Samuel Kilgore, John Kenner, William Lem- 
muu. William Laughlm, Allen Leeper, William Leviston, William Logan, 
George Little, George Leavelan, William Little, Samuel Lindsay. John Lusk, 
William Leich, John McClung, Robert Meek, James McFarlane, William Mc- 
Farlane, Robert McFarlane, John McFarlane, Andrew McFarlane, David Mc- 
Nair, John McClure, Edward McMurray, John McGeary, Patrick McClure, 
Robert McClure, John McCune, Robert McQuiston, James McQuiston, James 
McCay, Thomas McKay, Daniel McAllister, Archibald McAllister, James Mc- 
Naught, Alex McBride, Samuel McCullough, David McAllister. John Miller, 
Robert McCullough, John Mclntyre, John McNair, David McNair, Alex Mc- 
Cormick, William McMahan, Daniel Morrison, Matthew McCleares, James 
McAllister. Francis Newell, John Newell, Herman Newman, Alex Officer, 
Richard Peters, Esq., W T illiam Parsons, Proprietaries' Manor (700 acres 
patented), William Dutton, Paul Pears, Richard Parker, William Parker, 
Widow Parker, Joseph Peoples, Jacob Peoples, Michael Pears, John Patton, 
Thomas Parker, William Quiry, David Ralston, Matthew Russell, Robert 
Rogers, William Robison, Archibald Robison, John Robison. Samuel Reagh, 
Patrick Robison. Singleton's Place, Robert Stuart, John Scroggs, Allen 
Scroggs, John Smily, James Sea, Robert Swaney, John Swaney, David 
Stevenson, Thomas Stewart, Robert Stewart, William Scarlet, William Stewart, 
James Smith (attorney), Anthony White, Widow Willson, Samuel Willson, 
Samuel Wilson, James Weakley, Robert Walker, William W T oods, James White, 
Robert Welsh, Alex Young — 164. 

Middleton Toivnship, 1762. — Nathan Andrew, William Armstrong, James 
Alcorn, Adam Armwick, John Beatty, John Bigham, William Beatty, William 
Brown, John Beard, William Buchanan, John Brownlee, James Blair, Richard 
Coulter, Widow Clark, William Campbell, John Crennar, Robert Caldwell, 
Charles Caldwell, John Craighead, James Chambers. John Davis, George 
Douglass, John Dinsmore, David Drennan, William Dunbar, John Dickey, 
Walter Denny, David Dunbar, James Dunlap, Widow Davies. William Davison, 
Jr., James Eliot, Robert Eliot, Jr., John Elder ("Disputed Land," 150 acres), 
James Eliot, Jr., Andrew Eliot, William Forgison, William Fleming, Joseph 
Fleming, Ann Fleming, Arthur Foster, John Forgy, Thomas Freeman, John 
Gregg, °Samuel Guay, Widow Guliford, Andrew Gregg. Robert Gibson, Lod- 
wick Ginger, Joseph Gaily, Joseph Goudin, Thomas Gibson, Nicholas Hughs, 
Samuel Harper, William 'Henderson, Thomas Holt, William Hood, Jonathan 
Holmes, Humphrey's land, Hamilton's land, Patrick Hason, Andrew Holmes, 


Thomas Johnston, John Johnston, Archibald Kenedy, Ja a ECeny, Matthew 

Kenny, John Kincaid, (l ge Kinkaid, James Kinkaid, Richard Kirpatrick, 

William I r, Robert Little, John Little, ' lie, Samuel Lamb, David 

McClure, W i MoBath, M illiam McClellan, Hugh Mo 

Bride, John McCrea, David MoBride, "Meetinj d," Hugh MoCor 

Hough, Matt hew Miller, James Matthews, James McA 
Fickle, John McKnight, Esq., •lames Moore, William Moore, 
James McManus, Quain McHaffy, John McHaffy, Thomas McHaffy, S 

i Mitchell, Widow Mclntyre, John Neely, Matthew Neely, 

John Patton, Williai R illiam Pal 

ters' land. John Patterson. W illiam Riddle, Archibald 
1 ed, Ri bert Reed, w illiam Reed, John Herd. .1 1 

Robb, \ . . David Reed, James B 1. William Riggs, George Riggs, 

Stanford, Abraham Stanford, JohnStuarl (weaver), James Stuart,^ illiam 

Smith, John Stinson,< teorge Sanderson, Sr. , Robert Sanderson, Jean Sanderson, 

1 Sharon, John Smith, Alex Sanderson, Andrew 

Simison, Randies Slack, William Shaw, James Smith, William Stewart, Roberl 

. Ezekiel Smith. John Stewart, 'lames Smith. Widow Templeton, 

Drie, Patrick Vanre, Si il, >iin m Walker. Daniel Williams. Samuel Will 

■an Waddell, Widow Williamson, Francis West, John Welsh, 1 

Wilson, Esq., Samuel White. Thomas Woods, ■lames Woods 159. 

Hopewell Township, 1762. — Thomas Alexander, John Anderson, Wale/, 
Andrews, Hugh Brady, Samue Blyth, William Bricer, Joseph 

Brady, John Brady, Samuel Bratin, Hugh Brady, Jr., William i 
John Coff, -lame:. Chambers, George Clark •lames Chambers, William Car 

oahan, Jami G ge Cunningham, Roberl Chambers, Francis 

Campble, Robert Campble, William i bom as Duncan, Daniel Duncan, 

John 1 ally, Widow Donally, Philip Dusky, 

Henry Davies, John Eager, John Egnew, Joseph Eager, John Eliot, James 
Eliot, l i, Clemen! Finley, Thomas Finley, William Gibson 

Gibson, Andrew Gibson, Samui Gibbs, Robert Gibbs, William 

Gamble, Samuel Gamble, John Hanah, Josiah Hanah, Samuel Hindman, John 
Hunter, William Hodg, .lame- Hamilton, George Hamilton, John W. Hamil 
ton, John Taylor Hamilton, David Herrin, John Hannah, William Hunter, 
John Jack, Joseph Irvin, .lames Jack, -lame- Kilgore, Thomas Lyon, James 
rd Leasy, John Laughlin, James Laughlin, James Little, Andrew 
;hlin, Widow Let in Josiah Martin, Daniel McDowel, rami 
McFarlan, John McFarlan, John McClintock, .lame-, McGaffog, Andrew Man 
kelwain, Samuel Morrow, Patrick McGee, Robert McComh. Samuel Moiit^mi 

ery, Thomas Montgomery, .lames Malum, John M head, James McCormick, 

.. John Montgomery, .lames Montgomery, John '■' 
Jr., John MoCune, Robert MoCune, John McClean, Daniel Mickey, Robert 
Mickey, John S. Miller. Samuel Montgomery, David McGaw, Philip Millar. 
Miller, .lame-. McAnay, John Millar, .lane- McCall, John Meason, Nail 

ii, (1 v.' McCiilly, John Mclntire, Samuel Moor, Andrew M 

wain. John Morris, William McGaffog, Widow Myers, William Moorhead, 
Samuel Mitchel, Samuel Mackelhing, John Montgomery, David McCurdy, 
Patrick McFarlan, James McDowel, Elobert McDowel, Thomas McBany, James 
Iwain, Samuel McGready, Samuel Neaves, John Niebet, Richard Nick 
elson, William Niekelson, -lames Nesbit, John Nisbet, William Plm 

I Peters, William Piper, Samuel Perry, Nathaniel Peoples, James 
William Powell. John Porter, Thomas Pordon, John Port 
James Quigly, John Quigly, John Robiaon, William Reynolds, John R 


James Eeynolds, Samuel Smith, George Sheets, Samuel Stewart David Siini- 
ral William Stitt, Robert Simonton, Edward Shipper, Alex Scroggs, John 
Stinston, Samuel Sellars, Nathaniel Scruchfield, Samuel Sorre Hugh Torrms, 
John Thompson. William Thompson, John Trimble, Widow Trimble, Joseph 
Thompson, David Thompson, Widow Thompson, John Thompson Joseph 
Woods John Wodden, William Walker, Robert Walker, Samuel Walker, 
James Williamson, Samuel Wier, Samuel Williamson, James Work, ""ham 
Walker, James Walker, James Wallas, James Jocky Williamson, West & 
Smith, James Young. . 

More Early Settlers.— Dr. Wing, at pages 24 and 2o of his History of 
Cumberland County, mentions the following early settlers: 

Georcre Croghan, five miles from the Susquehanna River, on the north side 
of the Conodoguinet, also owned lands in various parts of the county, and in 
1748 was the owner of 800 acres, which extended nearly to the mouth of Sil- 
vers' Run, on the Conodoguinet. Part of it had been taken up by Rob- 
ert Buchanan, in 1743, and part by William Walker, who sod toW illiam 
Trent Mr Croghan also owned a large tract in Hopewell, north ot Snippens- 
burg He was a trader with the Indians, did not cultivate his land, and 
changed his residence frequently to suit the convenience of trade. He was 
originally from Dublin, and lived afterward at Aughwick, in what is now 
Huntingdon County. He was greatly trusted by Sir William Johnson as an 
agent among the Indians. 

Robert Buchanan, above mentioned, sold his first claim and removed farther 
up the creek with his brother Walter, living in East Pennsborough. W illiam 
Buchanan kept an inn at Carlisle in 1753, and another Buchanan was a resi- 
dent of Hopewell Township in 1748, adjoining the Kilpatrick settlement. 
James Laws lived next to Croghan, opposite to the mouth of Silvers Run. 
At a spring adjoining on the south was James Silvers from whom the stream 
and spring were named. He had settled there with his wife, Hannah before 
1733 and owned 500 acres of land or more; was public-spirited and honor- 
able;' has no descendants bearing his name. Within ten or fifteen years from 
the time he settled there located around him James Pollock, who built a grist- 
mill at or near the confluence of the Conodoguinet and the stream which issues 
from Silvers' Spring, John Scott. Robert and James Robb, Samuel Thomp- 
son, Thomas Fisher, Henry Quigley and William Berryhill. Andrew and 
John Galbreath owned land adjoining them on the east, and ^ illiam Walker 

on the west. „ TT , . . 

John Hoo-e settled very early on the site of Hogestown. and had numerous 
distinguished descendants. Two brothers, named Orr, ^oming from Ireland 
before 1738, settled near him. William Trindle. John W alt. Robert Redock, 
John Swanzev, John McCracken, Thomas Fisher, Joseph Green and John 
Rankin owned land in Pennsborough, and were at different times tax collect- 
ors before 1747 John Oliver, Thomas McCormick and W illiam Douglas had 
farms in Hope's vicinity, John Carothers at the mouth of Hoge's Run, and 
William Douglas west of and opposite him up the Conodoguinet, In the same 
neighborhood were John and Abraham Mitchell, John Armstrong, Samuel 
Anderson, Samuel Calhoun, Hugh Parker, Robert Dunning, John Hunter 
(near Dirty Spring), Samuel Chambers, James Shannon. William Crawford, 
Edward Morton, Robert Fulton, Thomas Spray, John Callen, John W atts, 
Michael Kilpatrick, Joseph Thompson, Francis Maguire and James Mateer 
James Armstrong lived farther west, and on the ridge back of the present 
site of Kingston was the residence of Joseph Junkin, who early settled upon 
a large tract. Robert Bell lived near Stony Ridge, and south of him were 


SamueJ Lamb, "astone mason and an ardent patriot," John Trindle, Dear 
Trindle's Spiim^. James [rvine, Mather Miller, John Fame] and David 
Denny. At Boiling Spring there settled earlj Dr. Roberl Thompson, tor 
merly of Lancaster, Joseph Gxaley, Patrick Bassen, Andrew, William, Ja 

I rocket, David B I and John Dickey. Charles Pippin Bettled 

Pippin's Tract." on Yellow Br hes, in or before 1742. West oi 

,.n the Bame Btream, were John Campbell, who had a mill, Roger Cook, David 
Wilson, John Collins, James McPherson, Andrew Campbell, Andrew and John 
Miller. Roberl Patrick, J. Crawford, William Fear. John Gronow, Charles 
..1 Uezandei Frazder, Peter Title (or Tittle, as sometimes given), Ar- 
thur Stewart, Thomas Brandon, Abraham Endless, John Craighead, the Lasl 
earlier than 1746 on Lands extending along the creek eastward from the Haiti 
more Turnpike. Adjoining bim on the southwest was James Moore, who bad 
a mill which is Mill in existenci I >-> the Letort, aear Middlesex, -lames Davi 
son lived in 1736, a little Bontb of the fording place where the road from 
Ham-' Fern crossed the run, The land in this vicinity is said to have been 
thickly settled before Carlisle was laid out. Patrick and William Davison, 
William Gilli mes Gillgore (or Balgore), Joseph ('lark. Peter Wilkie 

and John McClure owned land near the proposed siteof Carlisle, part of which 
prietariee bought back (or the purpose of laj ing out the town upon it. 
Richard lived two miles Bouthwest. "William Armstrong' b settlement" was 
loguinet just below Meeting-house Springs. ''David Williams, a 
wealthy land-holder and the earliest known elder in the congregation of Dppei 
trough, -lames Young and Robert Sanderson were probably included 
in this settlement." Thomas Wilson was farther east, near the present Hen- 
mill; aext east was -lame- Smith, and south, Jonathan Holmes, "an 
other elder and an eminently good man." who lived aear the Spring on land more 
recenth owned bj Mrs. Parker, just northeast of Carlisle. Rowland Chambers 
lived aear the mouth of the Letort on the State road, and below or hack of him on 
Conodoguinet was a settlement where the first mill in the county was claimed 
to have d North and on the north side of the creek were Joseph 

Clark and Roberl Elliott, who came from Ireland about 1737. Abraham 
Lamberton came soon after, also Thomas Kenny. Bast of them were John 
Sample, Patrick Maguire, Christopher Huston and Josiah McMeans. "On the 
glebe belonging to the congregation of Fpper Pennsborough. about two miles 
northwest from Carlisle, was the Rev. Samuel Thompson (1738), near which 
were lands belonging to John Davi-. Esq.; and farther up the creek were Will- 
iam Dunbar and Andrew Forbes, near whom a mill was afterward erected l>.\ 
William Thompson." About four miles west of Carlisle Archibald McCallis- 
ter had an extensive purchase, the upper part of which was Bold to John 
Byers, Esq., as earl j as 1742. Samuel Alexander was on Mount Pleasant, 
and east of him on and near tie- road to Carlisle wen David Line. Andrew 
Given, John Roads, M. Gibbons, Jacob Medill, Stephen 

Colia B Blyth. Farther south, near the present Walnut Bottom 

road, were John Buston and two brothers, from Donegal, Lancaster County. 
Samuel and William Woods. Between them and the South Mounl 
early as 174'.'. were James MeKuight. William Dunlap, Robert Walker and 
James Weakley, and in the same vicinitj were James I- Fuller. -John Mc 
Knight,, Esq., William Campbell, John Galbreath, Hugh Craner, John Wilson, 
Peoples, Robert Queston, Thomas Armstrong, William Parkinson and 
John Elder. 

" In the settlement commenced by -lames Chambers (whose residence was 
about three miles southwest of Newville) was one of the most numerous olus 



ters of inhabitants in the valley. It was very early (1738) strong enough to 
form a religious congregation, which offered to pledge itself to the support of a 
pastor. In each direction from the Big Spring the land was almost entirely 
taken up before 1750; so that the people there presented strong claims to the 
county seat. Among the earliest of these settlers was Andrew Ralston [see 
page 8, this Part], on the road westward from the Spring; Robert Patterson the 
"Walnut Bottom road; James McKehan, who came from Gap Station, Lan- 
caster County, and was for many years a much respected elder in the church 
of Big Spring; John Carson, John Erwin, Richard Fulton, Samuel Mc- 
Cullough and Samuel Boyd. On the ground now occupied by the town of 
Newville were families of the name of Atchison and McLaughlin, and near 
them were others of the name of Sterrett, Blair, Finley, Jacobs, and many 
whose locations are not known to the writer.*" 

The third brother of the Chambers family, who located near Middle Spring 
(north of Shippensburg at the county line) soon had a numerous settlement 
around him. A histoiy of the Middle Spring Presbyterian Church in 1876, 
by Rev. S. S. "Wylie, then its pastor, has the following: " There is good evi- 
dence for the statement that at that time (1738) this section of this valley, be- 
tween Shippensburg and the North Mountain, was as thickly settled as almost 
any other portion of it. It is a matter of history that the first land in this 
valley taken up under the ' Samuel Blunston license' was by Benjamin Furley, 
and afterward occupied by the Herrons, McCombs and Irwins. a large tract 
lying along the Conodoguinet, in the direction of and in the neighborhood of 
Orrstown. At the house of "Widow Piper, in Shippensburg, as early as 1735, 
a number of persons from along the Conodoguinet and Middle Spring met to 
remonstrate against the road which was then being made from the Susque- 
hanna to the Potomac, passing through ' the barrens,' but wanted it to be made 
through the Conodoguinet settlement, which was more thickly settled. This 
indicates that at this time a number of people lived in this vicinity. I give 
the names of some of them, on or before the year 1738 : Robert Chambers, 
Herrons, McCombs, Youngs (three families), MeNutts (three families), Mahans 
(three families), Scotts, Sterretts and Pipers; soon after the Brady family, 
McCunes, Wherrys, Mitchells, Strains, Morrows and others. It was such pio- 
neers as these who, with their children, made Shippensburg the most promi- 
nent town of this valley prior to the year 1750. Many of the names given 
above constituted some of the most prominent and worthy members of Middle 
Spring Church." Dr. Wing gives names in this settlement as follows: Hugh 
and David Herron, Robert McComb, Alex and James Young, Alex McNutt, 
Archibald, John and Robert Machan, James Scott, Alex Sterrett. William and 
John Piper, Hugh and Joseph Brady, John and Robert McCune and Charles 
Morrow. The twelve persons who, in June. 1730, made the first settlement at 
Shippensburg, were Alex Steen, John McCall, Richard Morrow, Gavin Mor- 
row, John Culbertson, Hugh Rippey, John Rippey, John Strain. Alex Askey, 
John McAllister, David Magaw, John Johnston. 

Wild Animals and Fish. — Dr. W 7 ing says, in his general work on Cum- 
berland County: ' ' These fields and forests were full of wild animals. which had 
multiplied to an unusual degree with the diminution of their enemies — the 
Indians. Deer were especially numerous, particularly on the mountains; but 
bears, wolves, panthers, wildcats, squirrels, turkeys and other game were 
everywhere plentiful. Along the creeks and smaller streams the otter, musk- 
rat and other amphibious animals were taken, and their skins constituted no 
small part of the trade with the Indians and early hunters. Fish of all kinds 

*Dr. Wing's History, pp. 24-6. 

^_^^ciczy^ ^6^»w>/-^?^ ^7 


were caught in the streams, and large quantities even of shad are Baid to have 
oome up the Susquehanna and to have frequented the Conodoguinei in the 
Eastern part of the county. Manj of these ■were taken in the rude nets and 
seines called "brushnets," made of houghs ,.r branches of trees. Mo-t of 
these wild animals and fish have now tlisaiij>»>ar*>»l. but t h>> accounts of the 
early settlers are filled with tales of their contests with each other, the [ndians 
and themselves." The same (acts are substantially given in Rupp's Historj 
of 1 touphin and other counties. 

Customs and Habits, Wearing apparel was "home Bpun and home made," 
and the men wen! aboul dressed in this, and in hunting shirts and moccasins. 

Oarpets were unknown, l-'l - were of the " puncheon" variety logs Bplit and 

hewed, with the smooth Burfaoe appermost. Benches made of the same material 
with legB in them answered in the plaoe of chairs. Instead of crockery and 

china-ware the table Furniture consisted of plates, bj ds, bowls, trenchers, and 

DOggins made of wood, or of gourds ami hard shell squashes: though in the 
families in better ciroumstanoee pewter took the place of wood, and there was 
nothing liner. The border settlers who could eat their meals from pewter 

dishes were rich indeed. Says Rupp: "Iron pots, knives and forks, es] ialhj 

the latter, were never Been of different sizes and sets in the same kitchen." 

The few sheep, cows and calves possessed by the first settlers were for some 

year- a prey to wolves, QnleSS securely protected and watched. The raven 

oos wolves were bold in their marauding expeditions, and many a time the] 

came prowling around the houses at night, poked their noses into the openings 
and looked in through the crevices in the log dwellings upon the families 
within, while the discordant howling sounded like the yelling of demons and 
made the darkness appalling. Woe be then to the domestic animal thai was 
not securely housed or penned, for in the morning only its glistening bones 
would be left to tell thai it ever existed. The country lying between the Con- 

odoguinet and the fellow Br shes, for a distance of ten or twelve miles west 

wtird from the Susquehanna, was a barren, or tract devoid of timber, and 

..,,•, — this deer wer scasionally seen in a race for life with a pack of snarl 

ing and hungry wolves at their heels. These cadaverous and cunning annual 
we,,- Beldom taken in steel traps; a better plan offered tor their capture was the 
log pen, with Bloping exterior, open at the top, With retreating inner walls. 
The wolf could easily climb up the outside, and get at the bait within goner 
ally the carcase of a sheep winch had previously furnished a wolf a meal but 
once inside they could not get out, and were at the mercy of the settlers. 
Man\ were destroyed in this way. yet it was forty years or more before they 
oeased to be very tn lublesome. 

The pioneers were a "rude race and strong." or the] never could have 

with-t 1 the terrible hardships and privations of life in a border region, with 

wild beasts and wilder men continually harrassing them and making their loi 

desperate ind L There is thai in the Anglo-Saxon blood which appears to 

court difficulty and danger, and the resources of the race in time of trial are 
wonderful bey. ind comparison. In this broad and beautiful valle\ . in the da\ - 
when the col, cost- were going through experiences which should finally cause 
their separation from the mother country and the upbuilding of B magn 
Republic, there were hours, months and years of extremes! peril, of which he 
who reads at this late day can hardly have conception. 

Necessarily the buildings erected by the firs! Bottlers were simple and 
unpretending, whether for dwellings, places for worship or schools. Their 
supplier must be brought on horseback from Philadelphia, and across the Sus 
quehanna in canoes or simple boats. It may, therefore, readih h 


that they did not make pretensions to style, though there was a degree of uni- 
formity about their buildings, dress, furniture and mode of living, which their 
isolation brought about as a matter of course. Lumber was not to be had for 
any price; wooden pins took the place of nails; oiled paper answered for glass 
in the windows. Says Dr. Wing: " They could dispense for a time with 
almost everything to which they had been accustomed, provided they could 
look forward with confidence to a future supply. Their cabins were soon 
erected, and they did not scorn to receive suggestions from the rude savages 
whose skill had so long been tasked in similar circumstances. The same for- 
ests and fields and streams were open to them, and the Indian did not grudge 
his white brother his knowledge of their secrets. These buildings were con- 
structed of the logs to be had off the banks of the streams or from the neigh- 
boring hills; the combined strength of a few neighbors was sufficient to put 
them in position and small skill was needful to put them together, to fill up the 
interstices between them, and to roof them with rude shingles, thatched straw 
or the bark of trees, and in a little while the same ingenuity would split and 
carve out of timber, and fashion the floors, benches, tables and bedsteads 
which were wanted for immediate use. As the number of settlers increased, 
these dwellings became of a better order. More skilled workmen began to be 
employed, and better materials and furniture were introduced, but for the first 
twenty years the people were contented with the most humble conveniences. 
A few houses were constructed of stone, but these were not common. The first 
stone dwelling on Louther Manor, or in the eastern part of the county, was 
said to have been put up by Robert Whitehill, after his removal over the river, 
in 1772. The houses for schools and for public worship may have been of a 
better quality, for they were not usually erected under such extreme emergency, 
but they were of like materials and by the same workmen. Those, however, 
who know the buoyancy of hopes which ordinarily characterize the pioneers of 
a new country will not be surprised to learn that these were a happy people. 
The rude buildings in which they slept soundly, studied diligently, and wor- 
shiped devoutly, were quite as good for them, and were afterward remembered 
as pleasantly as were the more costly edifices of their father-land. 

Flour was an article not easily obtained until after the erection of mills to 
grind the wheat raised in the valley. The latter was found to flourish on the 
soil of the region, easily cleared of the bushes which grew upon it, and ' ' as 
soon as it could be carried to market it became the most important article of 
trade." Maize, or Indian corn, was for some time more abundant, and 
afforded a good source of food supply. The Indians raised it and none was 
exported, and the process of preparing it for eating was simple. 

Buckskins were made into breeches and jackets of great durability, though 
the working classes more commonly wore garments of hempen or flaxen tow, 
or woolen. The men had wool hats, cowhide shoes, linsey frocks, and some- 
times deer-skin aprons, while the women had frocks of similar materials, and 
occasionally sun-bonnets. They managed to have a little better dress for Sun- 
day, or for social meetings, in which they indulged for ' ' amusement and good 
cheer." In out-of-door sports the Indians often came in for a share in the 

After the long French and Indian war, and the subsequent war precipitated 
by Pontiac, there was a greater feeling of relief than had been experienced 
since the settlements began, and prosperity became more general. . Some fam- 
ilies had by that time become possessed of considerable wealth, and were enabled 
to maintain a style of living which those less fortunate could not indulge in. 
This style was naturally modeled after English customs. Dr. Wing, who quotes 


as authority "Watso \ of Philadelphia," continues: "To have a house 

in town for winter and another on a plantation tor summer was not ver] anus 
u.-il. and in ill" proper season a Large hospitality was indulged in. In man] 
families slaves were possessed, and even where a more ordinary Btyle of aervi 
in. I.' prevailed there were aoi a tev* torn ratio life. Some slaves 

the smaller farm-, but the great majorit) of aervantswere 

Qerman or Irish ' r« •» l« -m ) >t i. >i i ■ ■ i ' \ their tea I ervice was* 

not more than four or ii\ e j ears, and the price not more than the hire of labor 

en for a less term, man] farmers found this an advantag is method of obtain 

i i,j_r help. A- the] were not much distinguishable from their employers and 
afterward received good wages, the] Boon became proprietors of the si 
their children, being educated, passed into better society. In Buoh a Btat 
fail-- tin Tr was a perpetual tendency to a uniformit] of c litions and "l' social 

Che greal body of the people were moral, and all marked distinctions 
among them were discountenanced, bnl those who followed rough trades were 
not unwilling to be recognized. V atyle of dress ami manners prevailed to 
which our later American habits are generall] averse, and which plainl] dis 
tinguished between them and professional men and persons of independent 
Bach class ha. I its special privileges, which amply compensated Cor in 
feriority of position. The long established relations which thus grew up were 

roes of mutual benefits ami pleasures. I' if those who aspired 

to be fashionable was in main rejects the reverse of what it now is. Men 

wore three aquare or COCked hat- ami Wigs; coats with large cull's, big skirts 

lined and stiffened with buckram; breeches closely fitted, thickly lined ami 

earning down to the knee, of broadcloth for winter or silk camlet for summer. 
Cotton fabrics were almost unknown, li being more common, the hose es- 

. being of worsted or -ilk. Shoe- were of calf-kin for gentlemen, while 

ordinary people contented themselves with a coarser neat's leather. Ladies 
wore immense dresses expanded by hoops or stiff Btays, curiously plaited hair 
or enormous caps, high heeled shoes with white silk or thread stockings, and 
large bonnets, universally of a .lark color. The dresses of the laboring classes 

were different from these principally in the material- used. Buckskin breeches. 
cheeked shirt-, red flannel jackets and often leather apron- wen' the ordinary 

wear. While at their work in the fields the appearan ■!' the men and women 

continued much as we have described it at an earlier period. Before the Rev- 
olution Watson tells us that 'the wives and daughters of tradesmen through 
out the province-' all wore short gOWne, oft, mi of green baize but generall) of 
tic fabric, with cap- and kerchiefs On their head-, for a bare head was 
— a except with laborers at their work. Carriages were not common 
and were of a cumbrous description. People usually rode horseback ; ""' good 
riding was cultivated as an accomplishment. At the countrj churches on the 

Sabbath not [infrequently the horses on the outside were nearly a- numerous as 
the people inside the buildings. Store- in town were places of resort, ami did 

a more extensive business than they have A^m- since the cities have I n so ac 

oessible. Newspapers were rare, published generally only once a week and 
reaching subscribers in this county nearl] a week after date Kight weekly 
oer- and on kh had been started in Philadelphia, but a- the 

post went into the interior only once a week, the Latter was of Little ad 
to our people. The sheets On which the] were printed were small, and the 

amount of new- would now be considered verj meager. The death of a sover- 
eign about this time was not proclaimed in the province until uearlj six weeks 
after it- occurrence, and Bouquet's \ ictory and treat] with the Indian- were not 
'Emigrants hind oat until taeu loald be repaid. 


known in Carlisle until between three and four weeks from those events. Visit- 
ors to Philadelphia usually went in their own two-wheeled chaises or on horse- 
back, occupying two or three weeks in the journey. The numerous courts and 
transactions in land, as well as the lively social intercourse, made such journeys 
frequent. The transportation of goods both ways rendered needful trains of 
heavily loaded wagons (since called by the name of Conestoga or Pennsylvania), 
with four, five or six horses. As the woods westward and over the mountains would 
not allow of this method, either at Shippensburg or Smiths (Mercersburg), the 
goods had to be transferred to pack-horses. ' It was no uncommon thing at one 
of these points to see from fifty to 100 packhorses in a row, one person to each 
string of five or six horses, tethered together, starting off for the Monongahela 
country, laden with salt, iron, hatchets, powder, clothing and whatever was 
needed by the Indians and frontier inhabitants. 

In the days of pack-trains, time about 1770-80, there were seen at onetime 
in Carlisle as many as 500 pack-horses, going thence to Shippensburg, Fort 
London and other western points, loaded with merchandise, salt, iron, etc. 
Bars of iron were carried by first being bent over and around the bodies of the 
horses. Col. Snyder, an early blacksmith of Chambersburg, once told (1845) 
that he " cleared many a day from six to eight dollars in crooking, or bending 
iron and shoeing horses for Western carriers. ' ' [Kupp' s History of Cumberland 
and other counties, p. 376.] The same authority says: " The pack horses were 
generally led in divisions of about twelve or fifteen horses, carrying about two 
hundred weight each, all going single file and being managed by two men, one 
goino- before as the leader, and the other at the tail to see after the safety of 
the packs. When the bridle road passed along declivities or over hills, the 
path was, in some places, washed out so deep that the packs, or burdens, 
came in contact with the ground, or other impeding obstacles, and were fre- 
quently displaced. However, as the carriers usually traveled in companies, 
the packs were soon adjusted and no great delay occasioned. The pack hors- 
es were generally furnished with bells, which were kept from ringing during 
the day drive, but were let loose at night when the horses were set free and 
permitted to feed and browse. The bells were intended as guides to direct 
their whereabouts in the morning. When wagons were first introduced, the 
carriers considered that mode of transportation an invasion of their rights. 
Their indignation was more excited and they manifested greater rancor than 
did the regular teamsters when the line of single teams was started, some 
thirtv [now seventy] years ago." 

". Formation of Townships and Boroughs.— -The townships, as they now ex- 
ist in the County of Cumberland, were formed at dates as follows: 

Cook, from a part of Penn, June 18, 1872; Dickinson, April 17, l<8o; 
East Pennsborough, 1745 (originally Pennsborough, 1735); Frankford, 
1795; Hampden, January 23, 1845; Hopewell, 1735; Lower Allen, 1849, 
(originally Allen, 1766); Middlesex, 1859; Mifflin, 179 1; Monroe, 1825; New- 
ton 1767; North Middleton, 1810 (originally Middleton, 1750); Penn, from 
part of Dickinson, October 23, 1860; Shippensburg, 1784; Silver Spring, 
1787- Southampton, 1791;* South Middleton, 1810, (originally Middleton, 
1750); Upper Allen, 1849 (originally Allen, 1766); West Pennsborough, 
1745 to present limits in 1785, part of original township of Pennsborough, 
1735- Carlisle Borough, 1782, new charter, 1814; Camp Hill Borough, Novem- 
ber 10 1885; Mechanicsburg Borough, 1828; Mount Holly Springs Borough, 
1873- Newburg Borough, 1861; New Cumberland Borough, 1831; Newville 
Borough, February 26, 1817, township in 1828, borough in 1869. Shippens- 
burg Borough, 1819; Shire manstown Borough, 1874 or 1875. 

*One authority says before 1732, but we have found no record to that effect. 


Lands.— The lands in this region at the time of tl arlj settlements 

were of two classes: theme to which the [ndian title had ao( yet I n extin 

guished, and npon which white people were not allowed to Bettle until the 
government should pnrohase them and open an office for their Bale; and the 
proprietary lands " sometimes surveyed into manors and reserved tor special 
purposes and sometimes held open for private purchase," bul belonging to 
them (the proprietaries) in fee Bimple, Purchasers of land from the proprie 
taries, who had surveyed and divided them into lots, paid very low prices, some- 
time as low a- one shilling sterling per acre, and even down to a merely nom 
inaJ valuation according to location. These purchasers often had to borrow 
money t<> paj even the small sums required and gave mortgages upon the 
lands' for security. They were generally able to meet their obligations in a 
i yerj acre of land sold by the proprietaries was also Bubject to an 
annual rental, from one penu\ down, and sometimes a diminutive quantity of 
wheat or corn, or perhaps poultry.* 

h wae not until the treaty of October, 1 736, that the Indian title to lands 
in Cumberland Count] was extinguished and vested in the heirs, successors and 
of Thomas and Richard Perm. Paiton Manor had been sot off in 
s Pennasan inducemenl to the Shawanees to settle here and 
live at peace with the whites; the title to it was, however, acquired in 1736 
with the other lands included in the deed, and it was then laid oul f "* 
limits were described as follows in the return, Maj 16, 1 765, of the warrant tor 
its resurvey, issued December 26, 1 764: "On the west side of the Susquehannah 
River, opposite to John Hani,' ferry, and bounded to the eastward by the 

said river; to the northward l>\ Conodoewvinet Creek; to the southward by the 

fellow Breeches Creek, and to the westward bj a line drawn north, a little 

the said Yellow Ihvoches to Conodogwiuet Creek aforesaid, con 
taming 7,507 acres, or upward." The survej showed it to contain 7,551 acres. 
It embraced all the land between the two creeks, according to reliable author- 
ity, extending westward to "the road leading from the Conodogwiuet to the 
Yellow Breeches, past the Stone Church or Frieden's Kirch, and immediately 

below Shireinanstowii." Its first SUTVej had 1 n made very earl\ (1 733 32). 

John Armstrong surveyed it in 1765, and divided it into twenty portions, and 
in L767 John Lukens 'surveyed it and divided it into twenty-eight tracts or 
plantations of various Bizes, aggregating about the original quantity of land in 
the manor. These tract- ,. o originally to the following persons: No. 1, 

530 acres, to Capt. John Stewart; No. 2, 267j acres. toJohn Boggs; 30 

ier Weber; 256 acres to Col. John Armstrong; 227 acres to James Wil- 
son; 227 acres to Robert Whitehill (including site of town of Whitehill); No. 3, 
200 acres; No. 4. 206 acres, to Moses Wallace; No. 5, 200 acres, to John Wil- 
\.s. 6 (267 acres) and 7 (283 acres), to John WTish; No. 8, 27,") acres, to 
i Kogers; No. ( .t, I '.!.-> acre-. Etenninger; No. 10, L83 acres, to 
Oaeper Weaver; No. 11, 134 acres, to Casper Weaver; No. 12, L81 acres, to 
William B No. 13, 184 acres, to Samuel Wallace; No. II. |o:i_acies. 

Christopher Grainlich; No. 15, 2<>r> acres, James McCurdey; No. lb, 237 acres, 
Isaac Heii.lrix; No. 17. 213 acres, Robert Whitehill; No. IS. 311 acres, t'hilip 
Kimmel; No. 19, 267 .acres, Andrew Kreutzer; No. 20, 281 acres, David Moore; 
No-, -j i and 22, 536 acres, Edmund Physick; No. 23, 282 acres. Edmund 

•The unnilqnlt rent waa placed at 1st n lawful money (bierer. I 

tion was very dlliicult. hoi 

thoiiKh it exempt*) them from all other propriel »«' l'""l '" ,' '■""'"■' ;'".' ' "",':'>' "'",'"- '• 

until «... i. Revolutionary War. The an nt wm i»y«ble to the heta of WUllam 1 

and silver was very scarce and the proviuce Issued paper money, which depreciated to half its face value. 
Many farmers lost their tracts through failure to pay mortgages, losing at the same time their earlier payments 

tl>r J. A. Murray In article upon Louther Manor, In Carlisle Herald, early In 1885. 


Physick; No. 24, 287 acres, Rev. William Thompson; No. 25, 150 acres, Alex 
Young; No. 26. 209 acres, Jonas Seely; Nos. 27 (243 acres) and 28 (180 acres), 
Jacob Miller. The manor included portions of Hampden, East Pennsborough 
and Lower Allen Townships, as at present existing, and the western boundary 
would pass just east of Shiremanstown. Within its area are now situated the 
towns and settlements of New Cumberland, Milltown (or Eberly's Mills), Bridge- 
port, Wormleysburg. Cainp Hill and Whitehill Station. 

The troubles between the proprietors of Pennsylvania and Maryland over 
the boundary between the two provinces, with their final settlement by the run- 
ning of ' ' Mason and Dixon' s Line, ' ' are set forth in Chapter X of the history 
of Pennsylvania in this volume, and it is unnecessary to repeat them here. 

At one time during the Revolutionary period, when the titles of lands in 
Cumberland County were examined with a view to taxation, it was discovered 
that a large quantity of land was yet vested in the proprietary family and no 
revenue was derived from it. "The following tracts," says Dr. Wing, "were 
described as belonging to them: in East Pennsborough a tract called Lowther 
(formerly Paxton) Manor, containing 7,551 acres; in West Pennsborough these 
tracts are called Jericho, containing 807 acres and 40 perches, another of 828 
acres, and another of 770 acres and 20 perches; a tract adjoining the moun- 
tains of 988 acres; one composed of several fragments, originally 6,921 acres 
and 23 perches, and including the borough of Carlisle and then in the vicinity 
of the town; one adjoining the North Mountain, 3,600 acres; another near the 
Kittatinny Mountains of 55 acres; two tracts in Hopewell Township, most if 
not all of which are probably now in Franklin County, 4,045 acres and 120 
perches, and 980 acres — making in all 26, 536 acres. Much of the land which 
had been sold had been subjected by the terms of sale to a perpetual quit 
rent. During the war none of these quit rents had been collected, no further 
sales could be effected, and no tax could be collected from this large amount 
of property. Many persons, too, had settled upon such proprietary lands as 
were unoccupied without the form of any title, and were making improvements 
on them. November 27. 1779, the Assembly passed resolutions annulling the 
royal charter, and granting to the Penn family as a compensation for the 
rights of which this deprived them £130,000. This, however, did not affect 
their ownership of lands and quit rents as private persons, so that they still 
remain the largest land owners in the State. On a subsequent occasion 
(1780) these private estates were forfeited and vested in the commonwealth, 
by which act the State government became possessed of a large amount of land 
which it bestowed upon officers and soldiers, or sold to private settlers for the 
profit of the State. ' ' 

We have seen a copy of an original draft of a " proprietary manor southwest 
of the borough of Carlisle, in Middleton Township, Cumberland County, 
containing in the whole 1,927 acres, 34 perches, and an allowance of six acres 
per cent for roads, etc. Resurveyed the 6th, 7th and 8th days of Janu- 
ary, 1791. Pr. Samuel Lyon, D. S." This joined Carlisle on the southwest, 
being bounded north by Gillanghan's tract, Armstrong's tract, Richard Peters' 
tract and Richard Coulter's tract; east by lands belonging to Patrick and 
William Davidson. Banton & Co., Stephen Foulk, Joseph Thornburgh and 
William Patterson; south by James Lyon's and the heirs of George Lyre's 
land; west by Lyre's heirs, William Reaney and John Carver. It was quite 
irregular in form. 




Im.iw Sistori French uro [ndiam Was -Pontiao's War. 

N this connection it will aot be necessary to enter into an extended bistorj 
, oi the [ndian nations who at various periods claimed power over this region 
It will he sufficient to Btate that when the Cumberland Valley first bi 
known to the European races, and was Looked upon as a place of future colom 

■ation, it was virtuallj Ln | ion of the aggregation of known as tin- 

li basbeen Bald that at the opening of the seventeenth oenturj 
"the lower vall.-\ of the Susquehanna appears to have been a vast, uninhabited 
highway, through which horde- of ho-tile savages were constantly roaming be 
fcween the aorthern and Bouthern waters, and where they often met in bloodj 

beta The Six Nation- were acknowledged a- the sovereigns of the Sus- 
ipiehaima. and they regarded with jealousy and permitted with reluctance the 
settlement of other tribes upon its margin."* 

Six Nations originally the Five Nations until the Tusearoras oi 
North Carolina joined them in 1712— were the Onondagas, Cayugas, Oneidas. 
Benecas, Mohawk- and Tusearoras. They were termed the "Iroquois ' by the 
French. The "Lenni Lenape," or the "original people," commonlj 
the Delaware Nation, were divided into three grand divisions — the Unam 
Turtle tribe-: the Dnalachtgos, or Turkeys, and the Monsoys, or Wolf tribes. 
The first two occupied the territory along the coast and between the sea and 
th.. Kittatinm or Blue Mountains, with settlements reaching from the Hudson 
on the east to the Potomac on the west. The Mbnseys, a tierce, active and 
warlike people, occupied the mountainous country between the kittal iimy and 
the sources of the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers. These three divisions 
were subdivided into various subordinate classes bearing distinguishing names. 
The Lenni Lenape tribes occupying this region soon after the first settlement 
of Pennsylvania were the Tuteloes and Nantecokes, formerly in Maryland and 
Virginia.' The Shawanos. or Shawanese, B fierce and restless tribe which was 
threatened with extermination by B more powerful tribe in the south, sought 

:;o u from the northern tribe- who-,, language was similar to their own. 
and a portion of them settled near the forks of the Delaware and on the Hats 
below Philadelphia. Becoming troublesome they were removed by either the 
Delaware- or Six Nation- to the Susquehanna Valley, and during the Revoln 

d the war of L812 their terrible deeds became matters of historic record 

From them Bprang the renowned chieftain Tecumseh (or Tecumthe). The 
historian Bancroft, in speaking of the Shawanese. says: •• It was about the year 

L698 that thr r four -core of their families, with the consent of the govern 

me, ,i of Pennsylvania, removed from Carolina and planted themselves on the 
Susquehanna. ' Sad were the fruits of that hospitality. Others followed; and 
in 1732, the number of Indian fighting men in Pennsylvania was esti- 
mated to be T<">. one-half of them were Shawanee emigrants. So desolate was 
the wilderness that a vagabond tribe could wander undisturbed from Cumber 
land down to the Alabama, from the head waters of the Santee to the Susque- 
hanna. ' ' Some historians believe the Shawanes e came north in 1678. They 

• Day ■• B i in or Pennsylvania, pp. 388, 389. 


had a village in Lancaster County, at the mouth of Pequea (or Pequehanj 
Creek, and their chief's name was Opessah, and there were several Indian 
towns along both sides of the Susquehanna. Those who had settled at Pequea 
removed a quarter of a century later to lands on the Conodoquinet, within the 
present limits of Cumberland County, with also a village at the mouth of the 
Yellow Breeches Creek. They deserted the villages about 1725, when the 
whites began to look to it for homes, and removed westward to the Ohio. The 
lands on the Conodoquinet were surveyed for the use of the Indians upon a 
treaty of purchase being made by the proprietaries for their lands on the Sus- 
quehanna, at the mouth of the Conestoga and elsewhere. ' ' The intrusion of 
the white settlers upon their hunting ground, ' ' says Conyngham, ' ' proved a 
fresh source of grievance; they remonstrated to the governor and to the As- 
sembly, and finally withdrew and placed themselves under the protection of the 
French. Big Beaver, a Shawanee chief, at the treaty of Carlisle in 1753, re- 
ferred to a promise made by William Penn, at Shackamaxon, of hunting 
grounds forever." The treaty mentioned was one " of amity and friendship," 
made at Carlisle in October, 1753, with the Ohio Indians, by Benjamin Frank- 
lin, Isaac Morris and "William Peters, commissioners. The expense thereof, 
including presents to the Indians, was £1,400. 

Treaties. — Says Dr. Wing (pp. 14-15 History of Cumberland County): " For 
one or two generations at least the land of Penn was never stained by an In- 
dian with the blood of a white man. Deeds were obtained on several different 
occasions during the years 1682-1700 for lands lying between the Delaware 
and the Potomac, and south of the South Mountain. In 1696 a purchase was 
effected through Gov. Dongan, of New York, in consideration of one hundred 
pounds sterling, ' of all that tract of land lying on both sides of the river Sus- 
quehanna and the lakes adjacent in or near the province of Pennsylvania.' As 
the right of the Six Nations to sell this territory was not acknowledged by the 
various tribes living on the Susquehanna, Conestoga and Potomac Bivers, other 
treaties were entered into with the sachems of these tribes (September 30, 1700, 
and April 23, 1701), by which their sale was expressly confirmed. So vague, 
however, was the language used in these deeds that a question arose whether 
the phrases ' lands on both sides of the Susquehanna and adjoining the same,' 
would give any rights beyond that river, and it was thought best to effect an- 
other purchase before any settlement should be allowed on that territory. Ac- 
cordingly the chiefs of the Six Nations met October 11, 1736, in Philadel- 
phia, when they revived all past treaties of friendship and executed a deed 
conveying to John, Thomas and Bichard Penn and their heirs ' all the said 
river Susquehanna, with the lands lying on both sides thereof, to extend east- 
ward as far as the heads of the branches or springs which run into the said 
Susquehanna, and all the land lying on the west side of the said river to the 
setting of the sun, and to extend from the mouth of the said river northward 
up the same to the hills or mountains called in the language of said nations 
Tayamentasachta, and by the Delaware Indians the Kekachtannin* hills. ' This 
deed included all the lands comprised in the present county of Cumberland, 
but was not executed until a few years after settlements had' been commenced 
there. ' ' 

Previous to the purchase of 1736, a number of unauthorized settlements had 
been made upon the Conodoguinet and Conococheague, mostly by persons 
from the north of Ireland, and after the purchase, but before the lands were 
surveyed, these settlements were encouraged for the purpose of preventing in- 
truders coming in under Lord Baltimore's title. " These settlements, " says 
Day, "gave rise to the complaints of the Shawanese. " 

*By other authority Kekachtanamin. 

cW.n^^^ t 

HISTORY OF I i'\ii;i:ki..\M' I OONXT. 15 

After Franklin's treat] with the Indians at Carlisle, in 1758, b dispute arose 
betweei or and Council, and the assembly, over a complaint mad,' 

bj the Shawanese, " thai the proprietary government had surveyed all the land 
on the Conodoguinet into a manor, a air hunting ground 

without a purchase and contrary to treaty." The remarks made bj Big 
at aaid treaty have been mentioned. The] were mentioned bj the As 
sembly in the dispute, but "bj the governor and Council it was alleged that do 
such thing had occurred, and that a treaty held in L754, the same Shawanee 
ohiefswho were at Carlisle the year before made the strongest professions of their 
friendship, without an] complaint on account of the same tract of land. The] 
alleged, too, that the Shawanese aever had an] claim to the Conodoguinet 
lands; for that thej were southern Indians who, being rendered uneasj b] their 
oeighbors, had settled on these lands in L698, with the permission of the 
Susquehanna Indian- and the proprietary, William Penn." However, no com 
pensatioD being made to the Shawanese, they removed as Btated and put them 

selves Under the protection of the French and l«rnmo a source of terror to the 
oolonists because of their hostility during the great French and Indian war 
of IT-". 

Indian- belonging to various tribes were met with by the early settlers. 
g them were the Shawanese, Delawares, Susquehannas (of which people 
I. ut a remnant was left, the tribe having been Bwept awaj bj wars and small- 
tfanticokes, Mingoea, Tuteloes, etc. A Bfingo village is said to have ex- 
isted on Let n Kan. in the neighborhood of Carlisle and the famous Lo- 
gan, whose residences were many, if all tradition he true, is -aid to have once 
oocupied a cabin on the Beaver Pond, at the head of Letort Spring. The 
Shawaneee were not so numerous a- in former years, as many of them had 
removed westward. Thej had professed that the land-, being barren, or devoid 
of large trees were not suitable for a bunting ground, and for that reason the] 
had left, hut indiscretion on the part of some of their youne men. who had in 
drunken frolic'- given offense to the Delawares, had undoubtedly been a great- 
er reason, although both the Delaware- and the Six Nation- made investi 
gations, forgave their offenses, and invited them to return, which they would 
not do. Even the proprietary, Thomas Penn. upon his arrival in 1732, ex 
tended the same invitation and assigned them a large tract of the land they 
had previously occupied provided the] would return, A few of them did so, 

and li\ , with the settlers. In order to prevent whites from locating 

ii|>,jii the land given to the Shawanese, a tract containing 7,551 acre- was sur 

veyed in 1732 and erected into a manor called Paxton. The- Indian- were 
finally found unwilling to OCCUp] tin- land, and it was surveyed December 'Jl'i. 
lTiit. and given the name •• Louther Manor," in honor of a sister of William 
Perm, who married a nobleman of that name. The order for the resurvey was 
Decembers, L764, and returned May lb. 1765, the quantity being found 

a- above T.-V'l acres. The bounds are described as follows: ■• Mounded on 

the ea-t by the Susquehanna, opposite John Harris' ferry; north bj tl e C i 

doguinet; south hv the Yellow Breeches Creek, and on the west by a line 
drawn a little westerly from the said Yellow Breeches to Conodoguinet Creek, 
contniiei!.: 7,507 acres or upward." 

The -tate of mind the Shawanese were in over their pretended wrongs, and 
the bargaining away of their land by the Six Nations with little regard for their 
welfare, rendered them easy to win from their friend-hip to the English. 
■ M ■•■ than Once." says Dr. Wing. " when messengers were sent to them bythe 
Governor and the Six Nation-. the_\ confessed that they had been mistaken, 
and promised that they would return, or at least live in peace where they were; 


but every year it became more and more evident that their friendship was 
forced, and lasted only while they were in expectation of some benefits, 
and that their hostility might be counted upon whenever an opportunity 
of vengeance should occur. The Delawares had not as extensively gone beyond 
the mountains; the main body adhered to their chiefs, and were almost support^ 
ed by the government, but an increasing number of them were wandering off 
and were making common cause with the Shawanees. The ' Indian \\ alk, by 
which a portion of their lands had been acquired, seemed at least sharp practice, 
but the injustice had been more than compensated by subsequent dealings. 

The use of liquor among the Indians was the cause of much trouble between 
themselves, and to a certain extent between them and the whites. They knew 
not how to govern their appetites, and more than once Indian murders occurred 
which could be directly traced as the effects of the liquor the perpetrators had 
swallowed. It burned any humanity out of them and made their naturally sav- 
age dispositions wilder and fiercer. It is known that Sassoonan. king of the 
Delawares, in 1731 killed his nephew while in a drunken frenzy, and was over- 
come with remorse and shame when he became sober, and yet he could not 
bring himself to ask that the sale of the poison to the Indians be entirely pro- 
hibited, but only that it might be kept from his people, except as it ivas asked 
for by themselves. 

The French beo-an their work of alienating the Shawanese from the Jing- 
lish as early as 1730, desiring to secure their influence in the furtherance of 
their own purposes. The following, from a message by Gov. Gordon to the 
Provincial Assembly, August 4, 1731, as given in the provincial record, shows 
"that by advices lately brought to him by several traders (from Ohio) in those 
parts, it appears that the French have been using endeavors to gam over those 
Indians (Shawanese) to their interest, and for this end a French gentleman 
had come among them some years since, sent, as it was believed, from the gov- 
ernor of Montreal, and at his departure last year carried with him some of the 
Shawanese chiefs to that government, with whom they at then- return appeared to 
be highly pleased. That the same French gentleman, with five or six others in 
company with him, had this last spring again come among the said Indians 
and brought with him a Shawanese interpreter, and was well received by them. 
TRupp's History of Cumberland and other counties, page 351. The same au- 
thority says that "Hetaquantagechty, a distinguished chief, said, in a council 
held at Philadelphia. August 25, 1732, that last fall (1731) the French inter- 
preter, Cahichtodo, came to the Ohio River (or Allegheny) to build houses 
there, and to supply the Indians with goods, etc. " ] 

Settlements bv the Scotch-Irish upon unpurchased lands about the Juniata 
assisted in fanning the flame of Indian hostility. Yet, in what is now Cum- 
berland County, these settlements must have been as stated by Mr. Rupp, 
made "by permission from the Indians, whom the first settlers conciliated, 
for there "were no outbreaks here for more than thirty years after the pioneer 
locations had been made. Yet it was evident that a crisis was impending. 
The provincial government was hard pressed to provide presents for the In- 
dians, in order to keep them peaceable and to maintain a line of frontier de- 
fense ao-ainst French incursions. Finally war was declared between France 
and England,* and the storm, which had for so many years been gathering 
force, broke with deadly fury upon the mountain region, and sad were the ex- 
periences of the colonists before morning dawned upon a peaceful horizon. 
Matters began to look dark for the settlers upon this declaration of hostil- 

» p en hostility was declared in March, 1744, although the actual strife in Pennsylvania did not break 
out until 1753, when the French established posts to connect the lakes with the Ohio. 


iti.'-. The French had encroached opon territory claii I trj the English, and 

\ tions were -ileut when messages were Benl them concerning the 
other tribes they had previously held in check Chartier, the Indian trader, 
farmerh located al the month of the felloe Breeches, had made his home with 
the Shawanese and accepted ;> commission in the French Army. Be was a 

half !>r 1 with Shawanese blood in his reins, and had greal influence over thai 

tribe. A. conference was held with the six Nations at Lancaster June 24, 
IT 1 1, when the latter pledged themselves to remain at peace and to do all in 
iwer to prevenl the tribes which owed them allegiance from indulging 
in hostile forays. Hut a- a large portion of the Shawanees and Delawareshad 
gone beyond their jurisdiction, the treatj could not reach them, and it I 
the inhabitants to casl aboul (or means of Becuritj and defense. The foolish 
differences between the governor and the Assembly tor years prevented steps 
being taken Bufficienl to allay fear. Finally, through tin' sagacity of Benjamin 
Franklin, aided by James Logan, 10,000 volunteer militiamen were formed 
10 companies throughoul the provinces, and the expense was mel bj 
voluntary sub i regiments thus raised were called " association 

regiments," the beginning of a system which continued on into 

the Revolutionary war-. Bancroft Btates on the authority of Logan that ••the 
women were so zealous thai thej furnished ten pairs of silk colors wroughl 
with various l [jancaster County, for Cumber 

land ws irmed being largel) Scotch Irish and naturally warlike ami 

sive, entered heartily into the military spirit. A number <>1 <■ pat i«-s 

rmed in the valley, the officers being chosen 1>\ the soldiers and com 
ed bj the governor. The several militia captains in the count) were 

sent letter-, dated I tuber L5, IT 15, stating that D.6WB had been received that 

"the French and their Indian allies were preparing to march during the win 
ter to the frontiers of Pennsylvania under the conduct of Peter Chartier, who 
would not fail to do them all the mischief in his power. The news served to 
stir up the people, as may well he imagined, hut the alarm proved groundless. 
March 29, 1 7 is. a list of officers in an associated regiment, raised in ••that 
-ter which laj between the river Susquehanna and the line- of 
this province." wa- presented to the provincial council. The officers had been 
chosen by the men in their commands and commissioned bj the governor, and 
were as follows: Colonel Benjamin Chambers, of Chambershurg; lieutenant 
colonel Robert Dunning, of East Pennsborough; major — William Maxwell. 
of Peters; captains -Richard O'Cain, Robert Chambers, of Hopewell; James 
Carnaghan, of Hopewell; John Chamber-, of Middleton; .lames Silvers, of 

Pennsborough; Charles Morrow, of Hopewell: George Brown, of West 
Pennsborough; James Woods, of Middleton; James McTeer, of Easl Penne 

_n. and Matthew [ > 1 1 1 : lieutenants — "William Smith, of Peters; Andrew 
Finley, of Lurgan; .lames Jack, of Hopewell; Jonathan HoIuh^ of Middle 
bias Hendricks, of Easl Pennsborough; James Ihsart. of Hopewell; 
John Potter, of Antrim; John McCormick, of I la I Pennsborough; William 
Trindle, of East Pennsborough; Andrew Miller, of Fast Pennsborough: Charles 
MoGill, of Guilford; John Winton, of Peter-; John Mitchell, of East Penns- 
borough; ensigns John Lesan, John Thompson, of Hopewell; Walter Davis, 
of Middleton; Joseph Irwin, of Hopewell; John Anderson, of Past Penns 
borough; John Randalls, of Antrim; Samuel Fisher, of East Pennsboi 

Marr. of Past Pennsborough: George Tirenan. Robert Meek, of Hope- 
well; James Wilkey. of Peters, and Adam Hayes, of West Pennsborough. 

No invasions of what is now Cumberland County occurred, and no murders of 
citizens of this immediate valley are recorded during this period. 


The home government were in doubt about the legality and expediency of 
these associated organizations, but their doubts were easily removed, and the 
council, in a letter to the proprietaries dated July 30, 1748, said: "The zeal and 
industry, the skill and regularity of the officers have surprised every one, 
though it has been for them a hard service. The whole has been attended by 
such expense, care and fatigue as would not have been borne or undertaken by 
any who were not warm and sincere friends of the government, and true lovers 
of their country. In short, we have by this means, in the opinion of most stran- 
gers, the best militia in America; so that, had the war continued, we should 
have been in little pain about any futare enterprises of our enemies. 'W hatever 
opinion lawyers or others not fully acquainted with our unhappy circum- 
stances may entertain of it, it is in our opinion one of the wisest and most useful 
measures that was ever undertaken in any country." The peace of Aix-la- 
Chapelle, in October, 1748, did not affect the American colonies, for the 
French continued to erect forts and take other steps until war was precipitated 
in 1753. 

In what is at present Cumberland County, forts— in some^ instances mere 
tradincr-houses — were erected at various times from 1753 to 1764, and so far 
as now known were as follows: Fort Le Tort, a trading house near Carlisle, 
1753; FortLouther, at Carlisle, 1753; Fort Croghan, a trading-house, eight 
miles up the Conodoguinet from Harris' ferry, where the veteran trader, 
George Croghan. resided; Fort Franklin, at Shippensburg, said to have been 
commenced in 1755; Fort Morris, at Shippensburg, 1755; Forts Dickey, Fer- 
guson and McAllister, all in 1 761. (These are on authority of an historical map 
of Pennsylvania issued by the Pennsylvania Historical Society.) The defeat 
of Gen. Braddock on the Monongahela, July 9, 1755. left the frontier m a 
oreatly exposed condition, and the people were quick to apprehend their dan- 
Gov. Morris visited Carlisle July 10, 1755, for the purpose of sending on 
supplies to Braddock and encouraging the people in the midst cf their panic 
over various Indian depredations and the removal of troops for their protec- 
tion from the valley, and while there learned of the disastrous end of Brad- 
dock's expedition. " The troops in Pennsylvania were sent north, and the prov- 
ince was left to take care of itself as best it could. Large quantities of pro- 
visions had been accumulated at Shippensburg, Carlisle and other points, 
which the retreating army had no pressing need for, and it was well for the 
inhabitants of the valley. Work on the military road, elsewhere described, 
was abandoned, and the people looked to the future with dire forebodings. 
"News of contemplated attacks upon the settlements along the frontier from 
the Delaware to the Maryland and Virginia line came upon the people in 
quick succession, and some actual massacres, burnings and captivities were 
reported from the south, west and north. Even before Braddock' s defeat, and 
when that general with his army had gone only thirty miles from Fort Cum- 
berland, a party of 100 Indians, under the notorious Shingas, came to the 
Bio- Cove and to the Conoloways (creeks on the border of Maryland in what is 
now Fulton County) and killed and took prisoners about thirty people, and drove 
the remainder from their homes. "* The fugitives spread the news, and terror and 
consternation resulted among the inhabitants of the region, not lessened when 
warning was given that an attack had been planned against Shearman s \ alley 
and the settlements here. ' ' John Potter, " says Wing, ' ' the sheriff of Cumber- 
land County, who resided in the vicinity which had been ravaged, gathered some 
companies to resist the assailants, but it was only to witness the burning build- 
ings, bury the dead and form a gatheri ng of the fugitives; the nimble foe was 

*By Dr. Wing, from Pennsylvania Archives, Vol. II, p. 375. 


always at a distant a some other depredations before the pursuers reached 

an] point where the] had 1 o. James Smith (a brother-in law of William 

Smith, the justice doner on the road), ;i youth of eighteen, had 

been captured with several others while engaged in conveying pro\ isions along 
the road, and a still larger number np the river Susquehanna was slain and 
driven in. Twentj Beven plantations were reported as utterly desolated in 

the southwestern part of this vallej and vicinity, and no prospect Beei 1 to 

be before the | pie bul that of being given up to ihe w ill of the savages." 

When Gov. Morris learned in Carlisle of Braddock's defeat he was im 
portuned bj the people to take ome steps for their protection. Ho issued 
writs to summon to a meeting on the 23d of July a1 Philadelphia, to devise 

to defend the frontier and provide f or the expense; and upon request 
of the people laid out ground for wooden forts at Carlisle i nsburg, 

rders to have them built and supplied with arms and ammunition. 

He at the same time encouraged the Inhabitants to form associations for their 
own defense, and they scarcely needed a second bidding. Four companies of 
militin wen' formed and supplied with powder and lead. John Armstrong and 
William Buchanan, of Carlisle, Justice William Maxwell, of Peters. Alexander 
Culbertson, of Lurgan, and Joseph Armstrong, of Hamilton Townships, 1 1 1 
supplies to distribute among the inhabitants. There was great danger from the 
enem} at the upper end of the valley, though no locality was safe. Pel 

the governor by aumerous citizens in the valley, showing their in 
ability to provide adequate protection tor themselves, and calling upon him 
for assistance. The people at Shippenaburg offered to finish a fori begun on 
der the late governor if they mighl be allowed men and ammunition to de- 
fend it. 

Dr. Egle in his History of Pennsylvania (pp. Nil '.•* h. says: "The eonster 

at Braddock's defeat was verj great in Pennsylvania. The retreat of 
Dunbar left the whole frontier uncovered; whilst the inhabitants, unarmed 

and undisciplined, wen mpelled hastily to seek the means of defense or of 

flight. In describing the exposed state of the province and the miseries 
which threatened it, the governor had occasion to be entirely satisfied with 
his own eloquence: and had his resolution to defend it equaled the earnest- 

■ his appeal to the Assembly, the people might have been spared much 

suffering. The Assembly immediately voted £50,000 to the King's use. to be 

raised by a tax of 12 pence per pound, and 20 shillings per head, yearly, for two 

is, real and personal, throughout the province, the proprie 

tary estate not excepted. This was not in accordance with the proprietary in 
Btructions, and therefore returned by the governor. In the long discussions 
which ensued between the two branches of government, the people began to he- 
alarmed, as the\ beheld with dread the procrastination of the measures 
for defense, and earnestly demanded aims and ammunition. The enemy, long 
restrained by fear of another attack, and scarcely crediting his senses when he 
ired the defenseless state of the frontiers, now roamed unmolested and 
fearlessly along the western lines of Virginia, .Maryland and Pennsylvania, 
committing the most appalling outrages and wanton cruelties which the cupidity 
and ferocity of the savage could dictate. The first inroads into Pennsylvania 

were in Cumberland (Jountv, whence they were soon extended to the Susoue 
hanna. The inhabitant-, dwelling at the distance of from one to three mi lea 
apart, fell unresistingly, were captured or Bled in terroi to the interior settle 
uieiits. The main body of the enemy encamped on the Susquehanna, thirty 
miles above Harris' ferry, whence they extended themselves on both side- the 
river, below the Kittatinnv Mountains. The settlements tit the Great Cove 


in Cumberland County, now Fulton, were destroyed, and many of the inhabi- 
tants slaughtered or made captives, and the same fate fell upon Tulpehocken, 
upon Mahanoy and Gnadenhutten. " 

As an illustration of the desperate strait the people were in, the follow- 
ing letter, written to the governor by John Harris, of Harris' ferry, October 
29 1755, is quoted: "We expect the enemy upon lis every day, and the in- 
habitants are abandoning their plantations, being greatly discouraged at the 
approach of such a number of cruel savages, and no sign of assistance. The 
Indians are cutting us off every day, and I had a certain account of about 
1 500 Indians, besides French, being on their march against us and Virginia, 
and now close on our borders, their scouts scalping our families on our fron- 
tiers daily. Andrew Montour and others at Shamokin desired me to take care; 
that there was forty Indians out many days, and intended to burn my house 
and destroy my family. I have this day cut holes in my house, and it is de- 
termined to hold out to the last extremity if I can get some men to stand by 
me, few of which I yet can at present, every one being in fear of their own 
families being cut off every hour; such is our situation. I am informed that 
a French officer was expected at Shamokin this week with a party of Delawares 
and Shawnese, no doubt to take possession of our river; and, as to the state of 
the Susquehanna Indians, a great part of them are actually in the French in- 
terest; but if we should raise such a number of men immediately as would be 
able to take possession of some convenient place up the Susquehanna, and 
build a strong fort in spite of French or Indians, perhaps some Indians may 
ioin us, but it is trusting to uncertainty to depend upon them, in my opinion. 
We ought to insist on the Indians declaring either for or against us. As soon 
as we are prepared for them, we must bid up for scalps and keep the woods full 
of our own people hunting them, or they will ruin our province, for they are a 
dreadful enemy. We impatiently look for assistance. I have sent out two 
Indian spies to Shamokin. They are Mohawks, and I expect they will return 
in a day or two. Consider our situation, and rouse your people downward, 
and do not let about 1.500 villains distress such a number of inhabitants as is 
in Pennsylvania, which actually they will, if they possess our provisions and 
frortier long, as they now have many thousands of bushels of our corn and 
wheat in possession already, for the inhabitants goes off and leaves all. * 
Gov Morris, moved by the sad tidings from the frontier, summoned 
the Assembly to meet November 3, (1755), when he demanded money and 
a militia law, after laying before the body an account of the proceedings of 
the enemy Petitions were constantly coming in for arms and ammunition, 
and askino- for the taking of such steps as should carry out the Governor s 
ideas and "afford protection to the inhabitants. With the Indians committing 
depredations on the south side of. the Blue Mountains, the obstinate Assembly 
"fooled alon<?" as if there were no necessity for action. The proprietaries 
made a donation of £5,000, and the Assembly finally passed a bill for the is- 
suance of £30,000 in bills of credit, based upon the excise, which was approved 
by the Governor. The people held public meetings in various places to de- 
vise means to bring the Assembly to its senses, and the dead and mangled 
bodies of some of the victims of savage cruelty were sent to Philadelphia and 
hauled about the streets, with placards announcing that they were victims of 
the "Quaker policy of non-resistance." The province of Pennsylvania erect- 
ed a chain of forts and block-houses along the Kittatmny Hills, from the 
Delaware to the Maryland line, and garrisoned them with twenty to seventy- 
five men each. The whole expen se was £85,000, and the principal mountain 

*Egle's History of Pennsylvania, pp. 90-91. 


passes were guarded b] them. Benjamin Franklin and hie bod \\ illiam were 
leading spirits and raised BOO men, with whom Uiej marohedto the frontier 
and assisted in garrisoning the forte. 

■ 30, 1755, ah. nit eighteen oitusens mel at the residence of Mr, 

Shippen, of Shippensburg, pursuanl to a call !>_\ Sheriff John Potter, and re 
solved to bnild five forts: one at Carlisle, Shippensburg, Benjamin Chambers', 
Bteel's meeting-house and William Allison's, respectively. Fori Louther at 
Carlisle, had existed in an uncompleted state since 1753, and Fori Franklin, 
which stood in the northeastern part of Shippensburg. was begun as earh ■> 

L740. The latter was a log structure, and its ruins were torn down al I 

Iforris, commenced after the meeting of citizens above alluded 
to, was nol finished until the 1 itli of December following, although LOO men 
worked upon u "with hear! and hand" every day. It was 1 milt on a rook] 
hill at the western end of town, of small stones, the walls being two feet thick 
and laid in mortar. A portion of this fori was in existence until 1836, when 
it was torn down, It- construction was carried on during an exciting period. 
ranklin, the log structure, was enlarged by the addition of Beveral sec- 
and in 1755 had a garrison of fifty men. Kdwar.l Shippen, writing to 
William Allen June o<i. 1755, tells of murders committed by the Indians 
" near our f. irt. ' 

Twenty live companies of militia, numbering altogether 1,100 men. were 

md equipped tor the defense of the frontier. The second battalion, 
comprising 700 men, ami stationed west of the Susquehanna, was commanded 
h_\ Col John Armstrong, of Carlisle. His subordinates were, captains. Hans 
Hamilton. John Potter, Eugh Mercer, George Armstrong, Edward Ward. 
Joseph Armstrong ami Robert Callender; lieutenants, William Thompson, 
.lame- Have-, .lame- Hogg, William Lrmstrong and .lame- Bolliday; en 
signs. James Potter, ■John Prentice, Thomas Smallman, William Lyon and 
Nathaniel Cart land. 

• forts were built by the province, west of the Susquehanna, viz.: Fort 
Lyttleton, in th.' northern part of what i- now Fulton County; Fort Shirley at 
Angharich, the residence of George Croghan, where Shirleysburg now is, in 
Huntingdon County; Fori Granville, near the confluence of the Juniata and 
Kishicoipiilla-. in Milllin County, and I'omf'ret Castle on the Mahautango 
Creek, nearly midway between Fori Granville and Fori Augusta (Sunbury), 
on the south line of Snyder County, ("apt. Hans Hamilton commanded Fort 
Lyttleton; Capt. Hugh Mercer, Fori Shirley, subsequenl to the resignation of 
Capt George Croghan; Col. •lames Burd, Fori Granville, and Col. James 
Patterson, Pomfrel Castle. These forts wore too far fr. .m considerable settle- 
ments to be effectual, and in IToO John Armstrong advised the building of 
: line along the Cumberland Valley, with one at Carlisle. The old fort 
Fori Louther) at Carlisle was simply a Btockade of logs, with loop-holes for 
muskets, an. I swivel guns at each corner of the fort. In L755 it was garris 
oned by fifty men: it probably received its name in L756. Other forte were 
: in th.- valley; outside of what is now Cumberland County, and Col. 
John Armstrong was at the head of the military operations. In 17~>7 breast 
work- were erected by Col. Stauwix. northeast of Carlisle, near the present 
Indian school (old United States barracks). Col. Stanwix wrote to Secretary 

July '_'•">. 17"'7. as follows: "Am at work at my intreiichment. i 

it such large and frequent parti.-, with other neccessary duties, can only 
-pare about seventy workingrucn a day. and these have very often been inter 
rupted by frequent and violent gusts, bo thai we make but a small figui 
and the first month was entirely taken up in clearing the ground, which was 


full of monstrous stumps. Have built myself a hut in camp, where the cap- 
tains and I live together." * 

An early writer (1757) upon the mode of warfare adopted by the Indians 
thus describes their maneuvres: " They come within a little way of that part 
they intend to strike, and encamp in the most remote place they can fand to be 
quite free from discovery; the next day they send one, or sometimes two of 
their nimble voung fellows down to different places to view the situation of the 
town the number of people at each house, the places the people most fre- 
quent, and to observe at each house whether there are most men or women. 
They will lie about a house several days and nights watching like a wolf. As 
soon as these spies return they march in the night in small parties of two, 
three four or rive, each party having a house for attack, and each being more 
than sufficient for the purpose intended. They arrive at their different desti- 
nations long before day, and make their attack about day-break, and seldom 
fail to kill or make prisoners of the whole family, as the people know noth- 
ing of the matter until they are thus labyrinthed. It is agreed that the moment 
each party has executed its part they shall retreat with their prisoners and 
scalps to the remote place of rendezvous which they left the night before. As 
soon as they are thus assembled they march all that day (and perhaps the next 
ni^ ht, in a body if apprehensive of being pursued) directly for the Ohio, per- 
haps at some of these houses thus attacked some of the people may be fortu- 
nate enough to escape; these as soon as the Indians are gone, alarm the forts 
and the country around, when a detachment, if possible, propose to pursue the 
enemy But as the whole or the chief part of the day is spent in assembling, 
taking counsel, and setting out on the expedition, the Indians, having eight or 
ten hours the start, cannot be overtaken, and they return much fatigued and 
obliged to put up with their loss. Upon this the chief part of inhabitants ad- 
jacent to the place fly, leaving their habitations and all they have, whde per- 
haps a few determine to stay, choosing rather to take the chance of dying by 
the enemy than to starve by leaving their all. These must be constantly on 
the watch, and cannot apply themselves to any industry, but live as long as 
thev can upon what thev have got. The Indians avoid coming nigh that place 
for 'some time, and will make their next attack at a considerable distance, where 
the people are not thinking of danger. By and by the people who had fled 
from the first place, hearing of no encroachments in that quarter, are obliged, 
through necessity, to return to their habitations again and live in their former 
security. Then in due time the Indians will give them a second stroke with 
as much success as the first." 

The autumn of 1755 was fraught with terror to the citizens of Carlisle and 
vicinity. November 2, John Armstrong wrote Gov. Morris: '"lam of the 
opinion that no other means than a chain of block-houses along or near the 
south side of the Kittatinny Mountain, from Susquehanna to the temporary 
line, can secure the lives and properties of the old inhabitants of this county; 
the 'new settlements being all fled except those in Shearman's Valley, who, 
if God do not preserve them, we fear will suffer very soon." Armstrong 
wrote the same day to Richard Peters as follows: 

Carlisle, Sunday night, November 2, 1755. _ 
Dear Sir:— Inclosed to Mr. Allen, by the last post, I send you a letter from Harris'; 
but I believe forgot, through that day's confusion, to direct, it, . . 

you will see^our melancholy circumstances by the Governor's letter, and my opinion 
of the method of keeping the inhabitants in this country, which will require all possible 
despatch. If we had immediate assurance of relief a great number would stay, and the 
inhabita nts should be advertised not to drive off nor waste their beef cattle, etc. I have 
*By a letter from Col. Armstrong dated Jane 30, 1757. it is known that Col. Stanwix had begun these in- 
trenchments shortly previous to that date. 




do) to much u off my wife, rearing an ill precedent, but must < 1<> it now. I 
i with t in- public papers and your "u a 
Tin re are do Inhabitants on Juniata nor on Tuscarora bj this time, mj brothei Will 
lam being just come in. Montour and Monaghatootha ... The 

former la greatly suspected of being an enemy in his hi d to tell you can com 

pare what they aaj to thi Governor with what I have wrote [havi no d 
army, but of great danger from scouting parties. 

January L5 22, L756, another [ndian treat] of amit] was held at Carliafe, 
when Gov. Morris, Richard Peters, Jame Hamilton, William Logan, Joseph 

e Assembly) and Q ge Croghan (interpreter) 

were present. Bnl Beven Indians onlj were present, including one chief from 
the Six Nations and one i a portion of the Delawares. tfeverthe 

LesB) it was found that the hostile savages were confined to the Delawares and 
Bhawanese tribes, and even among them there was a considerable minority op 
to the war. Alter taking all matters int ation it was decided 

l>y the Governor to issue tt declaration of war against the Delawares, tin' Shaw 

anese not being included, because it was hoped they might be brought back to 
their former homes. Therefore, on the I Mi of April, L756, a proclai 
of war was published against the Delaware Indians and all who were bacon 
ij with them, exceptinga ten who had come within the border and were 
living in peace Bj advice of the Assembly's commissioners, who deemed anj 

Steps, however extreme, wise when the punishment of the savages and the ct's". 
Batdon of hostilities was the object, rewards were offered as follows, as shown 

bj the colonial r rds: *' For everj male [ndian enemy above twelve years of 

age, who shall be taken prisoner and be delivered at any fort garrisoned bj the 

troops in the pay of this province, or at any of the county towns to the beep 

the common jails, there shall be paid the sum of one hundred and fiftj 

Spanish dollars or pi s of eight; for the scalp of every male Indian enenn 

above the age of twelve years, produ I as evidence of their being killed, the 

sum of one hundred and thirtj pi of eight; for even female Indian takei 

r sud brought in as aforesaid, and for ever] male Indian prisoner under 
■ if twelve years, taken and brought in as aforesaid, onehundred and 
thirty pieces of eight; for the scalp of ever) Indian woman, produced as evi 
denoe of their being balled, the sum of fifty pieces of eight, and for every 
Bnglisri i has been taken and carried from this province into cap- 

tivity that shall be recovered and brought in. and delivered at the i 
Philadelphia to the governor of this province, the sum of one hundred and 
fifty pieces of eight, but nothing for their scalps, and that there shall be paid 
to everj officer or Boldier as are or shall be in the pay of this province, who 
shall redeem and deliver any English subject curried into captivity as aforesaid, 
or shall take, bring in and produce an] enemy, prisoner or Bcalp as afi - 
one half of the said several and respective premiums and bounties." Vm fev< 
rewards were claimed under this proclamation, and it was not considered prob 
able that any Indians were killed for the sake of procuring the bounty. 

The proclamation issued in May, 1756, subsequent to that against the Del- 
aware-, declaring war against France, was hardly necessary so far as the Amei 
icon territory was concerned for, notwithstanding the treat] of An la ('ha 

pelle in 1 i 18, the French had kept up their movements in this mtry, build 

ing forta and inciting the Indian- to commit outrages upon the English set 
Uements, and winning the savages over to their own standards by arts well 

The year 1756 was a dark one for the colonists, to whom the terrible ei 
periences of Indian warfare were nothing new. Murders were committed in 
what was then Cumberland County but now Bedford, Union. Franklin, Dauph 


in Perry and others, the leading spirits among the Indians being Shingas and 
Capt. Jacobs. Samuel Bell, residing on the Stony Kidge, five miles below Car- 
lisle, had a lively experience, which is thus told by Loudon: "Some time after 
Gen. Braddock's defeat, he and his brother, James Bell, agreed to go into 
Shearman's Valley to hunt for deer, and were to meet at Croghan's (now Ster- 
ret's) Gap, on the Blue Mountain. By some means or other they did not meet, 
and Samuel slept all night in a cabin belonging to Mr. Patton, on Shearman's 
Creek. In the morning he had not traveled far before he spied three Indians, 
who at the same time saw him. They all fired at each other; he wounded one 
of the Indians, but received no damage except through his clothes by the balls. 
Several shots were fired on both sides, as each took a tree. He took out 
his tomahawk and stuck it into the tree behind which he stood, so that should 
they approach he might be prepared; the tree was grazed with the Indians' 
balls, and he had thoughts of making his escape by flight, but on reflection 
had doubts of his being able to outrun them. After some time the two Indians 
took the wounded one and put him over a fence, and one took one course and 
the other another, taking a compass, so that he could no longer screen himself 
by the tree ; but by trying to ensnare him thay had to expose themselves, by which 
means he had the good fortune to shoot one of them dead. The other ran and 
took the dead Indian on his back, one leg over each shoulder. By this time 
Bell's gun was again loaded. He then ran after the Indian until he came 
within 'about four yards from him, fired and shot through the dead Indian and 
lodged his ball in the other, who dropped the dead man and ran off. On his 
return, coming past the fence where the wounded Indian was, he dispatched 
him bvit did not know that he had killed the third Indian until his bones were 
found afterward." 

February 15, 1756, William Trent, in writing from Carlisle, stated that 
' ' several murders or captures and house burnings had taken place under Par- 
nell's Knob, and that all the people between Carlisle and the North Mountain 
had fled from their homes and come- to town, or were gathered into the little 
forts, that the people in Shippensburg were moving their families and effects, 
and that everybody was preparing to fly."* Shingas kept the upper end of 
the county in a state of terror, and fresh outrages were reported daily. The 
Indians killed, indiscriminately, men, women and children, and received rewards 
from the French for their scalps; they boasted that they killed fifty white peo- 
ple for each Indian slain by the English. Inhabitants of the Great Cove fled 
from their homes in November, with the crackling of their burning roofs and 
the yells of the Indians ringing in their ears. John Potter, formerly sheriff, 
sheltered at his house one night 100 fleeing women and children. The cries 
of the widows and fatherless children were pitiful, and those who had for- 
tunately escaped with their lives had neither food, bedding nor clothing to 
cover their nakedness, everything having been consumed in their burning 
dwellings. ' ' Fifty persons, ' ' so it is recorded, ' ' were killed or taken prisoners. 
One woman, over ninety years of age, was found lying dead with her breasts 
torn off and a stake driven through her body. The infuriated savages caught 
up little children and dashed their brains out against the door-posts in presence 
of their shrieking mothers, or cut off their heads and drank their warm blood. 
Wives and mothers were tied to trees that they might witness the tortures and 
death of their husbands and children, and then were carried into a captivity 
from which few ever returned. Twenty-seven houses were burned, a great 
number of cattle were killed or driven off, and out of the ninety-three families 
settled in the two coves and by the Con olloway' s, members of forty-seven fam- 

*Dr. WiDg, from Pennsylvania Archives. 

HI8T0R1 OF CI MBBB1 ani> OOOHTT. :,7 

Qiee were either killed or captured and the remainder fled, so thai these settle 
ments were entirely broken up." Small wonder that such oirci 
cited the people of the Cumberland Valley! Preparations were made a 
pensburg and Carlisle, where the people flocked in such numbers as to crowd 
the houses, to give the enemj a warm reception, and LOO men (of whom 200 
were from this part of the valley) marched under the command of Hans Ham 
ilton, sheriff of York County, to McDowell's Mill, in Franklin County, a few 
miles from the scene of the slaughter, but the Indians had retreated. Be\ 
John Steel, pastor of the "Old White Church," ofl pper Wesl Conocooheague] 
raised a company among bis parishioners for defense arch and indi- 

vidual property in 1755, and was commissioned captain. The church wa 
ward burned, the congregation scattered, and Mr. Steel removed to Carlisle 
in 1758. 

April 2, L756, a body of Indians attacked and burned McCord'a fort, on the 
ue.inwhat Frankli County, killing and capturing a total 

of twenfrj seven pei 01 I al rm extended to Shippensburg, and three 

companies were raised in various pan. of the valley, for the pursuit and pun 
ishment of the marauders, commanded respectivelj bj Capte. Culbertson, 
Chambers and Hamilton Capt. Alex Culbertson' s companj with nineteen 
men from the other two, overtook the Indians west of Sideling Hill and a fight 
ensued which lasted two hours. The Indiana, from the report made !>■. 
their number who was captured, lost seventeen killed and twenty one wot 
The whites suffered severely. Among those killed were Capt. Culbertson] 
J " 1 "' Reyno of ('apt. Chambers' company), William Kerr, James 

Blair. John Leason, William Denny, Francis Scott, William Boyd, 
Paynter, Jacob Jones, Robert Kerr and William Chambers; wounded, Francis 
Campbell, Abraham Jones, William Reynolds, i t. Benjamin Blvth. 

John Mcl ' i I id Isaac Miller. 

Another party, commanded bj Ensign Jamison, from Fort Granville, under 
Capt Hamilton, in pursuit of the same Indians, had about the same experience. 
Daniel McCoy, James Robinson, James Peace, John Blair. Henry 
J. .nes. John McCartj and John Kelly, killed; and Ensign Jamison. James 
Robinson, William Hunter. Matthias Ganshora, William Swails and 
I . wounded the hitter afterward died of his wounds. Most of these 

men were from the oldest and most respectable families in Cum! 

All around the settlements in this county outrages were frequent and the 
number of lives taken was appalling, considering the sparsely settled condition 
of the country Bands of Indians even ventured within a few miles of Car- 
lisle. The military were employe,] m protecting men harvesting their crops 

in L756, ami it was necessary for all persons to be ever on the alert t aard 

against surprise and attack. In June. 1756, a Mr. Dean, living about a mile 
east of Shippensburg, was found murdered in his cabin, his skull cleft with a 

tomahawk. It was supposed a couple of Indian hboi I the 

day before had committed the deed. On the 6th of the same mo 

distan ast of where Burd's Bun crosses the road leading from Shippensburg 

to the Middlespring church, a party of Indians killed Join, McKean and 
Agnew and captured Hugh Black, William Carson, \ idri ■.. Brown, James 
Ellis and Alex McBride. A partj of citizens from Shippensburg pursued the 
Indians through McAllister'- Gap into Bath Valley, and on the morning of 
the third day out met all the prisoners except James Ellis, and on their return 
home, they having escaped Ellis was never afterward I , The 

pursuers returned with the me„ who had escaped, further pursuit being 


Many other instances of murders and kindred outrages by the Indians 
mio-ht be mentioned, for the history of that dread time teems with them, but 
it is not necessary to recount them. Enough has been said to show the terri- 
ble state the region was in, and the horrid tales are dropped to tell of an expe- 
dition in which the whites took the initiative.* 

Gov Morris was superseded on the 20th of August, 1 (56, by Gov. Y\ illiam 
Denny but before the latter' s arrival he (Morris), in view of the constant cries 
for help from the frontier, and especially from East Pennsborough Township, 
Cumberland County, and the upper portion of the county, whose inhabitants 
sent in urgent petitions for aid, had arranged with Col. Armstrong for a move- 
ment against the Indian town of Kittanning, on the Allegheny River, about 
twenty miles above Fort DuQuesne, in what is now Armstrong County. lhe 
place 'was the chief stronghold of the red men, was the base of tneir operations 
eastward and toward the Ohio, and was the home of both Shmgas and Capt. 
Jacobs + There were also held a considerable number of white prisoners. A 
small army was organized under the command of Lieut. -Col. John Armstrong, 
consisting of seven companies, J whose captains were John Armstrong, 
Hans Hamilton, Dr. Hugh Mercer, Edward Ward, Joseph Armstrong, John 
Potter, and Rev. John Steel. The command set out in August, l<5b, 
and at the dawn of the 7th (8th?) of September made the attack on the Indian 
town which was totally destroyed, together with large quantities of ammuni- 
tion ' Capt. Jacobs and his nephew were killed, and few, if any, escaped the 
aveno-ino- hand of the officer, whose rapid march and well executed plans won 
for him "the approval of his people. The corporation of Philadelphia voted 
him a medal for his exploit. § This disaster to the Indians led them to remove 
to the Muskingum, in Ohio, but served only for a short time to check their 
operations in Pennsylvania. The year 1757 was fraught with unabated hor- 
rare Cumberland County, with others, was kept in a state of continual 
alarm, although in Mav of that year another conference was held with the 
Indians at Lancaster to try and bring about peace. The western Indians, 

7 ^t one period (1 = £•»-»> noted rf »n ,!^£KS»K?S 


S"°e U y S STIESed'fn Singer nloc^s^tc ."aii^n ormedfand are equa.iy regardle»of 

r" C " '"v ™*^ t ™ ri™™ aS* «iS« ii .M. The movement, of himself and hfa 
Snd n of"ran^Sw e» wy »?iM the mention of hi. name, like those of Brady, Boone, Logston, Ken.oo 
and others struck terror W the ^ts of hjs parted foemn^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

U p Jffl£^l"X™&J™Wwto«,«*o«lto\1m was killed in Armstrong's attack upon 
KittflnniiiL' was said tn l>e seven feet tall. 


Armstrong. nth • Mou . 1. . "» I ; .;,,,,,„ „,„,, _,,-,,:.',(, .!„h„ B:.k,-r, John McCartney, Patrick Muller, 

SSI, ;.".■»,', ....... Me,Jr,w.,„„.l Tl ..;, foundjto h-^en earned away sate ^by ^ m«), En»| n p John 

^Sitao'pat'rT/'Mye Lauren e K.nhan.'el Chambers. Cap,. PoOer, company-WounM .Ensign 
Thirty or forty warriors were slain. 


however, would hear to nothing, and it beoame evident thai subduing them by 
I arms was the onlj sore method. Col. Stanwiz was ai Carlisle build 
ing intxenchments, and Col. Axmstrong had two companies, pari stationed at 
Carlisle and pari at Shippensbnrg. These two officers did all in their power 
loproteol the citizens and punish the savages, !>ut thej were handicapped in 
numerous regards Murders were freqnenl in the upper part of Cuml 
(now Franklin) County, and the lower portion was aol without its visitati 
bloodshed. Mn\ 13, I ■ ~> 7 . William Walker and another man were killed near 
a private fori called tic .mi the Conodoguinet, in East Penns 

fh; two men were killed and five taken prisoners near Shippensbnrg on 
the 6th of June; Ji I leU, James Mitchell, \\ illiam Mitchell, John Fin 

lav. Robert Steenson, Andrew Enslow, John Wiley, Ulen Henderson, William 
Qibeon and an Indian were killed in a harvest field near Shippensburg, July 
19, and Jane McCommon, Mary Minor, Janet Harper and a boh of John Fin 
lay were captured or missing at the same time: four men were killed Jul] 1 1 
near Tobias Hendricks', who lived on and had charge of Louther Manor, six 
miles from the Susquehanna, in Fast Pennsborough, and two men were killed 
or carried otT near the same place September 8, while out hunting horses. 
•Inly 18, in a harvest field a mile east of Shippensburg, belonging to John 
Cesna, Dennis O'Neiden i nd John Kirkpatrick were killed, and Mr. Cesna, his 
two grandsons, and a son of Kirkpatrick were made prisoners and carried off. 
Others working in the field happened to be concealed from the Mew of the In- 
dians, and escaped without injury. There was little rest from anxiet] onl 
the expedition- of 1758 and the capture ,,f Fori DuQuesne, with the building 
upon it- ruin- of Fori Pitt, which remained under English rule while the mother 
country had jurisdiction over the American colonies. The troops were mostly 
disbanded in 1759 bj act of Assembly, which body imagined the war was 
ended. Practically for this region it was so. although the two power*, met in 
conflict afterward on the northern frontier. 

The inhabitants enjoyed for a brief period immunity from danger and re- 
joiced that peace smiled upon the valley. A worthless Delaware Indian called 
1' tor John" who had for two years lived in a cabin near the Conodoguinet 
and not far from Carlisle, was killed in February, 1760, together with his wife 

and two children, by whites; and though he had talked contemptuously al I 

the soldiers, and boasted of having killed sixty white people with his own arm 
the event was looked upon as untoward by the inhabitants of the region, who 
bared the vengeance of the tribe and step- were taken to apprehend and pun 
ish the murderers. Several arrests were made, bul the more guilt] parties fled 
and were not found, while the others were released as they could scarcelj he 
convicted on hearsay evidence. Very likely the people were -;lad the Indians 
it of the way. for they had no pleasing recollections of their fiendish 


Presently, however, came the dread news that a more desperate war was to 
be waged under the leader-hip of the wonderful western chieftain. Pontiac, and 

clo-e upon the heels ,,f the alarm followed actual invasion of the country bor- 
dering the valley, with a renewal of the horrid Bcenes of previous years. July 
5, 17''.::. a gentleman wrote from Carlisle to Secretary Peters a- follows: "On 
the morning of yesterday horsemen were seen rapidly passing through Carlisle. 
One man rather fatigued, who stopped to get some water, hastily replied to the 
i. • What news:' ' Dad enough! Pre-, pie l-le, Le Beuf and Venango 
have been captured, their garrisons ma— acred, with the exception of one officer 
and seven men who fortunately made their escape from Le Beuf. Fort Pitt 
was briskly attacked on the 22d of June, but succeeded in repelling the as- 


sailants ' Thus saying he put spurs to his horse and was soon out of sight. 
From others I have accounts that the Bedford militia have succeeded m saving 
FoTlionier. Nothing could exceed the terror which prevailed from house 
to house from town to town. The road was nearly covered with women and 
children flying to Lancaster and Philadelphia. Rev Thomson pastor of 
the Episcopal Church, went at the head of his congregation to protect and en- 
course them on the way. A few retired to the breastworks for safety. The 
SI given ^uld not be appeased. We have done all that men can do 
to prevent disorder. All our hopes are turned upon Bouquet. 

The following extracts of letters written from Carlisle in July, 1763 and 
published at the time in the Pennsylvania Gazette at Philadelphia, will also 
serve to show the condition of affairs then existing m the valley: 

Carlisle. July 12. lio^. 

T Prr.hra.ce this first leisure since vesterday morning to transmit you a brief account 


aT ^«Tta£M£ atestriking at Bedford the Indians appeared quiet nor struck 
When, to som tim < u i ■■ ~ ,,,-evailinir opinion that our forts and com- 



mms ins 

saW "alley and Col. John l^Sng with Thomas Wilson Esq.,and a party of between 


•See Rupp's History of Cumberland and other Counties, pp. 139-143. 


Indians burnt in shocks, ami had Bel the fences on tire win- re tin- grain wasunreaped; thai 
the bogs had fallen upon and mangled several of the dead bodies; thai the Bald company 
of twelve, suspecting danger, durst not stay to bury the dead; thai after they had n 
over the Tuscarora Mountain, about one or two miles iiii- Bide of it and abo 
twenty from hence Carlisle, Penn I, the] were fired on by a large p ians, sup 

»nit thirty, and were obliged to By; that two, viz., William Robinson and John 
Graham, are certainly killed, and four more are missing, whoit istho lien Into 

the hands of the enemj . as they appeared Blow in Sight, most probably wounded, and the 
i pursued with violence. What further mischief has been done we have not beard 
hut expect every day and hour Borne more messagi - of melancholy hews, 

In hearing of the above defeat we sent out another party of thirty ur upward, com 
manded by our high sheriff, Mr Dunning, and Mr. William Lyon, logo in quest of the 
enemy or fall in with and reinforce our other parties. There are also a number gone out 
from about three mile- below this, bo that we now have over the bills upward of i 
ninety volunteers scouring the woods. The Inhabitants of Shearman's valley, Tuscarora 
etc., an- all come over, and the people of this valley, ni Qning t" 

move in, bo that in a few days there will be Bcarcely a i ted north ol i 

Mmy of our people are greatly distressed through « 

numbers of those beat oft their places have hardly mon o purchase a pound of 


i >ur women and children I suppose must move downward if the enemy proceeds. To- 
day a British vengeance begins to rise in the breasts of our men. One of them that fell 
from among the twelve, as he was just expiring, said to our of bis fellows: "H< 
my gun and kill the first Indian you Bee, and all shall be well." 

Another letter dated at Carlisle July 13, has the following: "Last night 
Armstrong returned. Ho left the party who pursued further, and 
found several dead, whom they buried in the host manner they could, and are 
now all returned in. From what appears the Indians are traveling from one 
place to another along the valley, burning the farms and destroying all the 
people they moot with. This day gives an account of six more being killed in 
the valley, so that since last Sunday morning to this day, twelve o'clock, we 
have a pretty authentic account of the number slain being twenty-five, and 
torn or five wounded. The Colonel, Mr. Wilson and Mr. Alrioks are now on 

the parade endeavoring to raise another party to go out and -n )]• the sheriff 

and his party, g of fifty men, which marched yesterday, and I hope 

they will be able to Bend off immediately twenty good men. The people here. 
I assure yon. want nothing but a good leader and a little encouragement to 
make a very g 1 defense." 

July 28, ]~,iY.',. th litorof the Pennsylvania Gazette printed the following; 

''Our advices from Carlisle are a- follows, viz. That the party under the 
sheriff. Mr. Dunning, mentioned in our last, fell in with the enemy at the 
house of one Alexander Logan, in Shearman's Valley, supposed to be about 
fifteen or upward, who had murdered the said Logan, his son and another man, 
about two miles from said house, and mortally wounded a fourth who is since 
ad that at the time of their being discovered they were rifling the house 
and shooting down the cattle, and it is thought about to return home with the 
s] they had got. That our men, on seeing them, immediately spread them 
selves from right to left with a design to surround them, and engaged the sav 
tii great courage, but from their eagerness rather too Boon, as some of 
the party had not <,'ot up when the skirmish began; that the enemy returned 

our first tire very briskly, but our] pie, n 'that, rushed upon them, 

■when they fled and wore pursued a considerable way till thickets secured their 
escape, four or five of them, ir was thought, being mortally wounded; that our 
parties had brought in with them what cattle they could collect, but that greal 
numbers were killed by the Indians, and many of the horses that were in the 
valley- earned off; that on the L'l-t. the morning, news was brought of 
three Indians being seen about 1" o'clock in the morning; one Pummeroy and 
his wife, and the wife of one John-on. were surprised in a house between Ship- 


pensburg and the North Mountain and left there for dead; but that one of the 
women, when found, showing some signs of life, was brought to Shippensburg, 
where she lived some hours in a most miserable condition, being scalped, one of 
her arms broken, and her skull fractured with the stroke of a tomahawk; and 
that since the 10th inst., there was an account of fifty-four persons being killed 
by the enemy! 

"That the Indians had set fire to houses, barns, corn, wheat, rye, and hay 
—in short to everything combustible— so that the whole country seemed to be 
in one general blaze; that the miseries and distress of the poor people were 
really shocking to humanity, and beyond the power of language to describe; 
that Carlisle was becoming the barrier, not a single inhabitant being beyond it; 
that every stable and hovel in the town was crowded with miserable refugees, 
who were reduced to a state of beggary and despair, their houses, cattle and 
harvest destroyed, and from a plentiful, independent people they were become 
real objects of charity and commiseration; that it was most dismal to see the 
streets filled with people in whose countenances might be discovered a mixture 
of o-rief, madness and despair; and to hear now and then the sighs and groans 
of men, the disconsolate lamentations of women, and the screams of children, 
who had lost their nearest and dearest relations; and that on both sides of the 
Susquehanna, for some miles, the woods were filled with poor families and 
their cattle, who made fires and lived like savages, exposed to the inclemencies 
of the weather. " . , 

Letter dated at Carlisle July 30, 1763: "On the 25th a considerable num- 
ber of the inhabitants of Shearman's Valley went over, with a party of soldiers 
to guard them, to attempt saving as much of their grain as might be standing, 
and it is hoped a considerable quantity will yet be preserved. A party of vol- 
unteers, between twenty and thirty, went to the farther side of the valley, next 
to the Tuscarora Mountain, to see what appearance there might be of the In- 
dians as it was thought they would most probably be there if anywhere in the 
settlement— to search for and bury the dead at Buffalo Creek, and to assist 
the inhabitants that lived along or near the foot of the mountain m bringing 
off what they could, which services they accordingly performed, burying the 
remains of three persons, but saw no marks of Indians having lately been 
there, excepting one track, supposed to be about two or three days old, near 
the narrows of Buffalo Creek Hill, and heard some hallooing and firing of a gun 
at another place. A number of the inhabitants of Tuscarora Valley go over the 
mountain to-morrow, with a party of soldiers, to endeavor to save part of the 
crops. Five Indians were seen last Sunday, about sixteen or seventeen miles 
from Carlisle, up the valley toward the North Mountain, and two the day be- 
fore yesterday, about five or six miles from Shippensburg, who fired at a young 
man but missed him. 

"On the 25th of July there were in Shippensburg 1,384 ot our poor, dis- 
tressed back inhabitants, viz.: men, 301; women, 345; children, 738, many of 
whom were obliged to lie in barns, stables, cellars and under old leaky sheds, 
the dwelling-houses being all crowded." 

Indians were also occasionally seen in the valley after Bouquet had left, 
and occasionally some of the inhabitants were fired upon within a few miles of 
Carlisle. Where is the wonder that the stricken people looked so eagerly to 
Bouquet for deliverance, or that they suspected and mistrusted every being in 
the shape of an Indian, whether professedly friendly or otherwise! Such terrible 
experiences were sufficient to foster all the fiendishness of revenge m the 
breasts of the afflicted, and the great wonder at the present day is that they 
did not resolve upon and enter into a war of extermination of the red race. 



1"|h.h the outbreak of 'the savages the Assembly bad ordered the raising of 
Tim men t" protect the frontier daring the harvest, but almost without effect 
The safety of the garrison at Port Pitt was the cause of anxiety, and finally 
OoL Henrj Bouquet was ordered i" march to its relief. This he did with 
barelj 500 men, the remnants of two shattered regiments of regulars the 
Forty-second and Seventy-Beoond Lately returned Erom the West Indies in a 
debilitated condition, together with 200 rangers (six companies) raised in 
Lancaster and Cumberland Counties. Although depending so greatl] upon 
him, the inhabitants "f Carlisle and vicinity were in such a state of terror and 
utter consternation that the] had taken on Bteps to prepare provisions for him 
and lii — little army and they arrived at Carlisle to find matters there and along 
the line "f march in a desperate condition, though several quite heavj contri 
buttons had been raised by various congregations in Philadelphia and sent for 
their relief. Instead, therefore, <>f the inhabitants being able to lend him aid. 
they were dependent upon him, and he was forced to lie at Carlisle eighteen 
days until supplies could be sent for and received By this time the people 
had regained courage and confidence in themselves, although the appearance 
of Bouquet's arm] led them to expect little from its expedition. Most happily 
were they disappointed, however, for the Colonel's successful march, his re- 
lief of Fort Ligonier, his terrible thirty-six hours fight at Bushy Bun with the 
Indians, who were defeated and driven from the field his relief of Fort Pitt, 
and his subsequent expedition against the Indians in Ohio, with the treat] on 
terms of his own dictation, and the release of many white prisoners who were 
returned to their homes, are all matters of history. Bouquet became the sa 

vior of the region, and to hi-- memory let all honor be accorded. The Indians 
committed outrages alone; the frontier in I T ♦ > t . but an army of 1,000 men was 
raised, of which a battalion of eight companies of 380 men. mostly from 
Cumberland County — commanded by Lieut. -Col. John Armstrong, with 
Capts. William Armstrong, Samuel Lindsey. -lames Piper. Joseph Armstrong, 
John Brady. William Piper. Christopher Line and Timothy Green, with a few 
under Lieut. Finley— was sent against them under Col. Bouquet, who pirn,, I 
to the very heart of their western stronghold end com) idled them to accede tic 
terms above mentioned. The battalion of provincial troop- from this county 
was paid off and mustered out of sen ice. the anus were delivered to the authori- 
d the long and dreadful Indian war. with all its attendant sickening 
ham ITS, was at an end. 

The people had little confidence, however, in the Indians, and were not 
disposed to place m their hands an] weapons or materials which would give 
them the slightest advantage over the whites, at least until their new relations 
had time to become fixed. It had been agreed that trade should be opened 
with the Indian-, and Large 1 quantities of goods were gathered in places for the 
purpose before the governor issued his proclamation authorizing trading. This 
led to the destruction of a large quantity of goods in which Capt. Robert CoL 
lender, a flooring-mill proprietor near Carlisle, was part owner, the goods hav 
ing been started westward A party under James Smith, who had done ser- 
vice under Braddock, Forbes and Bouquet, waylaid them near Sideling Hill, 
killed a cumber of horses, made the escort turn back, burned sixty-three Toads, 

and made matter- ex Lingly Lively, when a s<piad was sent out to capture the 

rioters. Smith afterward acknowledged himself too hasty. He was subse- 
quently arrested on suspicion of murder and lodged in jail at Carlisle in 1 i<i'.'. 
An attempt was made to rescue him. but he dissuaded the party, and upon his 
trial wa- acquitted He became a distinguished Revolutionary officer and 
member of the Legislature. 


Another occurrence, which might have resulted seriously for the settlers, was 
the murder of ten friendly Indians in the lower part of Shearman's Valley, on 
Middle Creek, in January, 1768, by Frederick Stump and an employe of his 
named Hans Eisenhauer (John Ironcutter). The authorities captured the 
murderers and placed them in jail in Carlisle, although the warrant for their 
arrest charged that they be brought before the chief justice at Philadelphia. 
That step the people of Cumberland County resisted, claiming it was encroach- 
ing upon their rights to try the men in the county where the crime was com- 
mitted. They were detained at Carlisle until the pleasure of the authorities 
at Philadelphia could be ascertained, and were rescued by a large armed party 
on the morning of the 29th of January, four days after their arrest. The pris- 
oners were carried away over the mountains and were never afterward found, 
though it was the opinion that they got away and took refuge in Virginia. The 
matter was finally dropped after the heat of the affair was over. 


County Organization— Location of County Seat— Division of County 
into Townships— County Buildings— Population— Postoffices in 1885— 
Internal Improvements— Public Roads— Railroads. 

CUMBERLAND COUNTY was named after a maritime county in England, 
bordering on Scotland. I. Daniel Rupp, in a sketch of this county in 
Egle's History of Pennsylvania, published in 1876, says: "The name is derived 
from the Keltic, Kimbriland. The Kimbrie, or Keltic races, once inhabited 
the county of Cumberland, in England," but we are inclined to think that the 
word Cumberland signifies "land of hollows," from the Anglo Saxon word 
' ' comb, " a valley or low place. 

In the matter of pedigree Cumberland is the sixth county formed in Penn- 
sylvania; Philadelphia, Bucks and Chester were established in 1682, Lancaster 
in 1729 and York in 1749. Petitions having been presented to the Assembly by 
numerous inhabitants of the North or Cumberland Valley, among whom were 
James Silvers and William Magaw, in behalf of the inhabitants of the North Val- 
ley, on the ground of their remoteness from the county seat, Lancaster, and the 
difficulty which the sober and the quiet part of the valley experienced in se- 
curing itself against the thefts of certain idle and dissolute persons (who easily 
avoided the courts, the officers and the jail of so distant a county town), pray- 
ing for the establishment of a new county, an act was passed to that effect on 
the 27th of January, 1750. Robert McCoy, of Peters Township, Benjamin 
Chambers, of Antrim, David Magaw, of Hopewell, James Mclntire and John 
McCormick, both of East Pennsborough, were appointed commissioners to carry 
out the provisions of the act. The territory embraced in Cumberland County 
was set off from Lancaster, and its ample limits were thus described: "That 
all and singular the lands lying within the province of Pennsylvania, to the west- 
ward of the Susquehanna, and northward and westward of the county of York, 
be erected into a county, to be called Cumberland; bounded northward and 
westward with the line of the provinces; eastward partly by the Susquehanna 
and partly by said county of York; and southward in part by the line divid- 
ing said province from that of Maryland. 


It was also further enacted, in order to better ascertain the boundary be 
tween Cumberland and York Counties, thai commissioners should be appoint 
the part of the latter to act in con junction with those of the former for 
that purpose. The fork County commissioners were Thomas Cox, Dfiohael 
Tanner, George Swope, Nathan Bussej and John Wright, Jr. The commie 
doners <>f the two iisagreed when thej met to fix the boundary line. 

Those from Cumberland wished the line I oe opposite the mouth of 

Swatara Creek and run thence along the ridge of the South mountain (or Dreut 
Hills, or Priest Hills); but to this the York Count] commissioners would aot 

listen; they wished the Yellow Br lies, or Callapasscinker Creek, to 

portion of the boundary. The difficulty was finally Battled by the Assembly in 
an act passed FebruaryQ, 1751, which says: " But for as muchas the ridge of 
mountains called the Smith .Mountain. — along which the lines, dividing tl 
counties of York and Cumberland, were directed to be run by the several here- 
inbefore mentioned acts, before the river Susquehannah, to the mouth of a run 
of water called Dogwood Run, is discontinued much broken, and not easily to 
be distinguished, whereby great differences have arisen between the trustees of 
I counties concerning the matter of running said lines: by which means 
the boundaries "f -aid counties, between the river Susquehanna and the month 
of aforesaid run of water called Dogwood Bun, are altogether unsettled and so 
likely to continue to the great injur] of the said counties, and to the frustrating 

-1 purposes by the hereinbefore mentioned acts of Assembly intend 
the preventing hereof, it i- hereby enacted, that the creek called Yellow Breeches 
Creek, from the mouth thereof where it empties into the Susquehanna afore 
said, up the several courses there,.!', to the mouth of a run of water called Dog 

wood Run. and from them a continued straight line, to lie run to the 

ridge of mountains called the South .Mountain, until it intersects the Maryland 
line, shall l>e and i- hereby declared to be t lie houudary line hetween said coun- 
ties of York and Cumberland" 

Previous to this legislation a petition from the commissioners appointed on 

the part of Cumberland County to run tin' line had 1 n presented to the As 

sembly setting forth facts as follows: "That the York commissioners, refusing 
to run the line agreeable to tin' act of Assembly, the petitioners conceived it 
their dnt\ to ,1,, it themselves, and accordingly began opposite 1,, the mouth of 
tic Swahatara [now Swatara Ed.], on Susquehanna River, and then took 

the course-, and distances along the highest im 'mountain, without 

g any running water, till they struck the middle of the main bod] of 
ill Mountain, at James Caruther's plantation; a true draught whereof 
is annexed to tic petition. That the draught of the line and places adjacent, 
laid before the house by the York commissioners, a- Eat tes to the wa 

ten and courses, is altogether imaginary, and grounded on no actual survej : 
immissioners having no surveyor with them, nor so much a- attempting 
to chain any part of it. That the petitioners would willing!] agree to the pro 
posal of making Yellow Breeches Creek the boundary, if that draught had am 
truth in it: hut as it is altogether false, anil the making that creek the line 
would actually cut off a great part of the north valley, reduce it to a DO 
Che Susquehanna, and make the county quite irregular, the petitioners praj 
that the line in the draught to their petition annexed ma] be confirmed, or a 
Straight line granted from the mouth of Swahatara to the middle of the South 

Mountain." This petition wa-- read ami ordered to U the table. [ Votes 

IV. 154, 8th mo., 1 sth. 1750, as quoted bj Rupp.J 
Had the line been established a- prayed by this petition, the eastern end of 
the county, as now existing, would have been about the same in exkmt as the 


western; wheareas now it is much less— or narrower. Mr. Chambers, one of 
the Cumberland County commissioners, on the establishment of the line had 
written as follows to Kichard Peters, secretary, but all to no avail: 

Cumberland County, October 8th, 1750. 
Sir: I received your letter in which you enclosed the draughts of the line run by the 
commissioners of York County and ours; and if the branches ot the YeUaw Britches and 
Great Conewago interlocked in the South Mountain, as laid down in the aforesaid draught, 
I would be of opinion with the Assembly that a line consisting of such a variety of courses 
,ould not be a good boundary between two counties. I can assure you that the courses 
that we. the commissioners of Cumberland, run, we chained and have returned by course 
and distance the ridge of the mountain, and can send our deposition that we crossed no 
running water above ground, and that we have run it past Capt. Dills, till we are in the 
middle of the mountains, as laid down in the red line m their draughts, so that our 
draughts will show you that theirs is but an imaginary of the waters, done by some 
friends of York County who had no regard for our country's welfare; for we sent our re- 
turn to be laid before the Assembly at the same time that York County laid this one before 
them that your Honor was pleased to send me. But ourmessenger did not deliver our re- 
turn to the House, or if he had, I suppose they would not have troubled his Honor, the 
Governor to send any further instructions to us. for I humbly suppose that there cannot be 
any better boundary than the ridge of the mountain; for, were there a line run to cross the 
heads of the waters of both sides and the marks grown old, it would be hard for a hunter 
to tell which county the wolf was killed in, but he may easily tell whether it was killed on 
the descent of the North or South Valley waters. Likewise, a sheriff, when he goes to any 
house where he is not acquainted and enquires at the house whether that water- falls into 
the North or South Valley, can tell whether they live in his county or not, which he could 
not tell by a line crossimr' the heads of the waters of both sides till he made_ himself ac- 
quainted with said linefso that if you will give yourself the trouble to enquire at any ot 
the authors of that draft that was laid before the Assembly, you will find that they never 
chained any part of their line to know the distance, and therefore cannot be capable to 
lay down the heads of the waters. «_,_,> 

Sir I hope vou will send me a few lines to let me know if our return be confirmed, 
or we must run it over again. But you may believe that the ridge of the mountain and 
heads of the waters are as laid down in our return; and we run it at the time we went 
with you to Mr. Croghan's, and did not expect to have any further trouble; and 1 yet 
think that his Honor, the Governor,* will confirm our return, or order them to disapprove 
of it by course and distance. 

Sir I am your Honor's most humble servant, 

Benjamin Chambers. 

Location of County Seat. —In the act organizing the county of Cumberland 
the same persons appointed to run the boundary line, or any three of them, 
were authorized to purchase a site for county court house and prison, subject 
to approval by the governor. It was at the same time the desire of the pro- 
prietaries to lay out a town at the same place. The matter of selecting a suit- 
able site was very difficult, as no less than four locations were offered. At 
length Thomas Cookson, Esq., the deputy surveyor at Lancaster, was sent to 
examine the different places and report to the governor, after hearing the ar- 
guments in favor of each. He reported mainly as follows: 

Lancaster, March 1, 1749. 

Honored Sir:— In pursuance of your directions I have viewed the several places 
spoken of as commodious situations for the town in the county of Cumberland, and also 
the several passes through the Kittochtinuy and Tuscarora Mountains, for the conven- 
ience of the traders to Allegheny. I shall take the liberty of making some observations 
on the several places recommended, as the inhabitants ot the different parts of the county 
are generallv partial to the advantages that would arise from a county town m their own 
neighborhood And first, the inhabitants about the river recommended the Manor, that be - 
ing a considerable bodv of the propietaries' land, well timbered, and likely to be rendered 
valuable should the town be fixed there; but the body of the county cry loudly against 
that location as lying in a distant corner of the county, and would be a perpetual incon- 
venience to the inhabitants attending public business, and a great charge of mileage to the 
respective officers employed in it. The next situation is on Le Tort s Spring. This place 
is convenient to the new path to Allegheny now mostly used, being at the distance ot 
four miles from the gap in t he Kittochtinny Mountain. There is a fine stream of water 

*Got. James Hamilton. 


uihI ■ body of good land on each side, From the head down to < lonodogwainel Creek, and 

the lands on both -ides of the C idogwainet are ihicklj settled. A- these lands are sel 

tied, if ii should be thought a proper situation for the town, the people possessed of them 
are willing to sell their Improvements on • rms, or exchange them foi 

lands of the honorable proprietors' There is a tract of about 8,000 acres oi tolerably well 

: land, without water, adjoining the settlements on Le Tort's Spring, which maj 
ceable to accommodate the town, and lies as marked in the plan. 
If this place Bhould not be central enough, the next situation is the Bl Spring. It 

ile ainl a half to the northwest "i the great road, five miles from Dunnin 
seven from Shippensburg; runs into tie- Conodogwainel in about three mil's, ami has 
good land on each side and on the Conodogwainet, and a great quantity ol land to the 
southward, which is tolerably well Umbered, but lias no water. The honorable proprie 
taries have a tract of 1,000 acres on the not lodogwainet. opposite to the 

spring, ami there i- a gap in tin- mountain called McClu at for bringing 

from Allegheny to this place; ami. with the purchase of twoor three small im- 

?B8 might be accommodated with a sufficient quantity of land 
or that purpose. 

As to Shi|']ien-.iiurL r . I havens. say anything, tin' lands being granted; 

ami. indeed, if that were not the case, the lands about it an- unsettled, for the want of 
w ster, n bicn must lie a sui I ion. 

The next place proposed was on the Conococheaque Creek, where the road crosses 
it Tin- lands to the eastward ol it are vacant, the settlements being chiefly on the si,ii- 
of the creek. The situation is very good, ami there is enough vacant land, as only the 
plantations on the creek would need to be purchased This place was proposed as more 
convenient for the Indian trade, ami opened a shorter ami latter passage through the 
mountains, l' ,. tssage may he bad, but it must be bj various turnings 

I 'pon the whole the choice appears to me to lie between the mm. situations of Le Ton - 
Spring ami the Big Spring. 

Upon fixing the spo or a plan of the town, the breadth 

of the streets, the lot- to be reserved ami those to he allotted for the public buildings, In 
tie- execution of which or any other Bervice for the honorable proprietaries committed to 

me I -hall take great pleasure, 

I am, honored sir. your most obedient, humble servant. 

Thomas COOKBON. 

The site upon Le Tort's Spring was finally determined upon, ami Carlisle 
■prang into existence; though, oven after tin- courts were removed from Ship- 
pensburg, there was considerable efforl made to have the county seat located 
elsewhere than "u the Le Tort, various reasons being urged why other loca- 
tions wore hotter ai1a|>toi| for the purpose. The place was laid out in 1751, 
and as late as May 'J7. L753, it contained but five dwellings. 

Division of County into Totrnshijis. The records of the court of quarter 
- of Lancaster County for November, 1735, contain the following; "On 
the petition of many of the inhabitants of the North Valley on the west side of 
the Susquehanna River, opposite to Paxton, praying thai the parts settled be- 
tween the -aid River and Potomac River, on C I gwainet, Yellow Britches 

and Conegochegue Creeks may be divided into townships and constables ap- 
in them, it was ordered by court that aline running northerly from the 
Hills to the southward of Yellow Britches (crossing a direct line by the Great 
Spring) to Kightotining Mountain, be the division line, and the easternmost 
township be called I tgh and the western Hopewell." In 1711 Hope- 

well was divided "by a line beginning at the North Hill at Benjamin Moor's; 
bo Widow Hewres' and Samuel Jamison's and in a straight line to the 
South Hill." the western division to be called Antrim tin what is now Franklin 
County) and tin' eastern retaining the name ,,f Hopewell. In 1745 Penns- 

baroogh seems to have 1 a divided, as the returns are then. first made from 

Pennsborough and West Pennsborough. Dickinson was formed from. a 
portion i, f West Pennsborough in 1785; Silvews' Spring (now Silver Spring) 
from part of East Pennsboroue/h in 17^7. and Middleton was divided into 
North and South .Middleton in 1810, the original township of Middleton having 
been formed as early as L750, when the county was organized. [See Chapter 



The first courts at Carlisle were held in a temporary log building on the 
northeast corner of the Public Square, where St. John's Church now stands^ 
About 1766 a small brick court house was erected in the southwest quarter o± 
the Square. March 3. 1801, the county commissioners advertised for proposals 
to build ' ' a house for the safe keeping of the public records of the county, which 
are known to have been nearly completed December 22, 1802. It was a build- 
ing also of brick, adjoining the court house. In 1809 a cupola and bell were 
placed upon the court house. An incendiary fire on the morning of Monday, 
March 24. 1845, destroyed these buildings, with the fire company s apparatus 
in a building close by. The county records were mostly saved through the 
efforts of the citizens. The court house bell, which fell and was melted m 
the fire was a gift from some of the members of the old Penn family and had 
been greatly prized. Steps were at once taken to erect a new court bouse, and 
the present substantial fire-proof brick building was completed in 1846, hav- 
ing cost $48 419 It is 70x90 feet with a row of fine Corinthian columns in 
front, and is surmounted by a belfry in which are a clock and bell. 

A stone jail was built about 1754, on the northwest corner of High and Bed- 
ford Streets and was enlarged in 1790. A petition to the Assembly for aid to 
complete it in 1755 met with no response. Stocks and a pillory were also erect- 
ed on the Public Square in 1754, and it was many years before their use and the 
custom of cropping the ears of culprits were abolished. The present massive 
jail, with a brown stone front and an appearance ike that of an ancient feudal 
castle withbattlemented towers, was built m 1853-54 at a cost of $42 JbU. It 
stands on the site of the old one and has a yard in the rear sm-rounded by a 
high and solid stone wall. The sheriff resides m the front part of the 

blT1 The g poor of the county were for many years either "collected near the dwell- 
ing of some one appointed to have charge of them, or farmed out to those who 
for a compensation were willing to board them." It was not until about 1830 
that an alms-house was erected and then after much '• consultation and negotia- 
tion" the fine farm and residence of Edward J. Stiles, about two miles east of 
Carlisle, in Middlesex Township, were purchased for the purpose s and addi- 
tional buildings have since been erected. Mr. Stiles was paid $13,250 for his 
Xertv In 1873, at a cost of $33, 284, a building was erected especially for 
the accommodation of the insane and idiotic. Many improvements have been 
made on the farm and it is a credit to the county. 

From the territory originally embraced in Cumberland County Bedford was 
formed in 1771; Northumberland in 1772; Franklin .in 1 .84: Mifflin in 1788 
and Perrv in 1820 These have been m turn subdivided until now, 18bb, tne 
same territory embraces about forty counties, with won drous resources, great 
wealth and extensive agricultural, mining, stock and manufacturing interests. 
Cumberland County as now existing includes a tract thirty-four miles long and 
from eight to sixteen miles in width. Of its total area, 239, .84 acres are im- 

^pLulation.- By the United States census for each year it has been taken 
the population of Cumberland County is shown to have been as follows. In 1790 
18 243- in 1800 25,386; in 1810, 26,757; in 1820, 23,606; m 1830, 29,226, 
in 1840, 30,953; in 1850, 34,327; in 1860, 40,098; in 1870, 43,912; in 1880, 

' The following table gives the population by townships and boroughs from 
1830 to 1870, except for the year 1840: 



Tow N~ii 1 1- on Bob b 

Dickinson Township 

tnsborough Tow nship 
Fraiikfonl Township 

Hampden Township 

Hopewell Township 

Newburg Borough 

Lower Allen Tow nship 

Middlesex Township 

Mifflin Township 

Monroe Tow nship 

Newton Township 

Newville Borough 

North Midi Hi i. hi Township. . . 
Carlisle Borough 

Carlisle, Bast Ward 

Carlisle, West Ward 

IVnn Township 

Bhippensburg Tow nship 

Bhippensburg Bor mgh 

silver Spring Township 

Mechantcaburg Borough ....... 

Southampton Tow nship 

South Mi.ldli ton Township. . . . 

I Hen Township 

New Cumberland Borough 

West Pennsborough Township. 

1880 1850 I860 1870 




8, 1 16 


1 562 
:: rofi 






i 888 

l 046 
5 664 


55 1 


1 108 


•J. I Mo 


'.'. i ;;, 






8 336 

2 L80 

By the census of L840 the county made the following showing: Numberfur 
d the county, 6, producing 2,830 tons cast iron; hands employed in fur- 
naces and forges, W0; capital invested, $110,000. Number borsesand mules in 
the county, 9,247; neat cattle, 24,204; sheep, 23,930; swine, 17,235; value of 
poultry (estimated), $12,671. Bushels of wheat raised, 567,654; barley 11 104- 
oats, 654,477; rye, 247,239; buckwheat, 13,772; Indian corn, 645,056 Other 
productions: Pounds wool, 17,133; hope, 1,812, beeswax, 680; bushels potatoes 

121,641; tons hay, 24,423; tons hemp, Ll|; cords w Isold, 14,849; value of 

dairy products, $100,753; orchard products, $18,860; value of home-made or 

f;mr > '-' Is, $24,660. Number tanneries, 31, which tanned 12,970 sidesol sole 

leather, 10,771 of ripper, and employed 64 men on a capital of $89 L75 Soap 
nianufactnr.,1. 230,218 pounds; candles, 15,060pounds. Number of distilleries 
28, producing 252,305 gallons "alcoholic beverages;" breweries, 3, producing 

12,000 gallons 1 r. Fulling-mills, 12; woolen factories, 9, making $26,800 

worth of g la and employ 61 persons; I cotton factory; I paper-mill'; 54 

flouring-mills, making 71,652 barrels flour; 8 grist-mills; 63 Baw-millB; 1 oil 
mill. Total capital invested in manufactories, $390,601. 

Thecensusfor L880 shows the following exhibii Cor Cumberland County- 
White population, 13,807; colored, 2,167; Japanese, 3. Ofth lord popula 

turn Carlisle had 1,117, and of the total inhabitants in the count] 15,322 were 
natives and 655 foreign born. Number farms in county, 2,983; acresimproved 
land, 232,093; value of farms, including land, fencea and buildings, $19,776 - 
'• ISI >: value farming implements and machinery, $727,411; value live-stock on 

farm-. $1,358,224; cost" of building and repairing fences in 1879, $86 l 

■if fertilizers purchased in 1879, $52,042; estimated valueof farm products Bold 
hand for 1879, $2,509,572; bushels barley raised in 1880 2 553- bud 
wheat, 1,242; Indian corn, 1,219,107; oats, 937,166; rye, 33,055; wheat 
834,517; value of orchard products, $46,554; tons haj raised. 52,284; bushels 
Irish |m 144,418; bushels Bweei potatoes, 9, 510; pounds tobacco, 148,118; 


number horses. 10.737; mules and asses. 652 : working oxen. 4: milch cow-. 12, 
614: other cattle. 13.442: sheep, 8,772: swine. 32,773; pounds wool. 5d,816; 
gallons milk. 121,619; pounds butter. 960,516; pounds cheese, 2, 3o2; number 
manufacturing establishments. 308; capital invested. $2,266, 109; total hands 
employed. 1.S92: wages paid, 8535. 068; materials used. $1,72 /,681; value of 
products. $2,850,640; assessed value of real estate. $l2,223,35o; value of 
personal property, $2,054,110; total taxation for 1880, with the exception of 
one or more townships from which no reports were received. $180,480; indebt- 
edness of countv. bonded and floating, 8142. 106. 

In 1778. when the townships in the county were Allen. East and \\ est 
Pennsborough. Hopewell. Middleton and Newton, besides the borough of Car^ 
lisle there were 111.055 acres of patented and wan-anted lands. 512 acres of 
proprietary manor lands, and 206 lots in Carlisle, upon all of which the total 
taxation was £120 3s. 4d. 

The population of Cumberland County, by townships and boroughs in 18SU, 
was as follows, according to the United States census report: 

Carlisle Borough. 6,209 (comprising Ward No. 1. 1,714;^ ardNo. 2. L_0_: 
Ward No. 3.1.613: Ward No. 4. l,6S0i: Cook Township. 41 , : Dickinson Town- 
ship 1 741: East Pennsborough Township. 3,084; Frankford Township, 1,5 14; 
Hampden Township. 1,000: Hopewell Township. 1,069; Lower Allen Town- 
ship. 972: Meehanicsburg Borough, 3,018 (comprising Ward No. 1. l,lo3; 
Ward No. 2. 763: Ward No. 3. 543: Ward No. 4. 559); Middlesex Township. 
1 466; Mifflin Township. 1.507: Monroe Township, 1.905: Mount Holly Springs 
Borough 1,256; Newbury Borough. 433: New Cumberland Borough. 569; 
Newton Township. 1,843; Newville Borough. 1.547: North Middleton Town- 
ship. 1.115; Penn Township. 1.521: Shippensburg Borough. 2.213: Shippens- 
burg Township. 494: Shiremanstown Borough. 404: Silver Spring Township, 
2,263; Southhampton Township. 1.992: South Middleton Township, 2,864; 
Tipper Allen Township. 1,400; West Pennsborough Township. 2,161. 

In November, 1SS5, the county contained the following postoffices: Allen, 
Barnitz. Big Spring. Bloserville! Boiling Springs. Bowmansdale. Brandts- 
ville. Camp D Hill. Carlisle*. Carlisle Springs, Cleversburgh. Dickinson. Eber- 
ly' s Mill. Good Hope, Greason, Green Spring. Grissinger. Hatton. Heberhg. 
Hotniestown, Hunter's Bun. Huntsdale. K'errsville. Lee's Cross Roads, Lia- 
burn, Mooredale. Mechanicsburgh*. Middlesex. Middle Spring. Mount Holly 
Springs. Mount Bock. Newburgh. New Cumberland. New Kingstown. Newlin. 
Newvflle*. Oakville. Pine Grove Furnace. Plainfield. Shepherdstown. Ship 
pensburgh* Shhemanstown, Stoughstown. Walnut Bottom, West Fairview. 
Williams Mill. Wornileysburgh — total 47. 


Public Road. 1735.— The first public road in the " Kittochtenny" (or Cum- 
berland! Vallev west of the Susquehanna River, was laid out in 1735, by order 
of the court of Lancaster, from Harris' ferry on the Susquehanna to W illiams" 
ferry on the Potomac. (See pioneer chapter for further items concerning_the 
road.) The commissioners to lay out this road, appointed November 4. 1735, 
were Kandle Chambers, Jacob Peat. James Silvers. Thomas Eastland. John 
Lawrence and Abraham Endless. It was not finished beyond Shippensburg 
for a number of vears.and even at the time of Braddock's expedition 1 1 i 55) "a 
tolerable road " was said to exist "as far as Shippensburg." Indian trails were 
the first highways, and some of them were nearly on the routes of subsequent 
public roads. 

*Money order offices. 



>^7^ut^L^<^P^0 jCc 



Military road, 1755. This was in no part in the present county of Cum- 
berland, though at the time it was Cumberland. It extended from McDowell's 
mill, near Chamber8burg, " over the mountains to Raystown (Bedford) bj the 
forks of the Youghiogheny, to intersect the Virginia road somewhere oil the 
gahela," being supposed indispensable for the supply of Braddook'B 
troops on the route to Fori DuQuesne, and after their arrival The commis 

appointed to la_\ it oui were principally from Oumberland I 
among them were George Croghan, the Indian trader; John Armstrong, who 
had come from Ireland about L748, and was then (when appointed commis- 
sioner) a justice of the peace; ('apt. James Burd; William Buchanan, of Car 
lisle, and Adam Hoops, of Antrim. A route was surveyed from a gap in the 
mountain near Shippensburg over an old Indian trail to Raystown. Armstrong 
■ I Buchanan were called from the wort by other duties, and William Smith. 
Francis West and John Byers were appointed in their places. The road was 
from 10 to 30 feet wide, according to work necessary to construct it. 200 men 
from Cumberland County worked on the road, the whole cost being nearly 
£2,000. The mad was completed to Raystown in the latter pari of June. 
Braddook'e defeat rendered further work unnecessary and Indian troubles 
oaused a cessation of labor upon the roads. 

The Harrisburg & Chambersburg Turnpike, passing through Hogestown, 
m, Middlesex, Carlisle and Shippensburg was begun by an incorporated 
company in 1816, ami was extensively traveled before the completion of the 
Cumberland Valley Railroad. 

The Elanover & ( larlisle Turnpike,* running southeast from Carlisle by way 
I Petersburg in Adams County, to Hanover and thence to Balti re, was be- 
gun in 1812, and the Harrisburg & York Turnpike was built along the west 
side of the Susquehanna. 

The State road leading from Harrisburg to Gettysburg and crossing the 
southeast portion of Cumberland County, was laid out in L810. It is said that 
"it met with much opposition at first, even from those who were appointed to lo- 
cate it. They directed it over hills that were almost impassable, hoping thus 
to effect its abandonment, but its usefulness lias since been so thoroughly dem- 
onstrated that these hills have been either graded or avoided." 

Among other very earlj roads were one from Hoge's Spring to the Sus 
quehanna River opposite Cox's town, laid out in October, 1759, and another 
from Trindlo's spring to Kelso's ferry in January. L792. 

Oumberland Valley Railroad. Looking hack over the past fifty years, the 
half century's horizon includes the sum total of that almost fairy story of 
magic that we find in the development of our entire system of railroads to 
their present marvellous perfection. The crude and simple beginnings; the 
old strap rails that would so playfully curl up through the car and BOmetimes 
through a passenger; the quaint, little, old engines that the passengers had to 
shoulder the wheels on an up-grade, where thej would "stall" so often with 
ftfB of the little cars attached to them; the still more curious coaches, built 
and finished inside after the Btyle of the olden time stage coaches, where pas 
sengers sat face to face, creeping along over the country — what a wonder and 
marvel they were then to the world, and now in the swift half century what a 
curiosity they are as relics of the past The railroad forced the coming of 
the telegraph, the telephone, the electric light, — the most wonderful onward 
sweep of civilization that has yet shed its sunshine and sweetness upon the world 
in tL i- brief-told story of fifty years. 

•The company tobuild thisroad was incorporated March 23, l«oo, but work 

i was built upon a public roa<" 
i to the York County line." 

-luowmpuj iu iiuilu in i? rua»i was incorporated 
The portion between Carlisle and the York County line was built upon a'public road laid out i 
as "the public road from Carlisle through Trent's Gap t ' 


The history of the Cumberland Valley Eailroad spans the entire period of 
railroad existence in this country. The first charter is dated m April, 1831 
The active promoters were, among others, Judge Frederick Watts Samuel 
Alexander Charles B. Penrose, William Biddle, Thomas G. McCullough, 
Thomas Chambers, Philip Berlin and Lewis Harlan. _ The designated termmi 
were Carlisle and the bank of the river opposite Harnsburg. In 18d6 a sup- 
plemented charter authorized the construction of a bridge at Harnsburg. 
Surveyors completed the location of the line in 183o; the road was at once- 
contracted for and the work actively commenced in the spring of 183b. In 
Aueust 1837 it was " partially and generally " opened for business. At 
first, passengers and freight were transported across the river by horse_power, 
and but a small force of this kind could do all the business easily. In l«3o 
an act was passed extending the line of the road to Chambersburg, 

In 1856 the Cumberland Valley Road was authorized, by the authority ot 
the States of Pennsylvania and Maryland, to purchase the Franklin Railroad, 
which also was one of the early-built roads of the country. It was then a 
completed road from Chambersburg to Hagerstown. The consolidation of the 
two lines was effected fully in 1864, and at once the line was completed to the 
Potomac— Martinsburg-the present Cumberland Valley Railroad; a distance 
of 94 miles from Harrisburg to Martinsburg. An extension is now contem- 
plated of twenty-two miles from Martinsburg to Winchester, which opens the 
way for this road to the tempting marts and traffic of the South and W. 
The first president was Hon. Thomas G. McCullough, elected June 27 1835. 
His executive abilities and ripe judgment-for he had no precedents then to 
follow, so he had to evolve a system for the young and awkward giant from 
his own brain— show that he was the right man in the right place In lb4U, 
Hon Charles B. Penrose became the president. He resigned in 1841 having 
been appointed solicitor of the treasury, when Judge Frederick _W atts now 
of Carlisle, became the president, and filled the position ably and acceptably 
until 1873 when he resigned to become the commissioner of agriculture, by 
the appointment of President Grant, where he remained six years and retired 
to private life, though still an efficient and active member of the board of 
directors of the railroad. 

Thomas B Kenedy, the present incumbent, was elected to the position on 
the retirement of Judge Watts. He resides in Chambersburg, which has been 
his home since early boyhood. The history of the other general officers of the 
road is told wholly in the long life's labor of General E. M Biddle, who is 
now the secretary and treasurer, and who has filled the place so ably and well 
since 1839 What a wonderful panorama in the world's swift changes since 
1839 has unfolded itself and has been a part of the official life of General 
Biddle' He owes now one great duty to this generation and to future man- 
kind, and that is to tell the story of what he saw and was a part of-the 
particulars of the little crude commencement of railroads and the steps leading 
to their present greatness and boundless capabilities. A sleeping car was put 
on this road in 1839-a historical fact of great interest because it was the first 
of the kind in the world. They were upholstered boards, three-deckers, held 
by leather straps, and in the day were folded back against the wall, very sim- 
ple and plain in construction, but comfortable. 

The Dillsburg & Mechanicsburg Railroad is a branch of the Cumberland 
Valley Railroad, extending from the towns indicated in its name The length 
is ei4t miles. It was organized September 2, 1871, and completed the fol- 
lowing year. It has been a paying property from the first, and adds much to 
the comfort and well-being of the people of the country it taps. 


The financial affairs of the road are fulls explained in the Follow 

first preferred Btock 

Second preferred Btock 848 000 00 

Common pre fern. I Btock 

Mortgage Bonds, due [004 7r,i - 

mds, due 1908 '.'. [09 

Dividends and Interest due '.'.....'.'.". I i ■ 

Profit and lus-; !."'.!!.' 704*871 01 

Totai $3,704,585 01 

Harrisburg & Potomac Railroad. The original, active promoters, the or 
ganuers and builders of this road were the Al.l Brothers, Daniel V. an. I Peter 

A. Al.l. of Newville. They procured the charter, furnished kl ,,, * for 

the prelhninarj work, cashed the bonds to a large extent, and contracted and 
built the original road. The road was chartered -Inn.' --'7. L870, a- the Mer 
amar Iron >v Railroad Company, it- aame explaining the original purpose 

of th.' enterprise. Ti ffioers elected June '-'i>. L870, were Daniel \ Mil 

president; Asbury Derland, secretary; William Gracey, treasurer; William 
H. Miller, solicitor. The road was buiH from Chambersburg to Richmond 
I'h,. projeoi was then expanded, and the road buill from Chambersb 
Waynesboro, via Mount Alto. Th .,: Daniel \. Al.l John 

Evans, Asburj Derland, John Moore, W. E. Langsdorf, George Clevei 
uelN. Bailey, Alexandei Boaler. A braj 

surveyed and built from the main line to Dillsburg. When the const 
of the lim. was about completed the concern Ml into great financial diffi. 
when the almosi omnipotent Pennsylvania Road gathered it quietly to ti 
and shaped its destinies int. » the present line of road, .and it took it- i 
name. The Htirrisluu^ a Potomac Railroad 

The North ,„ < 'entral Railroad passes along the shore of the Susquehanna 
g the eastern end of Cumberland Count) in whic] mtninemiles 

of road. 

Tht South Mountain Railroad, built or completed in 1869, by the South 
Mountain Iron Company extending from Carlisle to I'm.. Grove Furnace Is 
seventeen and one-half miles long. 


Mllinn Cumbehi \m, ( ... nty in thi: Revolution— The Whiskey. rNsuii 

KB) 1 1..\ I'm: W'ai: <>v 1813. 

TT^OR more than ten years after the dose ,.f the Indian wars the inhabitants 
-L of the count) gave their attention to peaceful pursuits. Agriculture 
flourished and the population increased Greai Britain finally attempted to 

force her American colonies to comply with all her outrageous demands witJ I 

giving them any voice in the Government. They naturally objected The 
" Boston port bill " roused their ire. Tin- count) had fevi citizens 

who stood by the mother country in such pr dings. July 12. 1771 a pub 

lie meeting was called, of which the following are the minutes: 

"At a respectable gathering of the freeholders and freemen from several 
townships of Cumberland Count) in the province of Pennsylvania held at 


Carlisle, in the said county, on Tuesday, the 12th day of July, 1774, John 
Montgomery, Esq. , in the chair— 

1. Boohed, That the late act of the Parliament of Great Britain by ^^^esoHhe 
Boston is shut up, is oppressive to that town andsubversi veof th ^ ™ t J™ 
colony of Massachusetts Bay; that the principle upon which the act •* j ™ 1 ^; £ olonie8 
subversive of the rights and liberties of that colony than tis of aUrftar. B™^^ 
in North America: and, therefore, the inhabitants of Boston are suucnu = 

CaUS o °That^ry Porous and prudent measure ought speedily and unanimously to be 
adopted by thes r e y colSn!e "for obtaining redress of the grievances under "*"**£"*»& 


° f "? ffiS^'SSStoSm all the colonies will be one proper method for oh- 

taln r S Kmt purpose will, in the ^^S^g^^EM 
agreement of all the colonies not to import any ^menha hse ft ^ n ° r "^ ,l su d ch } merehan . 
dise to Great Britain Ireland, or the Bri Ush Wes^ ndies nor to«^« obtained . 
dise so imported, nor tea imported from anyplaa w nai ever m _iut i i ' , hich 


^TThrta'SJmmittee be immediately appointed for this county to correspond with 

sszss ^ sssff s ssssrs^ra »«a - 

Brl f «e committee «^^^±^^SS^.^^&^ 
^Z^YonllZT^^ Maglw^S B'lane, John Allison, John Ha, 


in order to con'cert measures praparatory to the G-eral^ongress^^^^^ ^ .^ 

This meeting was held in the Presbyterian Church at Carlisle, and the 
chairman^Mont-omery) was an elder in the church. The meeting was called 
on™t of "litter Km the Assembly, under action of June 30, caUing upon 
each county to provide arms and ammunition and men to use hem faom out 
their associated companies, also to assess real and personal ^tesivtetrz? 
expenses. The Assembly encouraged military organizations and promised to 
see that officers and men called into service were paid. We quote Dr. \\ ing s 
notes upon the men composing the committee: 

« James Wilson was born in 1742 in Scotland; had received a finished edu- 
cation at St Andrews, Edinburgh and Glasgow, under Dr. Blair in rhetoric 
and Di Watts in logic, and in 1766 had come to reside in Philadelphia where 
ne studied law with John Dickinson, from whom he doubt less '.-^some- 
thing of the spirit which then distinguished that eminent patriot, ^ad- 
mitted to practice he took up his residence in Carlisle. In an important land 
Tase which had recently been tried between the proprietaries and Samuel 
Wallace he had gained the admiration of the most eminent lawyers in the 
province, and at once had taken rank second to none at the Pennsylvania ba* 
At the meeting of the people now held in Carlisle, he made a speech which 
iew toth the most rapturous applause. Robert Magaw was a native of 
Cumberland County, belonging to a family which had early settled in Hop* 
well Township, and was also a lawyer of some distinction in Carlisle. The 
Seer on which he was now entering was one in which he was to beeomi > known 
to the American people as one of their purest and bravest officers. W ilham 
Irvine wTs a native of Ireland from the neighborhood of Enmskillen; had been 


ol Basically educated at the University of Dublin, and bad earlj evinced a 
fondness for military lif.'. but had been Lndaoed bj bis parentc to devote him- 
self to the medioal and Burgioal profession. On receiving his diploma ho had 

1 a appointed a surgeon in the British Navy, where he continued until the 

r the French war (175J 83), when he resigned his place, removed to 
America and settled in Carlisle, where he acquired a high reputation 
extensive practice as a physician. William Thompson had served as a captain 
of horse in the expeditions against the Indian- (1759 60), had been appointed 

a justice of the peace in Hopewell Township, and had latelj I n active in 

the relief of the inhabitants in the western part of the province in their diffi- 
culties with Virginia on the boundary question. Jonathan Hoge and John 
Oalhoon had been justices of the peace and judges in the county, and be- 
lt© two of the eldest and most respectable familes in the vicinitj of 
Silver-' Sprint,'. Ephriam Blaine we have known for his brave defense of a 
fort at Ligonier, and was now the proprietor of a large property and mills on 
the Gonodoguinet, near the cave, about a mile north of Carlisle. John Alli- 
son, of Tyrone Township; John Harris, a lawyer of Carlisle, and Robert 
Miller, living about a mile northeast of Carlisle in Middleton Township; John 
Montgomery, a member of the Assembly, and Robert Callender, formerly an 
extensive trader with the Indians, a commissary for victualing the troops on 

the western campaign and the owner of mills at the confluent f the Letort 

with the Conodoguinet, were all of thorn active as justices, judges and commis- 
sioners for the county. " 

The three delegates from Cumberland County were at Philadelphia a few 
days later, when the delegates from the various Bounties of the province as- 
sembled, and -lame- Wilson was one of tic oommitt if eleven which brought 

in a paper of "Instructions on the present situation of public affairs to the 
representatives who were to meet in tho Colonial Assembly next week." The 
proceedings of this meeting, the subsequent stepsof the Assembly, and all 

the pro, linu'- up to the opening of hostilities, are matters of record not 

accessary to introduce her,'. The committee of thirteen which had been ap- 
pointed at Carlisle, July 12, 1771. kept busy, an, 1 through their efforts a 
"committee of observation" was chosen by the people who had general over- 
sight of civil affairs, and few counties were more fortunate than Cumberland 
in their choice of men. About this time the terms "whig" and "tory" began 
to be heard, and the bitterness the two partisan factions held toward each 
other after the declaration by the colonies of their independence, wa- , 
leading to atrocious crimes and terrible murders by the tories when they could 
strike like cowards, knowing their strength. " Few such," sayBDr.Wing, ■•were 
found among the native population of this valley. There were indeed some 
both in civil and in ecclesiastical life who questioned whether they had a right 
to break the oath or vow of allegiance which they had taken on assuming some 
official station. Even these were seldom prepared to go so far a- to give actual 
aid and comfort to the enemy, or to make positive resistance to the efforts 
of the patriot-. They usually contented themselves with a negative withdraw- 
al from all participation in efforts at ■••. Many of them were earn 
est supporters of all movements for redress of grievances, and paused only 
when they were asked to support what they looked upon a- rebellion. These 
hardly deserved the nam.- of "tories," since they were not the friend 
royal prerogative, and only doubted whether the colonies were authorized by 
what they had suffered to break entirely away from the crown to whicl 

had sworn allegiance, and whether the | pie were yet able to maintain this 

separate position. Among these who deserved rather to be ranked a 


jurors were one of the first judges of the county, who had recently removed 
over the mountain to what is now Perry County, and two clergymen who held 
commissions as missionaries of the 'Venerable Society in England for the 
Propagation of Eeligion in Foreign Parts.' " 

James Wilson, of Cumberland County, was in December, 1774, appointed 
one of nine delegates to a second Congress to be held the next year m Phila- 
delphia, and held the position until 1777. Both he and Robert Magaw were 
members from this county of the provincial convention which met at Philadelphia 
January 23, 1775, and continued in session six days, during which time much 
business of great importance was transacted. 

Upon receipt of the news of the battle of Lexington (April 1J, ino). 
Congress resolved to raise an army, and the quota of Pennsylvania was figured 
at 4^00. Word was sent to the committee of Cumberland County, and they 
proceeded at once to organize companies of " associators, " many of which 
were already formed on the old plan in use since the days of the Indian 
troubles. A letter from this county dated May 6, 1775, said: "Yesterday 
the county committee met from nineteen townships, on the short notice they 
had. About 3,000 men have already associated. The arms returned amount 
to about 1,500. The committee have voted 500 effective men, besides 
commissioned officers, to be immediately drafted, taken into pay, armed 
and disciplined to march on the first emergency; to be paid and supported 
as long as necessary, by a tax on all estates real and personal in the county; 
the returns to be taken by the township committees, and the tax laid by 
the commissioners and the assessors; the pay of the officers and men as in 
times past. This morning we met again at 8 o'clock; among other subjects 
of inquiry the mode of drafting or taking into pay, arming and victualing im- 
mediately the men. and the choice of field and other officers, will among other 
matters be the subjects of deliberation. The strength or spirit of this county 
perhaps may appear small if judged by the number of men proposed, but 
when it is considered that we are ready to raise 1,500 or 2,000, should we 
have support from the province, and that independently and in uncertain ex- 
pectation of support we have voluntarily drawn upon this county a debt of 
about £27,000 per annum, I hope we shall not appear contemptible. We 
make great improvement in military discipline. It is yet uncertain who may 

g °' From July 3, 1775, to July 22, 1776, John Montgomery, Esq., of Carlisle, 
was an active and a prominent member of a committee of safety, consisting of 
twenty-five men from different parts of the province, sitting permanently at 
Philadelphia, and having management of the entire military affairs of the 
province. The first troops sent out from Cumberland County, were under the 
call of Congress in May, 1775, and were from the association companies, the 
call by the committee of safety not being made until some months later. To 
furnish arms and ammunition for the soldiers was the greatest difficulty, es- 
pecially in Cumberland County. "Each person in the possession of arms was 
called upon to deliver them up at a fair valuation, if he could not himself en- 
list with them. Rifles, muskets, and other fire-arms were thus obtained to the 
amount of several hundred, and an armory was established for the repairing 
and alterino- of these, in Carlisle. On hearing that a quantity of arms and 
accoutrements had been left at the close of the Indian war at the house of Mi-. 
Carson, in Paxtang Township, and had remained there without notice or care, 
the commissioners of Cumberland County, regarding them as public property, 
sent for them and found about sixty or seventy muskets or rifles which were 
capable of being put to use, and these were brought to Carlisle, repaired 


uiul distributed Three hundred pounds were also paid for saoh arms and 
equipments a- were collected from individuals who could not themselves come 
forward as soldiers, All persons who were not associated, and yei were "f the 
age and ability for effective service, were to be reported by tin' assessors to 
the county commissioners and assessed, in addition to the regular tax, 62 LOs, 
annually, in lienor the time which others spent in military training, The on 
1\ persons excepted were ministers of the gospel and servants purchased for a 
valuable consideration of any kind. It was assumed that thoBe who had con 
Boientious scruples about personally bearing arms ought not to hesitate to con- 
tribute a reasonable share of the expense for the protection fchej received." 

The first troops going oat from Cumberland made up eight < ipaniesof, 

generally, 100 each, and nearly all from the county. The regiment, which be- 
oame the First Kith- Regiment of Pennsylvania, was form,.,! of men already 
assoc i a t ed, and therefore the more easily organized for immedi at e service. It 
was formed within ten days after the news of the battle of Bunker Hill had 
been received. The companies rendezvoused at Reading, where the regiment 
was fully organized by the election of officers as follows: Col. William 
Thompson, a surveyor who lived near Carlisle and had served with distinction 
a- an officer in the Indian war; Lieut. -Col. Edward Hand, of Lancaster; Map 
Robert Bfagaw, of Carlisle. The captains of the several companies were 
lame- Chambers, of Loudon Forge, near Chambersburg; Robert ('luggage, ,,| 
Hamilton Township; Michael Doudel, William Hendricks, of East Penns 
borough; John Loudon. .lame- Ross, Matthew Smith and George Xagle. 
Burgeon— Dr. William Magaw, of Meroersburg, a brother to Robert, Chaplain 
Rev. Samuel Blair. The regiment marched directly to Boston, reaching 
camp at Cambridge in the beginning of August, 177o. when it consisted of 
B field officers, '•» Captains. 27 lieutenants, 1 adjutant, 1 quartermaster, 1 sur- 
geon, 1 surgeon's mate, 29 sergeants. |:{ druniniers ami 713 privates fit for 

duty, or 798 men all told. The officers wer immissioned to date from June 25, 

1775; term of enlistment, one year. This was the first regiment from west of the 
Hudson to reach the camp, and received particular attention. They were thus 
described bj a contemporary: " They are remarkably stout and vigorous men, 

many of them ex ling six feet in bight, They are dressed in white frocks 

shirts and round hats. They are remarkable for the accuracy of their 
aim. striking a mark with great certainty at 200 yards distance. At a review 
B company of them, while on a quick advance, fired their hall- into objects of 
seven inches in diameter at a distance of 250 yards. Thej are stationed in our 
outlines, and their shots have frequent!] proved fatal to British officers and 
soldier- who exposed themselves to view even at more than double the distance 
of a common musket shot." Col. Thompson, with two of his companies under 
Capte. Smith and Hendricks, went with the expedition to Canada, being pro 

bably part of the troops who went on the eastern route with Arnold. I> m 

her 31, 1 775, they were in the assault on Quebec, carried the harriers, and for 

three hours held out against a greatly superior force, being finally compelled 
to retire. Of the body to which this regiment belonged, Gen Richard M mi 
gamer} -aid: --It is an exceedingly line corps, inured to fatigue ami well ac 
customed to common -hot. having served at Cambridge. There is a style of 
oe amongst them much superior to what I have Keen accustomed to see 
in this camp. 

By subsequent promotions Col. Thomp-ou became a brigadier general; 

Lieut. Col. Hand sua ded to the command of the regiment; ('apt. Chambers 

became lieutenant-colonel, and James Armstrong Wilson, of Carlisle, major, in 
place of Robert Bfagaw, transferred. Part of the regiment was captured at 


Trois Rivieres and taken to New York, while Col. Hand barely escaped with 
the balance. Gen. Thompson was finally paroled and sent home to his family 
in 1777, but was not exchanged until October 26, 1780, when he and others 
were exchanged for Maj. -Gen. De Reidesel, of the Brunswick troops. He died 
on his farm near Carlisle September 3, 1781, aged forty-five years, and his 
death was undoubtedly hastened by exposure while in a military prison. 

Upon the expiration of the term of enlistment of this regiment, June 30, 
1776, most of the officers and men re-enlisted "for three years or during the 
war," under Col. Hand, and the battalion became the first regiment of the Con- 
tinental line. The two separated parts of the regiment, one from Cambridge 
and the other from Canada, were reunited at New York, though some of its 
officers, like Magaw, were transferred by promotion to other portions of the 
army. It was at Long Island, White Plains, Trenton and Princeton under 
Hand. In April, 1777, Hand was made a brigadier, and James Chambers be- 
came the colonel. "Under him the regiment fought at Brandywine, German- 
town, Monmouth and in every other battle and skirmish of the main army until 
he retired from the service, January 1, 1781, and was succeeded by Col. Dan- 
iel Broadhead May 26, 1781. With him the first regiment left York, Penn., 
with five others into which the line was consolidated under the command of 
Gen. Wayne, and joined Lafayette at Raccoon Ford on the Rappahannock 
June 10; fought at Green Springs on July 6, and opened the second parallel 
at Yorktown, which Gen. Steuben said he considered the most important part 
of the siege. After the surrender the regiment went southward with Gen. 
Wayne, fought the last battle of the war at Sharon, Ga., May 24, 1782, entered 
Savannah in triumph on the 11th of July, Charleston on the 14th of Decem- 
ber, 1782; was in camp on James Island, S. C, on the 11th of May, 1783, and 
only when the news of the cessation of hostilities reached thai point was em- 
barked for Philadelphia. In its services it traversed every one of the original 
thirteen States of the Union. Capt. Hendricks fell during the campaign in 
Canada. A few of the original members of the regiment were with it through 
all the various scenes of the eight years of service. Col. Chambers and Maj. 
Wilson both retired from the service because of wounds which incapacitated them 
from duty. The regiment had a splendid record. 

Additional regiments from Pennsylvania were called for by Congress in the 
latter part of 1775, and the Second, Third and Fourth Battalions were raised 
and placed under the command of Cols. Arthur St. Clair, John Shea and An- 
thony Wayne. The Fifth Battalion was commanded by Robert Magaw, who 
had been major in the First, and was composed of companies principally from 
Cumberland County. It was recruited in December, 17/5, and January, 1776, 
and in February, 1776, some of its companies were in Philadelphia, though 
the main body of the regiment left Cumberland County in March. It departed 
from Carlisle March 17, 1776, on which occasion Rev. William Linn, who had 
been licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Carlisle, and had been ap- 
pointed Chaplain of the Fifth and Sixth Battalions of Pennsylvania militia, de- 
livered a stirring patriotic sermon, which has been preserved in print to the 
present day. The command proceeded to Long Island, assisted in the con- 
struction of defenses, and upon the retreat assisted other Pennsylvania regi- 
ments in covering the same. They were afterward placed in Fort Washington 
at the head of Manhattan Island, with other Pennsylvania troops, commanded 
by such officers as Cols. Cadwallader, Atlee, Swope, Frederick Watts (of Car- 
lisle ) and John Montgomery, the whole commanded by Col. Robert Magaw. 
Gen. Howe demanded the surrender of the fort, threatening dire consequences 
if it had to be carried bv assault. Col. Magaw replied that "he doubted 


whether a threat bo unworthj of the General and of the British nation would 
ted " " But, " said he, " give me leave to assure your excellency that, 
actuated bj the most glorious oause thai mankind ever fought in, I am deter 
mined to defend this post to the very last extremity." And thai be did, 
Washington witnessing part of the operations from the opposite side of the 
Hudson. Finally, however, November L9, L776, the gallant Colonel was oom 
palled i" capitulate, and the Btrong position, with 2,818 men, fell into the 
hands of the British ('"1- Magaw remained a prisoner on parole until Onto 
bar 25, 17m). when, with Gens. Thompson and Laurens he was exchanged for 
the British major-general, De Reidesel, .Many of .Macaw's men Buffered 
greatly in the British prisons, but they refused all temptations held oul to in 
duos them t.> desert ami enlist in the royal service. A lew were exchanged in 
1777. but most remained prisoners until nearly the close of tin' war. 

Thr committee of correspondence for Cumberland Count] w rote to Congress 
about thr middle of August) 177."): " The twelfth company of our militia has 
marched to-day, which companies contain in the whole. s:i:! privates; with 

Officers, nearly '.mi I men. Six companies more are collecting arms, and are 
preparing to march." This committee of correspondence included, among others, 
John Armstrong, JohnByers, Robert Miller, John Agnew and James Pollock; all 
but Byers residents of Carlisle. (Mr. Miller, in L768 until 1782, and later, ac 

OOlding to the records, owned a tan yard, and lie also is said to have been a mer 
chant. He was an elder in the church and held numerous oil ices. His daughter, 
Margaret, married Maj. James Armstrong Wilson.) The committee reported in 

December, to the commitl f safety, thai they expected to be able to raise an 

entire battalion in the county, ami hoped they might be allowed to do so, in 
order to do away with the discords generally prevalent among bodies of men 
promiscuoii-ly recruited. Thej recommended as officers for such a regiment, 
colonel. 'William Irvine; lieutenant colonel. Ephraim Blaine; major, James 
Dunlap; captains, -lames livers, S. Hay. W. Alexander. J. Tall >ott. .1. Wilson. 
•I. Armstrong, A. Galbreath and R. Adams; lieutenants. A. Parker, W. Brat- 
ton, G. Alexander. P. Jack. S. MoGlay, 8. MeKenney, R. White and J. Mc- 
Donald. The Sixth Regiment was accordingly organized, and William Irvine 
received his commission as colonel, January'.', I77<>. Changes were made in 
the other officers, and they were as follows: lieutenant-colonel. Thomas Hart- 
ley, of York; major. James Dunlap, who lived near Newburg; adjutant, John 
Brooks; captains, Samuel Hay. Robert Adams. Abraham Smith (of Lurgan), 
William Bippey (resided near Shippensburg), James A. Wilson. David Grier, 
Mosee McLean and Jeremiah Talbotl (of Chambersburg). The regiment 
marched in three months after Col. Irvine was commissioned, and joined the 
army before Quebec, in Canada. It was brigaded with the First. Second 

and Fourth Regiments; the brigade being c manded first by Gen. Thomas, 

and after his death, by Gen. Sullivan. The latter sent Col. Irvine and Gen. 
Thompson on the disastrous Trois Rivieres campaign, when, June 8, I77<i. so 
many of the men were captured, together with the commanders. The portion 
of the regiment that escaped capture fell bach to oaplain and wintered 

under command of Lieut. Col. Hartley. Most of the men re enlisted after their 
original term of service had expired (January I. 1 777 1. and the broken Sixth 

and Seventh Regiments wer nsolidated into a new one under the i 

of Col. David Greer. Col. Irvine, like the others on parol, was exchanged 
May I'). 1 ■ 1 7 . and appointed colonel of the Second Pennsylvania Regiment. 
May 12, I < 79, he was made a brigadier general, and served one or two years 
under Gen. Wayne. In 1781 hewasstati d at Fort Pitt He died at Phil- 
adelphia July 29, 1804 ('apt. Rippey, who was captured at Trois Rivieres, 


succeeded in making his escape. After the war he resided at Shippensburg, 
where he kept a hotel. 

May 15, 1776, Congress passed a resolution recommending " to the respective 
assemblies and conventions of the United Colonies, where no government suffi- 
cient to the exigencies of their affairs has been hitherto established, to adopt 
such government as shall, in the opinion of the representatives of the people, 
best conduce to the happiness and safety of their constituents in particular 
and America in general. " On the 3d of June , that body also devised measures 
for raising a new kind of troops, constituting them the "flymg camp, inter- 
mediate between militia and regulars, to consist of 10,000 men from the States 
of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Delaware. The quota of Pennsylvania was 
6 000 men, but as 1,500 had already been sent into the field, the immediate 
demand was for 4,500, and it was finally settled that the quota of Cumberland 
County was 334, as so many had already been sent out from said county. 
Meantime, the Assembly having dissolved, and the committee of safety declining 
to act, it became necessary for the people to organize some form of government, 
and on recommendation the several county committees met and sent delegates, 
for that purpose, to a meeting held at Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, June 18, 
1776. Cumberland County was represented by James McLane, of Antrim 
Township; John McClay, of Lurgan; William Elliot, Col. William Clark and 
Dr. John Calhoon, of East Pennsborough; John Creigh and John Harris, of 
Carlisle; Hugh McCormick and Hugh Alexander, of Middle Spring, This 
conference continued in session one week, approved the resolutions of Congress, 
declared the existing government in the province incompetent, and appointed 
the 15th of July as the date for holding a convention at Philadelphia to frame 
a new government based upon the authority of the people. Voting places for 
delegates from Cumberland County, were established at Carlisle, with Robert 
Miller and James Gregory, of that town, and Benjamin Blyth, of Middle 
Spring, as judges of election; at Chambersburg, with John Allison and James 
Maxwell and John Baird as judges; at Robert Campbell's, in Hamilton Town- 
ship, with William Brown, Alex Morrow and James Taylor as judges. The 
election was held July 8, and William Harris, then practicing law at Carhs ^, 
William Clark, William Duffield (near Loudon) ; Hugh Alexander, of Middle 
Spring; Jonathan Hoge and Robert Whitehill, of East Pennsborough; James 
Brown, of Carlisle, and James McLane, of Antrim, were chosen delegates. 
The convention met per appointment, July 15, and adopted a constitution, 
which in spite of some informalities, was acquiesced in by the people for a 
number of years. Among other acts of the convention it appointed a council 
of safety, of which William Lyon was a member from Cumberland County. 

George Chambers, in an excellent work upon the "Irish and Scotch and 
Early Settlers of Pennsylvania," published at Chambersburg in 1856, says of 
the period at which we have now arrived: "The progress of the war and the op- 
pressive exactions of the British Government after a few months unsettled public 
opinion on this question [that of separation from the mother country, Ed.] 
and the necessity and policy of independence became a debatable question with 
the colonists in their social meetings. At this time there were no newspapers 
published in Pennsylvania, we believe, west of York. The freemen of the 
County of Cumberland, in this province, were amongst the first to form the 
opinion that the safety and welfare of the colonies did render separation from 
the mother country necessary. The first public expression of that sentiment 
and its embodiment in a memorial emanated from the freemen and inhabitants 
of that county to the assembly of the province and is among the national arch- 
ives." Mr. Chambers in further speaking of this memorial says: " The me- 


•morial from Cumberland Count] bears evidence thai the inhabitants of thai 
county were in advanoe of their representatives in the Assembly and in Con- 
gress, "ii the snbjeot of independence. The considerations suggested to them 

had their inflnenoeoo the who adopted the petiti >f the mi 

-.-t> and withdrew the instruol ions thai bad been given to the delegates in Con 
□ opposition t" independence. As the Cumberland memorial was pre- 
sented to the Assemblj on 1 1 1 « - 23d* of May, 177ii, it probably bad occupied the 
attention and consideration of the inhabitants of the Cumberland Valley early 
in that month. As there was ao rei istrance from this distriol bj any dissat- 
isfied with the purposes of the memorial we are to suppose thai it expressed the 
public sentiment of thai large, respeotable and influential district of the pro^ 
ince which bad then many officers and men in the ranks of the Continental Army." 
When in Congress the motion for independence was finally acted upon, the 
9ylvania was carried forit by the deciding vote of James Wilson, 
of Cumberland County, and of him Bancroft says i History of the United States 
Vol VIII. pp. 156 159) "He hail at an earl} daj foreseen independence as 
the probable, though not the intended result of the contest; be had uniformly 
declared in his place thai he never would vote for it contrary to his instructions; 
nay. thai he regards 1 it as something m ire than presumption to take a step of 
Buoh importance without express instructions and authority. 'For' said he, 
ought this act to be the ad of four or five individuals, or should it be the act 
"f the people of Pennsylvania? 1 But now that their authority was communi- 
cated by the oonferen f committees be Btood on very different ground." 

Mr. Chambers Bays: "The majority of the Pennsylvania delegates remained 
inflexible in their unwillingness to vote for the measure, at the head of which 
opposition was the distinguished patriot, John Dickinson, who opposed the 
measure cot as bad or uncalled for, l>ut as premature. But when on the 
4th of July the subject came up for final action, two of the Pennsylvania del- 
egates, Dickinson and Morris, who voted in the negative, absented themselves. 
and the vote of Pennsylvania was carried by the votes of Franklin, Wilson and 
Morton against the votes of Willing and Humphreys. The men who voted in 
opposition to this measure were .-.teemed hi mest and patriotic men but were too 
timid for the orisis. They faltered ami shrank from responsibility and danger 
when they should have been firm and brave." The Declaration of Independ- 
ence though adopted on the Ith of July was not signed until August 16 follow- 
ing. The name of James Wilson was affixed to the document with those of tie- 
other delegates, and Cumberland County has the satisfaction of knowing that 
her citizens and foremost men had an important voice in the formation of the 

Republic which is now so dear to mole than 50,000,000 | pie. 

After this step had 1 n taken bj the colonic- there was no way of honor- 
able retreat from the ground they had taken. The struggle was upon them, 
and many were the dark and trying hours before it closed in their favor and 
the nation was firmly established. ft was with difficulty the ranks were kept 
full. Many had enlisted for only one year, and BOme as emergency soldiers 
for as short a period as three month-. The appeals i f the recruiting officers 
are described as most stirring, and the county of Cumberland, like others, was 
kept in a constant state of excitement. Bj strenuous efforts the flagging 

energy of the ] pie was renewed. October 16, 1776, William Lyon, who 

that day took his seal as member from Cumberland County of the council of 

safety, proposed to the board of war to continue a larger force in the State, to 
protect ii both against British troops and " the growing party of disaffected 
persons which unhappily exists at this time," also to carry on the necessarj 

"i nhi-r authuritv says M 


works of defense. It was resolved to raise four battalions of 500 men each 
(for the immediate defense of the State), of militia from the counties of York, 
Cumberland, Lancaster and Berks-one battalion for each county The news 
from Trenton (December 3, 1776) and Princton (January 3, 1777) encouraged 
the people and recruiting became more lively. July i, 17 (6, a military con- 
vention representing the fifty-three associated battalions of Pennsylvania, met 
at Lancaster and chose two brigadier-generals to command the battalions and 
forces of Pensylvania (Daniel Robardeau, of Philadelphia, and James Ewing, of 
York). Cumberland County was represented at this convention by Col John 
Armstrong; Lieut. -Cols. William Blair, William Clark and Frederick Watts, 
Mai. James McCalmont: Capts. Rev. John Steel, Thomas McClelland, John Da- 
vis James MeFarlane and George Robinson, and privates David Hoge, Ephraim 
Steel Smith, Pauling, Brown, Sterrett, Hamilton, Read, Finley, and Vance. 
When the "Flying Camp" was formed, two regiments had been organized in 
Cumberland County under Cols. Frederick Watts and John Montgomery, of 
Carlisle, and sent to Washington at Long Island; they were captured with 
others at Fort Washington, but the officers were soon exchanged and later 
commanded regiments under a new arrangement. We quote at considerable 

length from Dr. Wing: 

"When Gen. Howe appeared to be about crossing New Jersey to get pos- 
session of Philadelphia by land (June 14, 1776), messengers were dispatched to 
the counties to give orders that the second class of the associated militia should 
march as speedily as possible to the place to which the first class had been or- 
dered and that the third class should be got in readiness to march at a moment s 
notice These orders were at once complied with, but before the companies 
from this county had started, the order was countermanded on account of the 
return of the British troops to New York. It soon, however became known 
that the approach to Philadelphia was to be by transports up Chesapeake Bay 
and Delaware River, and a requisition was made upon the State for 4,00U mili- 
tia in addition to those already in the field. One class, therefore was again 
ordered from the county. On the 5th of October, 1 <76, the council of safety 
resolved to throw into the new continental establishment two of the three Penn- 
sylvania battalions, before in that service, to serve during the war, and the third 
was to be retained in the service of the State until the 1st of January, 17 ?«, 
unless sooner discharged, and to consist of ten companies of 100 men each in- 
cluding officers. The privates of the three battalions were to continue m the 
service° of the State, the officers according to seniority to have the choice ot 
entering into either, and the two battalions to be recruited to their full com- 
plement of men as speedily as possible. By this new arrangement Pennsylva- 
nia was to keep twelve battalions complete in the Continental service. Of 
course this broke up all previous organizations, and renders it difficult to trace 
the course of the old companies. We have seen that on the loth of August 
thirteen companies fully officered and equipped had left the county for the 
seat of war, and six others were preparing to go. The regiments of Cols 
Thompson, Irvine and Magaw, we have noticed, and two or three others must 
have been in existence about this time. One of these was commanded by Col. 
Frederick Watts and Maj. David Mitchell, and another by John Montgomery, 
who after the dissolution of the committee of safety, July 22, 1 nQ, appears to 
have taken charge of a regiment. Both of these regiments were at the taking 
of Fort Washington and were then captured. One of the volunteer companies 
under Col Watts, after the latter had been set at liberty and been put again 
at the head of a regiment, was commanded by Capt. Jonathan Robinson, ot 
Sherman's Valley, the son of George Robinson, who suffered so much in the 


Indian war. and who now. though above fifty years of age, had entered the 
patriot army. This oompanj was in the battle of Princeton, and was for Borne 
tome stationed at thai town t" guard againsi the British and to act as Boouts to 
intercept their foraging parties. Near the close of the year 177»i, or the be 
ginning of 1777. battalions began to be designated bj numbers in their respect 
rve counties and are made of the First. Second. Third, etc., of Cumberland 
County. This was under the new organization of the militia of the Stale 
The first was organized in January, 1777. when 'Col. Ephraim Blaine of the 
Pint Battalion oft Cumberland County militia is directed to hold an election foi 
held officers in the said b two-thirds of the battalion, now marched 
and marching to camp, require the same.' A< dinglj the Colonel was fur- 
Dished with blank commissions to till when the officers should be chosen. 
('apt-. Samuel Postlethwaite, Matthias Selers, John Steel, William chambers 
and John BoggS are mentioned in the minutes of the council of safety as OOU- 
with this regiment. Col. Blaine's connection with the regiment must 
have been brief, for he was soon transferred to the commissary department. 
and we find it under the oommand'of Col. JamesDunlap (from near Newburg, 
and a ruling elder in the congregation of Middle Spring), Lieut. -Col. Robert 
Oulbertson, and connected with three companies from what is now Franklin 
County, viz.: those of Capte. Noah Abraham of Path Valley, Patrick Jack of 
Hamilton Township and Charles MoClay of Lurgan. The Second Battalion 
was at first under the command of CoL John Allison, a justice of the peace in 

1 1 Township, over the mountains, and a judge of the county, but a ft er his 
retirement l for he was now past middle life) it was for awhile under the com- 
mand of Col. James Murray, and still later we find it under John Davis, of 
Middletoii. near the Conodoguinet. Under him were the companies of Capts. 
William Huston, Charles Deeper (of the Middle Spring congregation), .lames 
Crawford. Patrick Jack (sometimes credited to this regiment), Samuel Royal 
and Lieut. George Wallace. While this regiment was under marching orders 
for Anihoy. near January 1. 1777. they took from such persons as were not 
associated, in Antrim and Peters Township, whatever arms were found in their 

don, to he paid for according to appraisement by the Government. The 
Fourth Battalion was under Col. Samuel Lyon, and had in it the companies of 
Capts. John Purdy, of East Pennsborough ; James McConnel, of Letterkenny, 
and. in 177^. ofjonathan Robinson, , .f Sherman's Valley: Stephen Stevenson. 
who was at first a lieutenant but afterward became a captain. The Fifth Bat 
talion was commanded by Col. Joseph Armstrong, a veteran of the Indian 
war and of the expedition to Eittanning, and in L756-57, a member of the 
Colonial Assembly. Most of this regiment was raised in Hamilton, Letterkenny 
and Lurgan Townships, and its companies at different times were under Capts, 
John Andrew. Robert Culbertson (for a time), Samuel Patton, John McCon- 
nel, Conrad Snider. William Thompson. Charles McClay (at one period), 
James McKee, James Gibson, John Rea, Jonathan Robinson. George Mat- 
thews and John Boggs. John Murph] was a lieutenant and John Martin 

ensign. Capt. MoClay' s men are said to have 1 □ over six feet in height and 

to have numbered 100, and the whole regiment was remarkable for its 
vigor and high spirit. It suffered severely at the battle of "Crooked Billet," 
in Berks County. May 4. 1778, when Gen. Lacy was surprised and many of 
his men were butchered without mercy, 'the Sixth Battalion was commanded 
by Col. Samuel Culbertson, who had been a lieutenant-colonel in the First but 
was promoted t" the command of the Sixth. John Work was the lieutenant- 
colonel; James McCammont. major; John Wilson, adjutant; Samuel Finley, 
quartermaster, and Richard Brownson, surgeon, and Patrick Jack, Samuel 1 'at 


ton, James Patterson, Joseph Culbertson, William Huston, Robert McCoy and 
John McConnel were at some periods captains. 

<< As the period for which the enlistments about this time, when the inva- 
sion of Pennsylvania was imminent, was usually limited to six months and 
sometimes even to three and two months, we need not be surprised to find that 
at^ifferent times the same men and officers served m two or three different 
regiments. As an instance J. Robinson says that he entered the service a 
mmiber of times on short enlistments of two or three months, and was placed 
Tn different regiments and brigades. The Seventh Battalion is believed to have 
consisted of remnants of the old Fifth and Sixth Continental Regiments, and 
was commanded by Col. William Irvine. These soldiers re-entered the service 
Is the Seventh Battalion in March, 1777, and were under the command of its 
major David Crier, until the release of Irvine from his parole as a prisoner of 
w«r riVTav 6 1777) In 1779 Col. Irvine was commissioned a brigadier and 
Tervd under Gn^ Wayne, but before this (July 5, 1777) Abraham Sm th, of 
Lurgan Township, was elected colonel. Among the cap ams were William 
2v; Samuel Montgomery, who became captain of Smith s company when 
the latter was promoted; John Alexander, before a lieutenant m Smith s com- 
pany Alexander Parker; Jeremiah Talbott, who in the latter part of the year 
?777 was promoted a major in the Sixth, and served in that position until the 
close of the war. He was the first sheriff of Franklin County (October, 1-84) 
and was twice re-elected. The Eighth Battalion was commanded by Abraham 
Smith who was chosen July 6. 1777, probably from Lurgan and a member 
of the congregation of Middle Spring. Its officers were largely taken from a 
smile remarkable family in Antrim Township. The head of this family had 
settled very early, about 1735, two and a half miles east of where Greencastle 
now is and had died near 1755, leaving a large property and four sons. Each 
of these sons entered the army. The eldest, James, was a lieutenant-colonel 
of the Eiohth Battalion, but afterward was the colonel of a battalion during a 
campaign in New Jersey. John, the youngest, was the major, and Thomas, 
thSond son, was adjutant, and was present at the slaughter at Paoli, , Sep- 
tember 20 1777, but survived to be promoted to a colonelcy and lived till 
about 1819 Dr. Robert, the other brother, was a surgeon m Col. Irvine s 
regiment, was in the South during the latter years of the war, was at the sur- 
render of Yorktown, in October, 1781, and in 1790 was an excise collector for 
Franklin County. Terrence Campbell was the quartermaster. The captains 
wSe Samuel Roger, John Jack, James Poe and John Rea, who afterward be- 
came a briffadier-general. . „ 

" Besides these we have notices of several companies, regiments and offi- 
cers whose number and position in the service is not given in any account we 
have seen Early in the war James Wilson and John Montgomery were ap- 
pointed colonels, and in the battalion of the former are mentioned the compa- 
nies of Capte. Thomas Clarke and Thomas Turbitt. Montgomery was in the 
army at New York in 1776, and was at the surrender of Fort Washington, but 
both he and Wilson were soon called into the civil department of the service, 
anl do not appear in the army after that year Besides them were Cols 
Robert Callender, of Middlesex, now in advanced life whose death early m the 
war deprived his country of his valuable services; James Armstrong, Robert 
Peoples James Gregory; Arthur Buchanan, Benjamin Blythe, Abraham Smith, 
iRaac Miller and William Scott. Among the captains, whom we are unable to 
locate in any particular regiment, at least for any considerable time, were Jo- 
eph Bradyf Thomas Beale, Matthew Henderson, Samuel MeCune (under Col. 
William Clarke for awhile, and at Ticonderoga), Isaac Miller, David Mc- 


Knight, Alexander Trindle, Robert Qnigley, William Strain, Samuel Kearsley, 
Samnel Blythe, Samuel Walker, Will Joseph Martin, James Ldam 

Samuel Erwin and Peter Withington. One of the companies which were early 
mastered into the Bervioe was thai of Capt William Peebles. The < 
oommissions were dated somewhere between the 9th and the I5tb of March, 
pear the time at which Magaw's regimen! left the county. The company was 
in Philadelphia August 17, and was then saidto consist of eight; one riflemen 
It was in the battle of Long [aland, August 27, when a portion" was captured, 
and the remainder were in the engagements at White Plains, Trenton and 
Princeton On his return from the war Capt. Peebles resided on Peebles' 
Hun. a little distance from Newburg, and was for many years an elder in the 
congregation at Middle Spring. Be was promoted to be a colonel Septembei 

28, I •'•'': Matthew Scott was the tir-t lieutenant, and ai tg the captured at 

[aland, but he was exchanged December 8, 1776, and promoted captain 
April 18, 1777. He married Peggy, the daughter of Samuel Lamb, a stone 
mason near Stonj Ridge, who long survived him and was living in Mechanics 
burg in 1845. The family oi Mr Lamb was distinguished for its ardent pa- 
triotism. The second lieutenant was Robert Burns, promoted to be a captain 
in Col. Ha/en's regimen! December 21, 1776. The third lieutenant was 
Robert Cam]. hie, also promoted to be a captain at the same time in the same 
regiment, and when wounded was transferred to an invalid regiment under 
Lewi- Xichola. The Bergeants were Samuel Kenny. William" McCracken, 
Patrick Highland (captured), and Joseph Collier. James Carson, drummer, 
and Edward Lee, fifer, were also captured at Long Island August 27, 1776. 
The privates were William Adams. Zachariah Archer, w illiam Armstrong, 
on (captured), Thomas Beatty, Henry Bourke, William Boyd, 

Daniel Boyl olisted for two years, discharged at Vallej Forge July I. 1778, 

and in 1824 resided in Armstrong County). James Brattin, John Brown, 
John Carrigan, William Carson, William Cavan, Henry Dib- 
bins, Pat Dixon, Samuel Dixon [captured). Harnalms Dougherty. James Dowds, 
John Elliott. Charles Fargner, Daniel Finley, Pat Flynn, James Galbreath, 
Thomas Gilmore, Dagwell Hawn, John Hodge, Charles Holder. Jacob Hove. 

John Jacobs, John Justice, John Keating. John Lane. I'eter Lane. Samuel 

Robert McClintook, Alexander McCurdy, Hugh McKegney, Andrew 

McKinsey, Charlee McKowen, Niel McMullen, Alex. Mitchell. John .Mitchell 

(justii f the peace in Cumberland Count; in 1821), Laurence Morgan, 

Samuel Montgomery, William Montgomery, David Moore, James M -e, John 

Moo,.-, .lame- Mortimer. Robert Mullady. Patrick Murdaugh, John Niel. 

James Nickleson, Robert Nugent, Richard Orput, John Paxton, Robert Peal 

•- Pollock. Han- Potts, Patrick Qnigley, John Quinn, bidre* Pal- 
ton. James Reily, Thomas Rogers (captured on Long Island, died in New 
Jersey, leaving a widow, who resided in Chester County). James Serous, 
Andrew Sharps, Thomas Sheerer, John Shields. John skuse, Thomas r lWn 
-end. Patten Viney, John Walker. John Wallace. Thomas "Wallace, William 

Weathers] d (captain), Peter Weaver. Robert Wilson and Hugh Woods. 

Total of officers ten, and of private-, eighty. 

• \ company of rangers from the borders of this county, who had been 

accustomed in the Indian wars to act under .lame- Smith, al 

He had now removed to the western part of the State, and was a member of the 
Assembly from Westmoreland. While attending on that body early in 1777. 
tsof the city some of his former companions in forest ad .in this region, and they immediately formed themselves into a 
Company under him as their commander. Obtaining leave of absence for a short 


time from the Assembly, he went with them to the army in New Jersey, 
attacked about 200 of the British, at Rocky Hill, and, with only thirty-six men, 
drove them from their position; and on another occasion took twenty-two Ses- 
sions with their officers' baggage- wagons, and a number of our Continental pris- 
oners they were guarding. In a few days they took more of the British than there 
were of their own party. Being taken with the camp fever Smith returned to 
the city, and the party was commanded by Maj. McCammont, of Strasburg. He 
then applied to Gen. Washington for permission to raise a battalion of riflemen, 
all expert marksmen, and accustomed to the Indian method of fighting. Ine 
council of safety strongly recommended the project, but the General thought it 
not best to introduce such an irregular element into the army, and only offered 
him a major's commission in a regular regiment. Not fancying the officer 
under whom he was to serve, he declined this, and remained for a time with 
his companions in the militia. In 1778 he received a colonel s commission, 
and served with credit till the end of the war, principally on the western frontier. 
" Another partisan leader was Samuel Brady, originally from near Smp- 
pensburg, and among those who went first to Boston. Though but sixteen 
years of age when he enlisted, in 1775, in a company of riflemen he was one 
of the boldest and hardiest of that remarkable company. At the battle of 
Monmouth he was made captain; at Princeton he was near being taken pris- 
oner, but succeeded in effecting an escape for himself and his colonel, and 
in many places displayed an astonishing coolness and steadiness of courage. 
He so often acted on special commissions to obtain intelligence that he became 
distinguished as the ' captain of the spies.' In 1778 his brother, and in 1 i M 
his father were cruelly killed by the Indians, and from that time it was said 
of him 'this made him an Indian killer, and he never. changed his business. 
The red man never had a more implacable foe or a more relentless tracker. 
Beincr as well skilled in woodcraft as any Indian of them all, he would trail them 
to their very lairs with all the fierceness and tenacity of the sleuth hound. 
During the whole sanguinary war with the Indians he gave up his whole time 
to lone vigils, solitary wanderings and terrible revenges. He commenced his 
scoutincr service in 1780, when he was but twenty-one years old, and became 
a terror to the savages and a security to a large body of settlers. He did not 
marry until about 1786, when he spent some years at West Liberty, in \\ est 
Virginia where he probably died about 1800. [See McKnight' s " Vv estern Bor- 
der," pp. 426-442.] 

"The Patrick Jack, who is mentioned more than once above as connected at 
different times with several regiments, was probably the same man who after- 
ward became famous as the ' Wild Hunter, or Juniata Jack the Indian Killer 
He was from Hamilton Township, and is said by George Croghan in .1755 to 
have been at the head of a company of hunter rangers, expert in Indian war- 
fare and clad, like then leader, in Indian attire. They were therefore pro- 
posed to Gen. Braddock as proper persons to act as scouts, provided they were 
allowed to dress, march and fight as they pleased. ' They are well armed, 
said Croghan, ' and are equally regardless of heat and cold. They require no 
shelter for the night and ask no pay.' It is said of him as of Brady that be 
became a bitter enemy of the Indians by finding his cabin one evening, on his 
return from hunting, 'a heap of smoldering ruins, and the blackened corpses 
of his murdered family scattered around.' From that tune he became a ran- 
corous Indian hater and slayer. When the Revolutionary war began he was 
among the first to enlist, and he afterward enlisted several times on short 
terms in various companies. He was of large size and stature, dark almost as 
an Indian, and stern and relentless to his foes. John Armstrong in his ac- 





count of the hattanning expedition, oalls him 'the hall Indian,' bni I 
have had no [ndian blood in his veins. Bis monument ma; be seen at 

irg, with this inscription: trick .lark", an officer 01 the 
Colonial and Revolutionary War-, died Januan 25. L821, a I ninety - 

We shall now give a few of the important events of the war as relatine to 

Cumberland County without going further into details. In I77.S <;,.,,, 

n, John BoggS, JosephBradj and Alexander Mctiehan wercappointed 

uttee to attend to estates forfeited for treason, and the omissioners 

for the county, James Pollock and Samuel Laird, were required to collect 
from nou-associators the amounts they owed the State as a fair equivali 
multar > s "' ■ '■ such arms and ammunition as may be found 

in their possession. In September, 1777, information had l □ given 1 

»7 tones to destroj public stores at xbrk, Lancaster, Carlisle and other 
points, and several prominent persons in the region were implica 
P rot " llll! " Supreme Executive Council, June L5, 177s. John Wilson 

wheel-wrighi and husbandman, and Andrew Funnier, laborer, both of \llvu 
rownship; Lawrence Kelley, oooper; William Curlan, laborer; John M. Cart 
t and laborer, and Francis Irwin, carter, of East Pennsboroueh: Alexander McKee, Simon Girtj and Matthew Elliott, [ndian 
toadere, were said severaUy to have aided and assisted the enemy by having 
joined the British Army, and were therefore attainted of high treason and sub- 
ject to the penalties and forfeitures which were by law attached to their crime 
Ine committee on forfeited estates rendered an account of several hundred 
pounds which they had handed over to the proper officers to be used m the 
purchase of arms, provisions, etc., from which it would appear that some per- 
sons had been found guilty of treason in the county. The names which 

come down to us either by tradition or documentary evide were , ls „ 

persons of no prominen© as were then residing beyond the Hunts 

of the present county of Cumberland." | Wing. | 

An act of the Supreme Executive Council passed March 17. L777, provided 
for the appointment of one or more lieutenants of militia in each city or 
county, also of sub lieutenants, with duties which the act prescribed John 
Armstrong and Ephraim Blaine were successively a] ante for 

Cumberland ( ounty, but both d 1 sufficient reasons. Lpril 10 1777 

James Qalbreath, of East Pennsboroug] I D hip, was appointed, and 'finally 

accepted the position and performed its duties faithfully. He was BU cc led 

by John Oarothers, and he by OoL James Dunlap, in October, L779 Lbra 
bam Smith held the office in April. L760. The sub tts were Col 

^ ames ' ■'' Allon Township; Col. Benjamin Blythe, near Middle 

Bprmg; George Sharpe, near Big Spring; ,, MoCoj (died in May 

John Harris of Carlisle; George Stewart, .lane- McDowell, of Peters 
Township (in place of Col. M0C03 >• all appointed in l 1. Frederick 

Lrthur Buchanan, Thomi in, John Trindle, Col Abra 

bam Smith and Thomas Turbitt appointed in 1780. 

rune, 1777. the Supreme Executive CouncU appointed an entirely new 
board of ju,t, iberland County, assomeofthe old ones had Vailed 

to take the oath of allegiance required of them and several of the position 
vacant, rhose newlj appoint,.! were John Rannels (Reynolds), James Max 

wall James Oliver, John Holmee, John Agnew, John McCl , S eel Lyon 

William Brown, John Harris, Samuel Koy.-r. John \ r hn CreW 

Hugh Laird, Andrew McBeath, Thomas Kenny, Alexandria Laughlin, Samuel 
MnUure, Patnok Vance, G ? e Matthews, William McOlure Samuel Cul 


bertson, Armstrong ^^^t^t^tSy^S, 
Ephraim Steel, William Brown (Carlisle) Robert Peebles a y v 
jLe. Taylor, Charles Leeper, John Scoulei, MatthewJ^.^ ^ ^ 
McClure. November 5, 1777, Jonn Agnew 2Q 177 g a com _ 

justices, was appointed a clerk of the P^^'^J^eteq^ed to " *d- 
missioner for the exchange of money. These J™^™ q for officers or 
minister the oath of allegiance to «T% P + TlT™ent or mder the Conti- 
enter upon any office either under the State |™-ent - ^ ^ ^ 

nental Congress. From lit! toll IV Ooi. «""? coriee rning the destitute 
troops in Cumberland County. In 1 77 ^ lepoitec cone «™ ? John 

condition of the militia, and a com mltt ^.^^P°™ S ™1 Williamson, 
Boggs, Abraham Smith, John Andrew, Willi am McClure s banr* 
James Purdy and William Blair "to ^.^^fi^dedtr assisted 
not taken the oath of allegiance and abjuration, 5.^"^ e wolse y cloth, 
the enemy with arms or ? — ^ ^^e sUns, 
shoes and stockings for the army. - De ^ 1 " ( f f , nmmissione rs "to seize upon 
John Boggs and Joseph Brady were ^P ^ ™ 1 ^^ or habitations, 
the personal estates of all who have abandoned the fannhes withia 

joined the army of the enemy, or resorted to any city ^own I 

port the great quantities of stores and supplies ir 1 J. d manage . 

Ld a special department ™ ™J»*™* ^ JeliS ftnish a large pL 
ment of this service. Cumberland County wasr, equ ^ 

portion of supplies, wagons and teams, and sent ^out at one nm , ^ 

?ther 800, and at various times smaller ngg*^ JJW ^ and Robert 
was appointed wagon-master ml 77, Matthew i_ne assess ment 

Culbertson in 1780. Dr. Wing states : In November -, in < , 
was upon East Pennsborough, Peter, .and Ant ™ JJgJSJ^^Kewtoo, 
wagons and teams; Allen for eleven, Mid leton, V e>t Pennsbm g ■ ^ 

Hopewell, Lurgan, ^^>!^^^f^^^^ one attendant, 
Se^T ^^^^ °* ^ in currency, accord- 

tier and in the east were confined at Lancaste but b ;oi to , ^ 

were removed -March haK ^^^ ^t Carlisle ; and. as 
Lieuts. Andre, Despard and ^ttutner w h - h gtood on the 

stated by early writers were confined in a stone building ^ ed in 

east side of Hanover Street, on Lot 161. ^ e P 1 s0 New Yorb> Nove m- 
the latter part of the same year mos ,oi totaV-« ^ ^ twa 

ber28, '« under the escort of Lieut. -CoL Jonn^ oreg 1 tW ser _ 

members of the committee of inspection with . Uien «rvanffl thfl near . 

vants' wives and their baggage, by way of fading and Iren Sequent fate of 
est camp of the United States -/^/^ • ^Uodv is Tamiliar. A 

SLSSft^VS"^ a^S S and in other ways, and 
stood on the site now occupied by the Indian school. 


"About the 1b1 of August, 1777,"' says Dr. Wing, "John Penn, James 

ll ulton, Bi |amin Chew, and about thirty others who had n officers un 

derthe royal and proprietary government, and decli 1 to take the oath of 

allegiance to the aew government, were arrested in Philadelphia, r ivedbv 

the sheriff of Reading and bj the sheriff of Cumberland Count] and escorted 
through this valley to Staunton, 7a., where thej were detained until near 
tin- oonolusiou of tin' war. ' 

[n April 1777, Gen. Armstrong, of Car!,-.!,., was placed in oommandof 
the militia of the State; resigning hie position as first brigadier general in the 
bnental Army, he was appointed firsl brigadier-general and amonth after 
ward major general of the State of Pennsylvania. Though advanced in rears 
be entered Tigorouslj npon the work of protecting the State against the 
my, and erected and maintained defensive works along the Delaware River 
Portions of his command did splendid service ai Brandywine and < JermantoTi a 
Five hundred men or more enlisted and went to tbe fori from Cumberland 
County early m 1778. The county was nearly bereft of men to oarry on aeces 

Kl •,. °P wa r to ffoard the prisoners which from time to time were sen! to 

Uarlisla It was difficult to provide arms and ammunition until France 

came to the aid of the colonies in 1778. "Hence the efforts in the beginnineof 

conflid to establish at every available town shops for the manufacturl of 

rifles, muskets and even cannon. Old arms were repaired and altered so thai 

• fowling-] :es could be used for deadlier purposes, and bayonets were 

prepared. Armories are spoken of in Carlisle and Shippensburg at which 
hundreds of rifles were got in readiness at one time. A foundry was started 
at tount Holly and perhaps at Boiling Springs, at which cannon were cast 
and at which \\ dliam Denning [Doming?] was known to have worked at his 
inventions. Aware of the manj failures which had followed all previous at- 
tempts, under the most favorable conditions, to make cannon of wrought iron- 
new said to have persevered until he constructed at least two of such uniform 
quality ana of such size and calibre as to have done good service i,, the imeri 

oanArmy. One of then, is reported to have I ,, taken by the British at the 

battle of Brandywine, and now kept as a trophy in the Tower of London 

and another to have I „ fo r a long time and perhaps to be now, at the barracks 

near Carlisle. (William Denning was a resident of Chester Oounti when the 
warbrokeout; enlisted in a company and was its second lieutenant Eornine 
months: was a blacksmith by trade, and very ingenious; was placed at head 
" f :1 1 ' : "" 1 ■;' •■""her. at Philadelphia, but removed to Carlisle upon the an 
proachol theBnfash Army; ironfrom theSouth Mountain was made into gun 
barrels, bayonets, etc., and Denning had a chance to exercise his ingenuity to 
his greatest desire. In welding the heavj Lars of iron for bands and hoops to 

h.s wrought iron guns, few could be induced to assist him on act ,,t of the 

peat heat. He made four and bu | nden and attempted a twelve pounder 

but never ^,,,^,1 it. He resided at Big Spring after the war, and died 
December 19 1830, aged mnety-four years). So great was the destitution of 
lead for bullet., that the council of safety requested all families possessine 
3, weights for clocks or windows, or anj oth ladeoflead to 

pvethe,,, np to the ell,, -to,-, appointed to demand them, with the promise 
that they should he replaced by substitutes of iron. Pavments were acknowl 
! for considerable quantities of lead thus collected in tin. count] Everv 
part ot the county was expl i in sulphur and "the,- substances in suf 

fiment quanbes for the manufacture of gunpowder. Jonathan Eearslev of 
i arlisle, was for some months employed in learning the art and in the attempt 
tomanufacture saltpetre out of earthe.impregnated with nitrous particles m 


upon itself the business of fPP^^X which have since been created for 
construction of those vast ^MiBWtawtaflhb ^ d ^ OQ f 

the manufacture of these articles the ^whole P°P iou of it . Ne ar the 

eign countries, and now * ere , ™* PV^ who endeavored to monopolize 
close of 1776 a law was passed against those wn c s itself . A cer- 

the sale of salt, and a large V™}™**™ ^ e n to each county under the 
tain quota was assigned to each State rf* which m to Cumber land 
direction of the State authorities. UBpJ , ival a certam por- 

County (November 23, 1776) was. eig ^ busheK J ^ ^^ from 

Son wU delivered to e^^^^gS^ d 15 shillings a bushel, 
the county committee, on his paying V 

expenses of carriage only addect reso lution of the Assembly passed a 

August 17, 1776, by authority of a ^ol ™d observation for Cumberland 
month previous, the committee of inspect ion a ^ ^ ^ q{ the 

County drew an order on thecouac o safety ^ q{ ^ 

poor families of ^f-^^^f^^t™ plies or distilled into liquor and 
raised in the county was sent away Jo J b U d thresh the gral n. Gen. 

the men were so scarce it was di&ctdt to to vest ^ ^ rf Feb 

Armstrong, noting this condition of affairs, wr ^ boih ^ &nd 

T777: "From the best »ta"g££* £ Talfo considerable quantities of 
the county of York ib almost all du rtdted, a ^ game purpose; 

wheat, and larger still of the latter MOgra 1 ^ game destm c- 

we doubt that Lancaster ^^Pe Wva^may ^ scarce of bread for her 
tive way, so that m a few months f^ 1 ™^ per ga n n, wheat will im- 
own inhabitants. Liquor \^\^ ^Tlom^clteA demon of avarice 
mediately be the same Pf^hel ^ it t P^ ^ raise them each to 

and infatuation is not suddenly cnangeu u 

twenty!" . . mmberland County, as assistant quartermas- 

To Col. Ephraim Blaine, ^° T ™~SS«ter-g^etal, was due great praise 
ter-general, under Gen. Greeny ^emaj g gion during t h e war 

and much credit for his aid m _tanes of n F ^ enlarged and kept 

His nouring-mill on the Conodoj ^, ^ of the suffe ring army and 

in operation to its utmost oa P acl | J^ fortune was ever at the disposal of 
without profit to himself. ^ s extensive t he kept th e soldiers 

his country, and by his earnest and caret ul g ounced opposition to 

from actual starvation, more than ^once m n e ^ The schemes of Con- 

bis measures. His name became deal to hi, ^eo y inaab itants of Cum- 

gressto provide money led to disastrous results / etel brokeI1 „ p fman- 

Lland County were very seriously ■^^ iene J hj t L people o the 
ciallyfor years. Many dark d ays were P m and ^olence 

struggling republic during he war and rf ^ and cee ding 

were advocated or attempted, the *aduui b and soldiers from 

years brought to mind the terrible scenes °* ? = rf ^ maraudi mU r- 
[he county were sentwrth others for ^ e . pum ^ ^ & h 

derers. The sad end of the expedition or « ven geance, for Crawford 

western Indians, called ^Xt b uXeBritisi recall! d their Indian allies 

SiS SSS-S an^rr cloud was lifted. 


Mawh8, 1781, Samuel Laird and Willi.-,,,, Lyon were appointed auditors 

opposed by people in the interior and western oarte of ft™ 1 nolentlj 

bore with most severity. There had , ^ m Set toTe^antSel 

';™'i , ;"-" 1 ' : ""' " ™ l«gelj ased to fatten cattle and fa 7 „' , 

dwfaUed rt was more easilj transported over the , tains and I „ | , , 

market, and m numerous sections ever, fifth or sixth fanner had all 

'-'7''"— t all away from home, either. Ed The excise 

^wwasfeltto beoppressiv, , n b ht „,„,,.;, 

was sent out ,„ the aha] I excise dnties. The people 1,7 d the law would 

be ' nnexecnted and finaUj repealed, and .1 Qector wereoften threatened 

rendezvous for the rebellions ,,„„„' m&g^^g^^jK^ 
warning oerore the 15th ol September in the latter year Those whn h»A 

h,v returned with an adverse or onfavorable report, though ' ' , ". £? 
aea uarlisle. rhe Boftened commissioners met the President and ^ 

Couttv"!* m, ' , ;'"' r " f ^BtiUeries then undoubtedly existed in Cumberland 

i„ p m 1 "~ " f ' ll ^ fav '"' A Kbertj pole had been erected 

-th.. Pubhc Square on the njgW of September!, U. with tl,, worts? 


^berty and No Excise & W."J^JJS££* M ^ 
order cut it down the next morning, and the excitem ^ ^ one 

number of country people, some -g - - « » an / Equality." 

afternoon, and put up a large pole with thtwoi , treasure r was a 

Kiev were mostly of the poorer class, although _ toe con y ^ ^^ 

leader ^^^^.^^^^^^SiS^^i^ to prevent the 
W ere offered occasionaUy, the insures P^onng ^ fired up(m by 

pole being taken down. Col. Ephraim Bl ame wtep^ ^ ^ fortu _ 

three of them while conducting his sister^ ^J^; miUtia should they turn 
nately without injury, Threat™ mad^ams^ eommissioaer> attend- 
out, and affairs were rather despeiate^ Uen. ; ^ ^ rf doiag ^ 
ed strictlv to the business of his office, saym Thg Me of 

I think is right, and trust to ^**£*££™ Gov. Mifflin arrived on 
troops in Carlisle brought the .people t >^lM . 8tirring address in the 
the 1st of October, and in the evening cleiivei<.u „ reached 

SUyterian Church Hisarriva was it ^d - ^^ approa ehed in a 
Carlisle October 3. A writer says the *>*° Ha " nl]toI1) a nd proceeds: 

traveling dress, attended by his secretary, Ataande ^ mQst respe ctful 

-As he passed our troops he pulled off his hat m ssed the line, 

manner, bowed to the officers and me, a and ^ in th s > ^ P.^ ^ 
who were (as you may suppose) aff ^ ed b 7 ™V ^ CTard that would have been 
each individual seemed to .show ■ the M>ri.^ ^ iahabita nts seemed 
paid to an honored parent. As he ^reQ asse mbled m the 

anxious to see this very great and good man crow tQ ^ rf 

streets, but their admiration was sdent The 1 1^ ^ the lm 

the camp, where the troops weie assembled m ^ greatest 

artillery, horse ^"^££Z££%£Z ^resting and affecting;^ 
silence was observed^ The b P ectacle J^ £ wishes for the preservation of this 
ery man as he passed along V^J^^ 1 migM see the aged veteran, 
most valuable of their ^ ^f lze ^^ e mUeA in defense of that govern- 
^m^re.omafiA^'^^^^ their rsons , family and 
ment which must (in turn) P^^2°J tlie eve ning, and a transpar- 
property." The court house wa «\ 1 ~ Washington is ever triumphant." 
Lev was prepared, bearing the ^P^JvJS^ President Washington 
« The reign of the laws, and VoetoADJ^ ^^ rf the 

while here was the guest o Co^ E phraim^ Blam ^ ^ ^^ rf ^ week 
pal inhabitants presented him the toiiowm 
following: Carlisle, October 17, 1794. 

the will but possess the power to lepei o 


to government is exceeded by none, either for tu causeless ,.,i-i„ ,, » ,i 

mafiLnmy and wickedness with whiri ii has been ■ ' ' f " r ""' ' v ' ri ' l >'« 


ssrAft '?w. ass 

shwsms: s# 

:£" "■" ST-Wr-iWUf* ,;S 

We bless thai Providence which has preserved ■■ lif« an v,i„ n .1 

issss," : «,: gsg sfcsu? ;; - fj^^st ssss 

sus* a " ! 

When we look around anTbehoW the u^ve^aUy P *££* ' l V" w * , 

blesses every part of the UnitpH Stat^ r , \ - acKnowieaged prosperity which 

lamented oScasion of ou, • ' : n„ .^ u,,,,,,,,,,,,,,! ,i,a,, ,h which are the 

of our fellow-citizens coulS be , 'i 7 , r ' ,"'""" v [ " persuade us that any portion 
tapb . situation 'which™ ^d' SSSK" *fX/ rtUe » t0 *»«*!» "to dis- 

«o heave* and ourearnes, endea'oTIo p^ser" e andproi * gratiludo 

;:"';;'" * h ' mai 

Idtordwly ■ BwiUlIf» T , Bn) „ ulto 

Hah the authority o? Z &£ EftSffittJM& 

«™y«*uWten«nwd at Carlisle, the accidental dischar ,f , B0 1- 

dier a pMtolkdled the brother of ..,,.' 

BUing because of his action in conjunction with the in- Mr" 

countryman was killed in a quarrel with a sohW ti ff anoU «« 

retrrettnrl hv th,. i>.- i i vTV 81 wim » soldier. Che circumstances were 
md his secretary Gen II, a ..,-,1 wlm 

hadijctedwrththeinst! . were arresl , ul '■ C -1 sh? 

-nedatth rXfrJS 

.;,lr,w Hol.n ■, Esq., a m .,„„.,. „ f „ co ^ c 

.nt ' ,1 T'' T "Pnvate journal in wh 

»W and und of Snnday, October 11. 1794, 2 

iShJom 7 hB 

CaHi- atrjr, maVched°from 

Cao Eollows: 

W il i m ; 5 

2 mi r 

fames Holmes: and lif.v two 
privates, among whom were Thomas Duncan, David Watte, i: ? 


John Lyon, Nathaniel Weakley, George Pattiso^ Charles _Prtta» , Wigam 

Eton? Abraham Holmes Archibald B"^^°^3Sli3S, 

bar, Archibald McAllister, Wilham Crane Jacob Fetter A^ ^ 

Thomas Foster, Jacob Housenet George Wrigh^lhoma^vv , ^ 

Gibson, Joseph and Michael Egolf, Robert McClure and \ui 
Sideling Hill Capt. Stevenson was made a major, and \\ rtham I^yis, q 

ma Thffollowin. brigade order, December 4, 1794, is from the same journal: 

The Genera! congratulates the two-; "hich * ^^&^SS^^35l« 
rival at S.rasbur.g,*and feelingly an t.cipates pka | . n( ,,, ions . He also has the 
and Himself shall have in the company of thu n r the commander-in-chief 

pleasure of announcing to the ( brigade the ^en ire ; appj^o ^ ^ 

for their orderly conduct and stn< /.l < s p m e, w i i Uow .,. itizens that their soldierly 

cers and soldiers. He is likewise happy as u in acknowledgments and as they 

behavior during the whole c; mpaig h. > i n 1 1 1 . wm when they nave 

have supported the laws of th XnSTv In every pofnt of view. As the worthy men who 
retired to private life, support ei "Yiness of their country and the support of the Con- 
stepped forward in support of the happn iss t i i r tllis town to -morrow, the 
Btitution of the Federal Government aie to d< sit l .mi inventories 
commanding officers of the re* *£ t s — *$$ * quartermaster, who is to give re- 
of everv article are made to Mr. Samuel uiQtue un» deta u a sufficient 
^ ipts fo. such delivery. And the quarterm as er »* the^, adc u ^ ^ ^ 
number of wagons to transport the an s u m1 corps wlll me etto- 
mander-in-chief of the 17 h ul t The offl cc ,8 < mm = ice and the balance due and 
morrow morning to certify to the in n as to l he. q{ ^ vemb 
to becorr e due, agreeable to General Irvine s uiuei Gen Chambeks . 

By order of 
William Ross, Adjutant. service and arrived 

at z. zsr^sf -ass ss=r™ *— 

° f ^"following account of Washington's visit is from a recent account pub- 
lished by George^. Prowellin the g^^SS^Bg the visit of Gen. 
-Much has been written that ?%^"^ C ^ f felling the so-called 
Washington to western Penn sy Ivama f o ie pmp< serf que ^^ 

Whisky Insurrection m ^«£™^^^ lately come into my pos- 

the readers of the Compiler. cabinet, left Phil- 

President f^oirXSdStX west via Beading on 
adelphia then he capital of the TJmted ' on the a{temoon of F „_ 

Wednesday, October 1, 17W, ^ ?~, wit u an address by the burgesses, to 
day, October 3, when he was P^^^Yctrl isle at 12 o'clock, noon, 
which he replied *e next morning He reached Oa lvania and 

October 4. The town was the place of ^g^° g d * ctober 4> to 
New Jersey troops and he rema X ™ U On the last named date he left 
Saturday, October 11 ^^S^.^Tached^ Chambersburg the same even- 
for the West, dined at Shippensbuig and reacnea una b Rob _ 

Lg. At this place t-^-^J^^^af^lirtion. He 
ert Johnson, a surgeon of the ^nn.yHan » J™^*^ Maryland, on the 
passed fl^^J-gX^^i»St^i»^ontteM 
evening of October W, Monday jw v 0ctober 16, and the next day re- 

Cumberland where he ■^^ ! £TfSte«Sm«i of Gen. Lee. 
viewed the , Vxrgtma and Maryland ^P ™ ^.^ at Bedford . where he 

^. j.Jpte^t^^ /%./? 


caused a cessation of hostilities. On the last named date he set out on his re 
'„,,. B P e . n ? m f* h l ! °j* k < " f ^7. October 24, at Shippensburg, and . ' I 
tewmgnigW (Saturday) with Gen. Michael Simpson, S Fairvifv. Townahip 
York .„,,, «■«,..,.,..„..«, ledthe .ss^riveVandwhatisnoX;^; 

" "' faldeman propertj belov, New Cumberland At this place he is 

as t, V **** ■ ' , " i " , Stmday ' ; " heMTived - i'lnh,,.,,;,;;: „ '„ 

roiiowing iui'-.ta\ morning. 

bonier^r'Sl^S, 6 ^ great man's life he crossed th nthern 

border of Adams ( ounty Ihe facta of this trip 1 will be pleased to furnish 

a some fu.nn,,,,,, givingexact facts and data from original docn J Sfi 

niv the only true sources of history." ' " aicn 

„n iV 1 " N 'T t . 1 ' W r t '; r " ff™ 1 ™ 01 l790 '■"■ "n,l,r<!,„s. Harmar, St. Clair 
JjdWayne ( omberland County waa represented b 3 a number of daring men 

'"f ", ""''" r; "- 1 - n, Pennsylvania except "vest of 

^eAlle^.n Mountains, ft William SIcCoskry, thenrfCarli lebutarter- 

I r V V, ', S ;; v '" 1 a< M,r """" m U editions Of St. Hair and \\ , 

and Robert Me. leUan, son of a pioneer in East Pennsborough, dSSed 
hunseH as a scout, winning the title "Fleet Ranger" bylis exploit :J 

In 1798, when a war with Prance was threatened, companies of militia 

wore bj order of (on. MifBin held „, readiness for in i,„ ... m , . J 

quite a speck of war cloud was visible above the horizon. Soml of , , .I 
sympathy,, with tie; French, and affairs might have become ery sTriouTbu? 

for the ae, Q J Napoleon ft ,„„,, „, France, b/wS^vent 

the aspect was changed and I',,- withdrew from her offens veVSe To 

meet any emergency the Tenth Regiment of Pennsylvania troops ™r ff an 
«£ under Phon.asl. More , ol ,.,„.,,,.,,,,,,, „ „&»» £j £ ' g* ; 

ders, ,, and George Stevenson, of Cumberland County as majors. These men 
had been active m the Revolution. Maj. Stevenson had command* Z 
ree.unn,^,,,,,,.,,, that portion of the State west of th,. Allegheny Moun 
?;;,., A - S;,,,:l " r " rr ""' 1 ' ;afterward a major-general and notel !7the war 
, wa 5 :1 " en "8 n '" ,l,,s Tenth Regiment, and Hugh Bradv also a 

general afterward, was a lieutenant. - 

in«r nnt''"> /i"'*' B I ' ! ""' "'""•''" " f the P^ident for troops at thebreak 

ing out of the b id war with Great Britian in June, 1812 Pennsylvania 

. ;; ded,u, k ,v. andCumberland County hastened to furn.d, &SS3 
BOldiers. There was httle opposition to the war in the eountv and four full 
companies were speedily mastered and equipped at Carlisle LSlyforrix 
months ready to inarch wherever ordered Y 

. ^^P^oog^esewasthe "Carlisle Light Infantry," which as seen 
took part m the campaign against the whisky insurrectdoniste ,n L794 It was 
or^naUy organized in 784, by soldiers who had served in the Revolution^ 

i -a. hom its „, ,ts commanders were Capts Macaw George 

::: l **•? ^ * ^ per, win,,,,, AhJL(5ys ; „ 

when the second war | | bad , sm( .„ j . , , S( ,, 1 

-nor of the Carlisle Herald, established that vearj Lindsey, Tnomps 

KSSJ »A ge D. FoW'(1827), ftfelSS 

,.;,''"" N : r "' t li: ""-> (1885), William Moudj (1839), Jacob 
HlS5,to?8^' ge 8ander80D (1842) and Samuel Crop (from November 

fieor"' H,T',' m""'";";'- ^I™" 1 - f ''"'» Carlisle commanded by Capt. 

Ueorge Hendall. and the other from Mechanicsburg and. ,'• were 


united into one company, ^^^^^^^tl^^^ 
with the Light Infantry to he Niagara front e n 1B1 ^ rf d 

-Both companies participated m most oi me rf ^ detach _ 

fought campaign. In the battle of ^^J^Col. Bull, of Perry County, 
ment of 250 Pennsylvania under ^command ot .^ ^ 

who were sent with fatty or sixty «f f s a f n ^ le above the British works 
to strike the Chippewa Creek about a halt ^ ^ ^ 

Here they were attacked by a party ot *£ ihem ihai ^ re 

80 impetuous was the charge w> J t our ^°°P ^ t slaughte r 

compelled to give way in every dir f?* 10 ^3 J Pennsylvanians here- found 
up to the very guns of the fort. This I it e band o 1 ^ force 

themselves forsaken by the Indians, and m the ace o ^ rf ^^ 

and assailed by four companies on the ,lef fc and .n J ormed and kep t 

compelled to retire, but having gone ab ° ut n ^.^ raked by a cannon on the 
up a heavy fire for about ten minutes, "f*^™to f ^ comp anies now 
Sght, outflanked and almost SOTr °^ d t ^ r ^ a T They had depended on 
bought against them %™"°S^ta£k army'but as this was not 
and every moment expected a^uppo t ta««»« ^ ^ fire upoa 

given them, in season they retired id «° h d chased their enemies 

their assailants. They had fought more than an lioi ^^ 

a mile and a half, and when ^.Xtw^et^ntering the field under Col. 
they rejoined their regime nt ^JJfe 11 ^ ^ eir p & art as if they had been 
Fenton. They then re-entered the field and bore Ux P ^ ^^ of „. 

fresh from their tents. Not ^^^XncountBr. Eight of their men 
treme exhaustion) were absent horn ■ *^^ heir wounded W as in the usual 
had been killed in the woods and the number of tn ^ ^^ were 

proportion. One hundred f^^S; shot down by the enemy 
feft dead on the field. Col, J***" *^J g£ White were taken prisoners, 
after his surrender, and Maj galloway and Oap ^ ^^ n 

rorttL^roCX or^Xths, but whether they continued during 


county connected with the regular. ™J ^ n ^™ Jtotomer became a lieu- 
them were George McFeely and WiBm D. * oume ^ 6 1812> aud 

tenant-colonel in the Twenty, second .United Stotos In » gy, ^ 
colonel of the Twenty-fafth April 16, **£■ Q Usle Barrac ks. He left that 
been in charge of the recruiting service at the Oarl ^ ^ 

place October 5, 1812 and P^ed ^o the AU< ^ tQ ^ ^ Fort 

of the Twenty-second Regent. ^ itb ^ ^ N 

Niagara to relieve Col. Windei-n the command ^ ^ ^.^ ^ 

ber 14. In the artillery duel ^Jf^V Winfield Scott ("'to whom 
the worst of the game May 27, lai^Y vangU ard in the movement 

he yielded precedence") invited him to ^\^f [n that expedition and 
into Canada. Col. Mcjeely was second m command ^ ^ ^^ 

had about 650 men under him Thev routed a 1 ^ ^ cam . 

and captured Fort George, and ^^f^Xmplain later, and in June, 
paign/ Lieut. -Col. McFee y *»«££ ^£ Champ , ^ ^ ^ 

1814, was promoted to colonel to rank from Ap P .^ hig 

Maj.-Gen. Jacob Brown on ^^ral ^onsfble commands until close 
3^ ''He'watan Slnfdtiplinarian, Irad his troops under admirable 


control, and was remarkable tor his coolness under the enemy's fire and his 
patient hardihood under (he severest Bufferings." 

The • Patriotic Blues" was another company, commanded by Oapt Jacob 

Sqmor; first lieu muel MoKeehan; second lieutenant, Frederick I 

and ensign, Stephen Kerr. Theoompany was sent to Baltimore to assist in 
repelling the British attack upon that city, and was attached to the Fortj ninth 
Maryland Militia under Lieut. Ool. Veazy. Took an important part' in the 
actions of September 12-15, 1814, and on the Kith, danger being apparently 
■ nor. 1.. ft for home with the assurance that thei had performed their dutv 
honorably and well. 

"ffherewere other companies, " saysDr. Win- •• which went to Baltimore 
ftom the eastern towns in the county, and from what is now Perry County 
It is said that these were in the detachment whirl, was sent to lie in ambush 

bythe route on whiob the British troop. were ex] tedtoadvan. n it, v,. 

lialtimoro. As Glen. Ross, the commander of these troops, was riding by the 
spot where the j were concealed, it is said that two sharpshooters raised their 
pieces and were about to fire. An order was given them to desist, but before 
«"> aose namo was Kirkpatriok, from over the mountains, could 

understand the order, he fired his gun and the British general fell The re- 
sult was that a tremendous vollej was fired into the thicket where they were 
concealed; but confusion was thrown into the plans f the invading party by 
the Joss of their commander, and the idea of occupying Baltimore was given 

In order to protect Philadelphia from possible violence at the hands of an 
invading force, a large body of troops was massed at that point, and among 
them was a company known as the "Carlisle Guards," who marched under 
Uapt Joseph BMbert early in September, 1814, and were encamped on Bush 
UUl,near Philadelphia, fornearlya month,drilling, constructing intrenchments, 
etc lhey saw no enemy, but were subjected to as strict dicipline as troops 
at the front, ('apt. Balbert, on the 3d of August, 1X1 1. had been commis- 
sioned by Gov. Snider, a major of the Second Battalion, Twelfth Regiment 
Pennsylvania Militia, in First Brigade, Second Division, including militia of 
Cumberland and Franklin Counties. His commission was for four years from 
that date. J 


When the Mexican war broke out Carlisle Barracks was in command of 
Capt. J. M. Washington, Battery D, Fourth United States Artillery. This 
company of light artillery received recruits from various portions of the coun- 
try, and finally left Carlisle for the seat of war June 23, 1846. The organiza- 
tion was as b,ll,,w.: Captain. J. M. Washington; first lieutenant, J P. J 
UBnen: second lieutenant, Eenry L. Whiting; acting assistant quartermaster, 
rnos. L. Brent: surgeon, C. M. Hitchcock 

u ii The /'™P a ". v ' h 'l valiant service with Taylor's army in Mexico. At the 
battle of Buena Vista the battery was divided into sections, one of which con- 
sisting of three guns, undercharge of Lieut O'Brien, was captured, but not 
nil every man was shot down and ever] horse killed. Lieut O'Brien was 
wounded, but continued steadfast at his post till the last. In this engagement 
the casualties to the section were as follow,: Killed, privates, Edwin Holler 
Ureen, Weakley, Kink, and Doughty. Wounded: first lieutenant .1 P J 

O iJnen; sergeant, (>, n; lance rorgeant, Pratt; privates, Hannams, Puffer! 

Beagle, Berrin, Floyd, Hannon, Baker. Brown. Birch, Butler, Clark and Rob 

On the 18th of January, is IT, an election of officers for tin independent 


ten regiments' bill," embraced recruits & om to serye & 

Counties, and probably some fro* dto They w ^ ^ f d 

the war, and were rendezvoused at 0«"«teJBBiTO y h ■ been ma de 

sixty-si; men, but left Carlisle with f ^^mpanY G, Eleventh Infantry, 
o it en route for Mexico. It ^S me n as TS Carlisle: first sergeant, 

The following is the roster -of- enlisted men as it ^ ^ 

E G. Heck; second sergeant, Wm. Blame, tuna * d corpora l, 

fourth sergeant, F O. Baker firs corpora , &W. Ha ; ^ Tho 
Wm. Hippie; third corporal, Jaco ^™' Rowe; prices, Applegate John 
drummer, George King; nfer Atctoba id ^ ^ Jameg c 

Brannon, George Boyer. Samuel^ Baxter W GaBagan , Graham John 

Gulp, Deung, John Evmger Joseph * aust ^^ Leonar a HotT- 

Gill, SamuelGuysingen George Hikes m ^ Q ^Ebb, George 

man, Wm. Hollinger, Hetrich *^<™^ Wm McDonald, Misinger, Sam- 
Lamison, McCracken Wm. Moore Mdntire , ^ ^m. ^ 

uel Peck, Lafayette Searcy .f^ *^®^ Wilde, Samuel Zell. 
George Shatto, Emanuel Wemch, Lewi w«J° ' R t but on reaching 
^ This company was first -^"^ ^Xenth Infantry, and Lewis 
the field he was promoted to be ma or o fi became com _ 

house, where the men were addressed by U sen ted, each with a 

appropriate and well-timed remaiks. iney w i ma rched to the cars 

S testament, by M, Samuel ™g^ !^^ rk toJ^^.^ 
to the tune of ''The Girl I left Behind Me pittsbm : b , wbe nce it sailed by 
company proceeded thence by c ^ al , bo ^ h ^R io Grande River via Brazos 
boat to New Orleans, and ^.^"ilt after eighteen days' deten- 
Island. After a time it «^ *fj^ , aTrampico, where it lost about one- 
tion on the Gulf, it was compelled ten B^op at; l ^^ The companJi 

third of its number by yellow J^ 1 ^XVcruz, and did not fight. . 
from no fault of its own, never each e d ^ra Count and their services 

Other companies were organized in Cumbe j^ . g ^^ 

tendered to the Government, but not accept^ ^ ^^ Capt 

pany of young men organized, in May imu, Mc0o rd. 

r - I srs, ssftsrss "* c 0mpa n y * ** -** 

m ent of men known as Ca f ^fel'oi wS Point, established a recruiting 
J^/A'^O^S^ House) for a company of infantry. 

This was in Jj-gJ^'j^a, Tj ni ted States Artillery, superintended recruit- 
ing service at the barracks during -""^g^ j^Lnd of the barracks 
& From the time Capt. ™ungtoj ^^^ hftd charge of the public 
(June 23, 1846) George M Sanno, banack ma, 
property until the return of Col. A. C. May, Aug 



f N1777, by the aid of the Hessian prisoners captured by Gen. Waahineton 

J. at Ir,,,„>n. Ne« Jersey, certain buildings were erected in the edgeofCar 

lisle ;i ,„ known thereafter as "Carlisle Barrack*. " Of the buildings thus 

.n.,-t,,l one, situated at the main entrance to the ground and blown as 

£L„iT ' , f" n ;'" u ""- Xhe8e buildings, increased as necessity 

demanded, were used for military purp .,,,1 till they were diverted 

to then- present purpose for the Indian Industrial School. The officials who 
from turn- to tune were stationed at the Barracks, constituted an active ele! 
Sa^belSon "^ Mlbso q uen tly figured conspicuously in the war of 

is^Pf Rowing offioers BOTVed ;is commanders of Carlisle Barracks from 
1888to the commencement of the Rebellion, the facts being obtained from 
the War Department at Washington: 

Fir^T ^' 5 M l "u" r - ( ';'l' t:K - S - D *> s "''""'l Lieut. A. J. Smith and 

First Lieut. 1, 11. West, First Drag is; First Lieut. \\ . H. Saunders 

becond Dragoons: Maj. C. Wharton, Fust Dragoons; Capt. J M Wash! 

21 r ? e ?H J - \ V ' ,?"''" a '" 1 Lieut - CoL M M Payne,' Fourth 
Artillery: Capt. Ohas A. May and First Lieut. A. Pleasonton, Second 
Dragoons; First Lieut. B Q W. Radford, l^ Dragoons; dentX 

cLt A T « °>, T ^ L "' Ut - ?' H ' A"' 1 "— Second Dragoons: 
Jt.A. .^i,. ir ,|),,, MKl F. Ruff, Mounted Rifles 

PS t" i, H r. tCh t C °o k - ^'V ( '*"- U - 1>att ""' Ca P*- D- Davidson. Capt. 
InfL^T W 1 ^ ^ * emteelmaD and Capt. H. W. Wessells, Beoond 

Infantry; Ineul Col < I Smith and Col. E. B. Alexander, Tenth Infantry; 
Lieut. -Col. O. B. Crittenden and First Lieut. Julian May, R. M. Rifles; Capt 
K. H. Anderson, Second Drag is; First Lieut. D. H. Maury, R. M. Rifles; 

B-fl i \i •' t 1 V arrar ; 1 ' S '"' Cavalry; First Lieut. Alfred abbs, R. M 

Bines; Maj. L. P. (.raham. Second Dra 

Of theforegoing, it will be observed that Sumner. A. J. Smith. Pleason- 
ton and Hemteelman were major generals during the Rebellion, and held 
comment positions in the Union Army; R. H. Anderson was a major nera] 

' "»*arland County, like other portions of the Cumberland Vallej and the 

stone State, always responded to any call which sought to defend the 

Nataon against any foes^ externalor internal. When the w^es announced thai 

tional nag had b,e„ msulted by those whom il had previously protected and 

akcnn , ,.' T 77 '"'7 1 W ' ,h il " 1 ^" a «"'"' «»<" responded, with patriotic 

ahum .,, the, ail ,,i> r ,M,lent Lincoln, bui t atlj installed as the legally 

alected 1 resident ofttus great commonwealth Omen to proteotpub 

Fort s, "7 ai TTl' ' ,'" ra P rema °y of the Federal Dnion The firing on 
Fort Sumter ,u Aprd. 1861, and the surrender of Gen. Anderson to over- 


helming forces of secessionists etirredthe ^™^£^^S'-o- 
response to the President's call for Jo 000 men to^se . Qf ^ 

three companies proffered their services w* » ^^ foom c&r _ 

proclamation. One of these company ^^- J- & q{ rendezvo1f , to 

Lie Saturday, April 18, ^T^Cffi^ in Carlisle and one 

Eebellion. the Sumner Eifles with the fol- 

^mnerJJ^es. -The first company ^ was the b ^^nznt, Augustus 

lowing organization: Captam Chnstian ^nto < Jolm g . Lyn e, 

Zug; second lieutenant, John »■ Alexanaer, » corpora ls, Charles F. 

Barnet Shafer, John W 1^' a ^Swell and lohn T ? Sheaffer. It be- 
Sanno Charles H. J^ ^ Re^oTVennsylvania Volunteers, under 
came Company C ot the JNinu» o f Allento wn. 

the command of Col. Henry C Longne^ ^ regiment 

Eleven days after its muteij service ^ ^ ^ Camp Wayne till 

sent for chill purposes to W .«^SwaSS^ Del., to aid the loyal people 
the 26th, when it was transferred to Wilmng>, ^ attached at 

of that State. Beturnm g byw y of C *hge ^J der Col . Dixon 

Chambersburg to the Fourth B rigade ot ± . q ^ r of 

S Miles. It performed faithful duty in « e s q ^ term 

Martinsburg, Falling Waters an d^ Wm = ort gNI^ ^ ^ mustered 
of service having almost expired J »*«£ lon period . 

out. Many of its men ^^f/^J™ Zs that enlisted at Mechanics^ 
A second company of three months me Dorsheimer; first 

blu -g with the following organization. Captam Kau ffman ; ser- 

lieutenant, David H. Kimi^S.Beoondheatoj^lB aud David R 

geants. George 11 Parsons, B^amm Ml, S amuel ^ Q 

Hell; corporals, Theophilus M °^*£ "^c, and was attached to the Ehx- 
Levi M. Coover. It was d «»*£tedj 3om panyO ^ ^ ^ belonged to 
teeuth Regiment, under Col Thomas ^ A. g ^ ^ ^ as the 

the Four* i Brigade under Co 1 Miles, ^ ^ ^ ^ ^.^ ^ wag the 

SBX^SX Keystone State to re-enlis, 


reserve k,,-,^ curtinrecom- 

MAM On the 20th o^P^X^'' ^immediate organiza- 
me ndedtothe Special Legislature of P ^X 6 ^ imeats f cavalry and in- 
tion, disciplining and arming of at le art *™<£ | he TJllited states." In 
fantry, exclusive of those .called mte Mfce s ™ Authorizing a body of soldiers 
harmony with this '^^^SiSIL Commonwealth," to consist of 
known as the " Reserve Volunteers , Co P ot tn artillery, and to be 

thirteen regiments of mfantryaad each £gJT National service 

mustered for three years or dm ^ *£* ^ j existence since 1784 

TJnder this call, the Carhsl . L^t b an g, f ollowing comm issioned 
was iwganized and mustered m June btbo McCa rtney; first heu- 

and aon-commissioned officers: Captam Ro p q . ^ 

tenant, Joseph Stuart; ^ond lieutenau ; UB and Abram Heiser; 

£^ W 3SHii^Wa2?S^ Deemer, Frederick K. 

„«- ■ „„^ Ticiniol Askew. 

COl poi <"=>, " """ . . 

Morrison and Daniel Askew. 


Capt. MoCartnej resigning in August, 1861, his position was taken 
, "*',"' ?.:!'- ':> l ' 1 " 1 "- I,u - V,m - who was killed at South Mountain Septem 

: ,r "■ l862 H,8Bn Bsorwas I'. B WoManus, who retained command till 

aeoompan, wasmustered out, June 13, L864 I, I ,:, stuarl was 

killed at Gaines Mill, June 27, 1862, and was sn led In John A Crow] 

raowas promoted from the rank, through the intermediate grades 

The Carlisle Guards a second organization, was mustered June LO 

withtte following officers: Captain, I | rjodd; firsl lieutenant, Geoi 

W. Cropp; second beutenant, Isaiah II. Graham; sergeants, V7m B v 

James Brodenck, Robert B. Smiley, G ge \. Keller; corporals, T B* 

Kauffman, Isaac Gorgas, J. T. Bailej ami Levi II Mullen 

These companies became Companies II and I respectively, of the Thirtieth 
Regiment im.W th.. .'.., u „i:m.l.,f K. hm.11,. R,.Im.,-n. col.,,,,!;" H. M Mclntvre 
lieutenantcolonel, and Lemuel Todd, major. The promotion of Capl Todd 
to the majorship gave the position of captain to George W. Cropp The 
place was subsequent^ 'filled al-,,. by T. B. Kauffman *and Esaiah Graham. 
:_ the battle of Bull Run. the Thirtieth Regiment was ordered to Washine 
ton, but stopping at Annapolis, ,t performed such efficient service in ffuardW 
™ 1 7 ,ln ";"""r"' : " 1, " ,a "; 1 preventing the smuggling of supplies into the 

South, as to ehoit s] taJ mention by Gen. John A. Dix. On hurust 30 

theregimeni was sent, via Washington, to Tennallytown, M.I.. where it united 
m th other reserves under Gen. McCall. During the autumn and winter of 
1861, it engagedinthe Virginia campaign, near Dranesville, Manassas June 
bonand Fredericksburg In the engagements at Mechanicsville and Gaines' 
Mill, during the I amnsular campaign of 1862, the command suffered heavilv 
toeing some fourteen blled and about fifty wounded Among the former 
was Lieut Stuart of Company II, Subsequently, at Centreville and South 
Mountain, the regiment met its f„nii,. r !',„■- n I now S11W<S(W 

Che same year it engaged in the severely contested battles of Antietam and 
I Ve^cksburg and the foltowing year was a part of the grand army which, 
at Gettysburg turned the fateof the Confederacy July I -3, 1863. Itsservices 

earlj ls«,u. II June 13 when itwas musteredout at Phfladelphia. [tsmuster- 
5,3' lM /\ ] r V °S '":::, °*^^ber, l39werelo stbye icknessand 
death on tiiefield of battle, 233 were wounded, 258 „-,,•,. discharged for diss 
bility, and 1 is re enlisted as veterans. 

Seventh Reserve —A companj known as the Carlisle Pencibles, was readv 
for son;,,, „ ; A P nl ls.;i. With a beautiful satin flag, bearing the moi 
May God Defend the Right, ' the gift of Mrs. Samuel Alexander, grand 

.lau U 'h,r,,f Col. Ephraim Blaine, th. mpany left Carlisle, on June 6 for 

Westchester^ ,te organization consisting of the following officers: Captain, 
n Hrt .- M ,: beutenant, James S. Colwell; second lieutenant 

Brtwnes Beatty; orderly sergeant, John D. Adair. 

° B P t Henderson, wounded both at Charles City Cross Roads and Bull Run 
was promoted to bent, el, Julj 1. 1862, his position being filled by 

Lieut. J S Colwell. The latter being killed at Antietam, September 17 L862 

Iaeut Beatty became captain, SamuelV. Rubj and D. \\ . Burkholderl ame 

iirst and Becond beutenants, respectively. 

Almost simultaneous with the organization of this company. „„, was raised 

atMec hanicaburg.withJ ph rotten as captain; JritS 

ubo. W. ( omfort as second beutenant, and John W. Tonkas first sergeant 
Capt. rotten was promoted to beutenant colonel soon after the departure of 
the company, and was followed by Henry I. Zinn, who, resig November 30 


, rr- TV,p latter remained with the company till it 

13 1862. . • i 4. n Q ,nr, Wavne, became Companies A 

13 ' These companies, o^LTof Eese^wlSe officers were: Colonel 
and H of the Seventh «n t of Re ^ e • el Josepll Totten; major 

EHsha B. Harvey, of WiBw B^ u * e imeIlt was orde red to report to 

Chauncey A. Lyman, of Leaven ^ M g mustered into the United 

Washington, D. 0., where on the 27th o J^ Reserves under command 

Sates Service, and finally attghed to ^BnjdjoJ R q ^ 
of Gen. George G. Meade. Having S P^ . { the Peninsular cam- 

era Virginia, the regiment was given ^ active ™ tuous attack on 

patn. At Gaines' Mill it was call ^^2 num l bers it save d the 
iXfield's artillery. Though >****£»$ on r with twenty of his men. 
caissons, Capt. King, ^ eve ^fmbraSnl about one-half of its effective 
The loss of the regiment was large, embracing it was 

force In the succeeding seven days faghtmg ™ revealing the fact 

inually occupying posts of dger^^ Capt. Henderson and 
that the loss was 301 embrac g ™™°™ m oi the me n who started on 
Lieuts. Zug and Beatty and that oa^abo^ ^^ ^ ^.^ of officers> 

tTc^HeSr blcLe H^-^-colonel. ^ and joiaed 

In August following this brigade was sent to the Kaj ! Groveto n, 

t„ the Army of Northern Virginia, commanded ^by Gen ^ Ued battle , 

with heavy loss and the funding o^ Hend the or f 

of the Potomac again, under command L ol£ land to Soll th Mountain 

p op e, to Washington; thence through W e m M. . J ^^ took an ,m- 
audintietan, At the latt er p lace^S ep ml ei h^^ The lo51oa o 
portantpart, but suffered heavdy: m kiUe da ^ ^ pnvates John 

a shell either killed or wounded moitall , oap A 

Gallio. Leo Faller David BpataandW^ Cnlp ^ofC ^ 7 ^ de . 

A few months later, viz., Decembei 1., ix ■ ? *_ Crossing the river m 

unsuccessful attack upon the Rebels a t Fiede ™Wh irg stuart ' s battery; 

the face of the enemy, it was subjecte ,d to a a " » Lo agstreet's lines, 

but moving up the height, leaping ditches * ^pe finally repulsed, 

capturinglndsendingbackmorethanlOOprisoners^ ^ ^^ rf threQ 

the captures by soldiers of Company A g°^ f^ iment . Corp. Cart was 
rebel captains and the battte^agof ^ e ^^ the regiment were heavy, 
given a medal for capturing the coloi s. "\ After tMs sanguinary bat- 

embracing 6 killed, 72 wounded and 22 ^ 1S ^ d Wash ington, where it re- 
2 the recent was called to perform ^ du ty a iou nd S ^ ^ d 

xnained till the next spring when A moved ^ou ^ ^ pm the 

In the Wilderness, near Chanceloisville . ^ ^.^ were taken 

enemy, were captured on the 2d <**£> X pi ore nce, where many of them 
to Southern prisons, notably AndersonMlle ™* taken to Macon, were sub- 

died under most pitiable cn-cumstances. T h n e s ° a f chal , est0 n, to defend the city 
sequently exposed to the fire of Federal gms ^ increased by re- 

against attack. A fragment * J™ **£? H , participated in the Campaign 

J^^^Y Qb ^m^S^^&^ its service itwasmustered 

against Richmond in WA. At tne exj 
out June 16, 1864 at Philadelphia. 

Jiid-a/i/ ^ze&csi 


' U U St si i;\ !. i . 

of V ( ,rk,„w,, With Av,rill ', t , .) participating m the siege 

Safis ' -2sW^^«3ES£3i 

'-"« ".ViraiMi. ,„„!„,,. .l„ri„ c ',l..;. ,,! ii* "I"*,, .operation, 

.. ■ , uouuig, u in. n. Lollnis assumed he nlnna i ncQ1> i, r> v i ■ 

Carlisle, was first lieufc inAwrnsf is. ••> P 7 j*" Yaie > ot 

Comimnv M of same reehnent T ,i , Was P romoted captain of 

pated in the CJhiekamanga battle hTwMch I „' V "'"' 86m T , Jt P***- 
most of the men re-e^isSd at £SwL 1C ^ *? ^ 

Efts ' ""-■—< - — t,,..,.", 1 ,,;, 2* i^TE^S** 

Ninth Pennsylvania ('-.vlr , , ,'"• "" k "" w " «* H and I of the 


rhe regimen! bore the name of "Lochiel Cavalrv " ,„ i ' Uniriifc 

United States. In it w ,„. ' 1 , V ™ ' r '"'" v; "'"'"~ ?**** " f the 


mustered out of service March 24, 1863. 


succeed by AlphoneoB. B «« s |' ""* i ' In b„„ had a, officers Captain, 

Jam c e xs^ss»t,^s sasaf — a **«* *-* 

A ' ?, arriS ' t? roac formed at Newville with Wm. Laughlin as captain; Joshua 

m e„, had the following .T^S'Srt ■ toittH.verSck, firsts- 
tot lientenaot; W. A. G.vler, second J>j«* T\Z^ 17 ££„,. Zinn 
ge.nt, When Capt Zran was appointed eolonat Angn t , 
was promoted to be carton; ."^TS^^^^f ^'^ to tot lie»- 

Wi French, and he by Wm E. fmn. Carlisle, with John Lee, captain; 

Company G was tamed ,n and » ^ a d ; d lieu t eaBn t. Lee 

Tn>in S Lvne first lieutenant, i nomas x/. ^ u " c > „ A „ 

It promoted to major; but after his resignation, February 5, 1863, was sue 

ceeded by John S. Low. Hoffaker, mainly at New Cum- 

, , C T.n^L™S»Tew \b7to «.to»»»t was' George C. Marshall, 
SolnlMcG^rndBenten^h J^SIS^SPSS^Si 

13 1863 the lieutenants were regularly promoted, ana oergi. o 

^^le^t^anizationof ^ regime^ it was^ to Jashin^n, 

service was in the battle of Antietam w con duct elicited the 

wounded. ^f^^^^L^o^Mer. After camp - 
strong «7 m ^ a ^° e ^ e ^ r Tioved to Fredericksburg, and engaged m 

a , S4Si?sa £3'-^^ Mied ° r — ded > a iarge per cent 


of its depleted rank-. Among the billed were Col. Zinn and Oapt Laughlin 
Iaeut Haveretick was again wounded. Its next B ervioe was in the campaign 
around OhanceUoravdle, where Lieut -Col. Maiah and Lieut. John Bays were 
wounded. Ito term of enlistment having expired, the regimen) was mustered 
out at Harrisburg on the -1st of May, and its citizen soldiers were w 
home with great demonstration of feeling. 

ll.Als' MIA. 

me three months men, already spoken of, who had served under Capts. 
Christian Kuhns and Jaeob Doraheimer, re-enlisted and were mustered for 
three years service. Christian Kuhns was captain of the reorganized com- 
pany and remained with it till April 2, 1863. when I,, was succeeded |, v First. 
Lieut James Noble. II,, companj was known as Companj A, of the Kl,x 
enth Regiment, and served as anintegral part of the Lrmj of the Potomac in 
toe Virginia .campaigns. The second company, known as Company A One 
Hundredand Seventh Regiment of which Thomas A. X„„l, , lf v,„. k ' wis 
colonel was presided over bj Capt Doraheimer for about a year, when he 

'" ul was sue. ded by Theodore K. Scheffer and Samuel Lvon The 

regiment served also with the Armj of the Potomac at Antietam, ChanceUors- 
ville, Gettysburg, and m the usual minor contests. These two Cumberland 
t ountg companies, faithful from the beginning to the close of the war. having 
Pupated in the grand review at Washington May -_'3, is.;:,, wm , 1I1UBte red 
out of service with nchly earned honors. 

A number of men went from the county into Company A, of the One Hun- 
dredand First Regiment commanded at first by Capt David M. Armour, 

and afterward by James Sheaier. i.c lervice was seen in North Carolina 

Indersomni, "^ ""''" '''''I'""'"' 1 ; "" ! spelled to undergo the horrors or 

• • lD i ^ a .P artof a company was enlisted in Cumberland County, and 
pined at Harrisburg with men from Cameron County, forming Company G, of 
the Lu;h,y.fourth Regiment The companj office^ consisted of Capt Mer- 
rick Housler, First Lieut James W. Ingram and Second Lieut. Daniel W 
■^aggart It operated m West Virginia duringthe early part of 1862, but par- 

toipated subsequently at Bull Run ( a ,d battle), Chancellorsville Gettys- 

burg, Wilderness and siege of Petersburg. ' 

MII.ITIA or 1862. ' 

The terrible defeat of the Union Army at the second battle of Bull Run 

afforded grave apprehensions of the devastation of southern Pennsylvania by 

Gov. Curtm summoned 50,000, to be mustered at Harrisburg 

at once to serve as protectors for the border. Everywhere did the people re 

spend cheerfully to the call. Two columns, o, f I5,000at Eagers town and 

another of 25,000 ready to march from Harrisburg, if n led, ZSdXS 

not,,, spirit of the Keystone State. Of these troops, so quick to respond 
Cumberland County furnished one regiment, which was held in service only 

wo weeks viz September 1 1 to 25. Its officers consisted of Col. Henry Mc 
Cormic*. Lieut-Col. Root A. Lamberton and Map Thos. B Bryson The 
ala.-nty with which these troops appeared on the scene of action celled forth 
warm praise from both Gen. McClellan and the governor of Maryland! 

I [PASTES of 1863. 

Toward the , .lose „f 1862, some companies were gathered iri th,. county, 
but did not get into actual service till the early par, of L863. One of these 


was organized for nine months' service, with the following officers: Captain 
Martin G. Hall; first lieutenant, Henry S. Crider; second lieutenant Patrick 
S McCoy. It became Company F, of the One Hundred Fifty-eighth Regi- 
ment, under Col. David B. McKibben, and with its regiment served m North 
Carolina, principally assisting in the recovery of a Umon gamsonat Washing 
ton from the clutches of Gen Hill; afterward it served with Ger • Meade m 
in the Army of the Potomac till Lee was driven across into Virginia. It was 
mustered out of service at Chambersburg August 12, 18bd. o aTOn+pftTlt i, 

Company F, of the One Hundred and Sixty-second Eegiment Seventeenth 
Cavalry was raised by Capt. Charles Lee, for three years. The regament 
colonefs Josiah H. Kellogg and Jamos Q. Anderson, was in ^" £»> 
Brigade and served with Hooker at Chancellorsville, Buford at Gettysburg 
fn e^strn VhJnL next year, with Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley, and 
with Army of Potomac when peace was declared. 

Company B, of the One Hundred and Sixty-fifth Eegiment of drafted™, 
litia, was formed in the eastern part of the county, with Abraham J Bupp •** 
captain and Henry Lee as first lieutenant. It served from November, 1862 
+m it was mustered out July 28, 1863. There were also some men in the 
^WhSSr7(One Hundred and Sixty-fifth Eegiment, Pennsylvania), 
whose record can not be given. 

companies or 1864. 
Portions of the Two Hundredth and Two Hundred and First Regiments were 
recruited from Cumberland County, one from the towns of W est Fairview and 
New Cumberland. Company K, of the Two Hundred and First Eegiment was 
mustered into service, for one year, at Hamsburg, August 29, 1864. Its 
Xferswere: Captain, Alexander C. Landis; first lieutenant, Alexander Stew- 
art second lieutenant, JohnH. Snow; sergeants, Daniel FBohrer, John A. 
WUmer S G Glauser, Henry G. Walters and Richard G. Moore; corporals, 
George Shields, Hiram C. Senseny, W. A. Clugh Theo. Arte, Vi m. H. Tntt 
JO M Butts, Geo. McCormick and Thos. V. Baker; musicians, Wm. W. 
Snyder Jos H Snyder, Henry Dumbaugh and Henry Graves. This company 
wTformed from Shippensburg and vicinity. The two regiments operated 
largely in eastern Virginia, and performed meritorious service. 

Companies G, H aid part of Company D, of the One Hundred and Second 
Regiment were formed from the county, and were commanded ^ ™«gj^ 
by Capts David Gochenauer, John P. Wagner and S. C. Powell. The regi- 
ment guarded the Manassas Gap Eailroad, to keep it open for carrying army 

BUP Comoanies A and F, of the Two Hundred and Ninth Eegiment, were 
m usSr3 September let 1864, under Capts. John B. Landis and Henry Lee. 
SrcoTonel Tobias B. Kauffman, Capt. Lee and Lieut. Hendricks with nine- 
tee. In Were captured November 17, while defending the picket line and 
were held prisoners till the close of the war. The regiment remained in active 
service till the close of the Eebellion by Lee s surrender. 


The public men of the county took an active part in support of the Govern- 
meJZSg the war. Particularly was this true of the ega P-fess^ 
SavsDr Wing, in his History of Cumberland County, p. 137. At the very 
fost call when the example of prominent men was of peculiar importance a 
£ge nlber of these gentlemen promptly gave in their names and ente .ed in 
most instances as privates untd they were promoted to office. Ignorant as 


Umj all were of military drill, they at once submitted to the instruction of a 
sergeant at Carlisle Barracks, and as Boon as poaaible left their pleasant homes 
for the severities of an ill Bnpplied and parilons service. In mosl rases this 
was at the sacrifice of health and sometimes of life, and they were intelligent 

enough to know beforehand what those sacrifices were likely to be. They 
were not alone, for they were accompanied by many in ever \ walk of life. 
Among them were R. ML Henderson, John Lee. Lemuel Todd, A. Brady 
Sharps, christian P. Hnmrioh, 0. McGlaughlin, George 8. Emig, C. P. Corn- 
man. Joseph G. Vale, ffm. I'.. Miller, J. Brown Parker. Wm. M. Penrose, 
Joseph s. Oolwell, s. V. Bnby, Wm. D. Halbert, D. X. Xevin, J. B. Landis, 

John Hays and J. M. Weakley. These took their places, not in some single 
company or regiment to which special eclat might be awarded, but wherever 
their lot happened to fall. As. however, the companies belonging to the One 
Hundred and Thirtieth were in process of formation at that time, most of them 
were connected with that regiment. ' ' 


Thus far the records have shown the work of men in volunteer service. 
Cumberland Comity had an honorable representation in the regular army, 
among whom we can specify the following only briefly: 

Samuel Sturgis. born at Shippensbnrg in 1822, and graduated at West 
Point, served through the Mexican war with distinction, gave valuable aid 
afterward in suppressing hostile Indians, and with increasing and deserved 
promotions to the rank of brigadier-general, aided greatly in quelling the 
great Rebellion. 

Washington L. Elliott, whose father. Com. Jesse D. Elliott, was second 
in command at the naval battle at Lake Brie September 10, L818, was born at 
Carlisle in 1825. After three years' study in Dickinson College, he graduated 
at West Point in Ml. With the rank of second lieutenant he served effi- 
ciently in the Mexican war. and among the Indians with the rank of first 
lieutenant and captain. II.' Berved during the late Rebellion, with the ranks 
of major, colonel and brigadier general, in both the Eastern and Western 
Armies. In all the stations to which he was assigned, he demonstrated him- 
self to be an able and trustworthy commander. 

John R. Smead was born in 1830 and graduated from "West Point in 1851. 
When the war of the Rebellion began he was employed with Prof. Bache on 
the ooast BUTVey. He entered the artillery service, and as captain of a battery 
in the Fifth Artillery, he participated in the campaign around Richmond and 
in the second battle of Hull Run. At the latter place he was struck and billed 
by a ten-pound cannon ball. August 31, 1862. 

Alexander Piper, graduate of West Point in 1851J and an associate of 
Smead, served through the Rebellion in various responsible positions, having 
attained the rank of captain and become Smead' S successor after the battle of 
Bull Run. He died October 30, 1876. 

lee's invasion in 1863. 
The most exciting period of the war to the Cumberland Valley was that 
connected with th.- invasion of 1863. The devastating and demoralize 
tees of war were brought home to the citizen engaged in the lawful pursuits 
of every day life. The advance of the enemy to the Potomac in the region of 
William-port or Harper'- Ferry was always a' signal for a stampede along the 
valley in the dirert bnrg. Money and other valuables wen- rei 

horses and cattle were driven out of the country for their own safety and to 


prevent giving aid to the Rebels, and a general restlessness and anxiety took 
possession of the people. When in May, 1863, after the defeat of Hooker s 
army at Chancellorsville, Gen. R. E. Lee made requisition on the Confederate 
commissary department for rations for his hungry men, he was answered, It 
the General wants provisions, let him go and look for them m Pennsylvania 
He came On the 20th of June, Gen. Swell's corps began to cross the Poto- 
mac at Williamsport and commenced to move in the direction of Harrisburg. 
Chambersburg was reached by a portion of Ewell's corps on the 166., bren. 
R. S. Ewell himself arriving on the 24th. . „. , 

Gradually the troops marched along the valley, occupying Shippensburg on 
the 25th, and reaching Carlisle on Saturday, the 27th. 

When the alarm of the Rebel approach was first sounded companies of 
civilians were organized by Capts. Martin Kuhn, John S Low, A Brady Sharpe 
David Block and Robert Smiley. These companies embraced the best elements 
of the community, the pastors of the Episcopal and the Reformed Churches 
entering as privates. In connection with these militia companies Capt. V\ . H. 
Boyd First New York Cavalry, with 200 of his men, performed picket duty. 
As Gen A G. Jenkins' advance of 400 cavalry came toward town, these 
companies fell back. Jenkins was met enroute by Col. William M Penrose and 
Robert Allison, assistant burgess, and was requested to make no dash upon the 
town lest a panic among the women and children might ensue He entered in 
good order, his men being on the alert against surprise. He demanded of the 
place supplies for men and horses. The citizens responded generously, and 
the provisions were stored in the stalls of the market house. A good supply 
of corn was also obtained from the crib of John Noble. . 

In the afternoon of the same day (Saturday), Rodes' and Johnson s divis- 
ions of Ewell's corps arrived, Early's division having crossed the mountains, via 
Fayetteville, to York. The band at the head of the column played Dixie, the 
men conducting themselves with much decorum notwithstanding their ragged 
condition. Gen. Ewell established his headquarters in the barracks he occupy- 
' in- the dwelling of Capt. Hastings, while his staff took the adjacent biuldings. 
The commanding general was well acquainted with the barracks and the town, 
having been stationed there in former years. In consequence of this acquain- 
tanceship, he spared the public buildings from being burned on the eve of his 

deP He U at e once made a public demand for 1.500 barrels of flour, four cases 
of surgical instruments, quinine, chloroform and other medical supplies 
They could not be furnished, however. Strict orders were issued against the 
selling of intoxicating drinks to soldiers, and the pillaging of private property 

1)7 Sunday and Monday were dreary days for the town. All communication 
with the loyal world was cut off. On the Lord's day services w«re c°nducted 
at several of the churches by their own pastors. At the same time the cl ap- 
lains of rebel regiments encamped in the college campus, and at the garrison 
conducted services for then troops with great fervor. Guards were stationed 
at the street corners, to preserve order and to receive any complaints made by 
citizens. Some spirited discussions between soldiers and citizens on moral 
and political questions were had, but with more courtesy and good feeling than 
generally characterize such controversies. All conversation with Southern of- 
ficers and soldiers led the people to believe that their movement was directed 
toward Harrisburg and Philadelphia. On Monday evening, however ^John- 
son's division, encamped at McAlister's Run, began to move m the direction 
of Stoughstown, Shippensburg and Fayetteville, the march being characterised 


bg a want of dicipline and Che commission of heinous outrages upon unoffend 
Log people. 

irly a- :: o'clock of Tuesday morning, the remaining troops from the 

oollege campus and the barracks, a< ipanied bj Gen. Ewell i move 

along the pike in the direction of Mbuh< Holly. The town was deserted by 
rebel forces exi airy, who continued till evening doing provost duty, 

when they also left The pillaging around the barracks and the destruction 
of public and private propertj were performed by dissolute characters, some 
of whom proved to be deserters thai afterward enlisted in the Union -.Trice. 
It has been said the town was largely deserted bj rebel I bis needs a 

little modification. About the time the people began to rejoice over the disap- 
ranceofthe rebel forces, a bod} of cavalry, under command of Col. Coch 
ran and numbering about WO, made it- appearance at the gas works on the 
Djllstown road, and took possession of the streets. These men, intoxicated 
against orders, became unmanagable, and their stay in the town made citizens 
restless. Thus closes the condition of affairs in Carlisle Tuesday, June 30. 

The incidents of the following graphically and carefully presented 

bj Dr. Wing that we give his account entire: 

"Early on Wednesday morning, the town was gladdened by the return of 
200 men of the Firsi New York Cavalry. They had 

been at the extreme eastern part of the county, in the neighbor! 1 of Fort 

Washington, and had had, on Sunday evening, a slight artillery skirmish at 
Oyster's Point, about three miles west of Harrisburg, with a small pari 
Gen Jenkins' men. That general had spent a uight at Mechanicsburg, and on 
Sunday advanced with a few men to reconnoitre the bridge over the Susque- 
hanna; but on seeing the preparations there, had deemed it prudent to retire. 
This was the farthest point in the direction of Harrisburg to which the invad- 
ing troop, ventured to pro, d. On hearing the rapid , the Union 

Army under Gen. Meade, in his rear. Gen Dee at once perceived that he 
could not safely advance with roch a force between him and the base of hisop- 

••rations. and that agreat battle was inevitable i,, theneighborh 1 of Gettys 

burg. Both armies had mustered in unexpected strength and discipline, and 
neither could afford to dispense with anj of its forces. Every regiment was 
called in, and summon to the expected field of conflict. Bui there 

were a few regiments in both armies near the river, to which the summons 
could not be sent in time, and which, therefore, were unaware of the move- 
ments of the main bodies. Early in the afternoon, Gen. W. P. (Baldy) Smith, 
who had taken command in this valley, reached town. There were then under 
him. two Philadelphia regiments, one militia battery from the same city, pai 
of two New York regiments, and a company of regular cavalrj from Carlisle 
Barracks. \\ bile he was selecting a suitable place for his artillery, a body of 
rebel troops made its appearance near the east end of Main Street, at"the 
junction of the Trindle Springs and York roads. One or two rebel horsemen 

"J™ ""•■" l . N '" ,n nterof the town, but hastily returned to fch, lllUS 

who sat m their saddles and gazed up the street at the Onion infantrj 
*° :m "" Wi ' --"l-. and the companies which had been disbanded dur- 

ing the occupation of the town came together, and with other citizen- armed 
themselves as best they could, and formed a line of skirmishers along the Le 
They kept up a desultory fire upon the advanced portion of the en- 
emy and prevented them from penetrating our lines. Of course such an op- 
position was soon driven in and silenced; but for a while it- true character 
could not be known. It was not long before the whizzing and explosions of 
shells , n the air over and within the town, announced that a formidable en- 


emy was at hand. No warning of this had been given, and it was soon accom- 
panied by grape and canister, raking the principal streets and the central 

"As twilight set in, a flag of truce was forwarded to Gen. Smith, informing 
him that Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, with a force of 3,000 cavalry, was ready for an 
assault and demanded an immediate and unconditional surrender. The offer 
was promptly declined, and was followed by the threat that the shelling of the 
town would be at once resumed. 'Shell away!' replied Gen. Smith; and 
scarcely had the bearer of the flag left, before a much fiercer bombardment com- 
menced. And now began a general flight of the inhabitants into the country, 
into cellars, and behind anything which was strong enough to afford hope of 
protection. A stream of women and children and infirm people on foot was 
seen, with outcries and terrified countenances in every direction. Some of 
these fell down breathless or seriously injured by some accident, and lay in the 
barns or by the fences through the ensuing night. To add terror to the scene, 
the sky was lighted up by the flames of a wood-yard in the vicinity of the rebel 
encampment, and about 10 o'clock the barracks and the garrison were burned 
and added their lurid glare to the brightness. In the middle of the night there 
was another pause in the firing, and another call for a surrender was made, to 
which a rather uncourteous reply was made by Gen. Smith, and the shelling pro- 
ceeded, but with diminished power and frequency. It is supposed that am- 
munition had become precious in the hostile camp. 

Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, now governor of Virginia, in a letter to the writer un- 
der date of May b 20, 1886, says of the attack on Carlisle: "On July 1, 1863, 
I was ordered "to attack and occupy the place, by Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, com- 
manding cavalry corps of the Confederate Army, and did attack it on my arri- 
val late that evening— night put a stop to the fighting. At light next morning I 
intended to renew the attack, but during the night received information that the 
two contending armies were concentrating for a general battle at Gettysburg, 
and, in pursuance of orders, left the vicinity of Carlisle before daylight, on the 
2d of July, marching for Gettysburg. Carlisle was at that time defended by 
Gen. William Smith, who commanded, I believe, the Pennsylvania Keserves; 
he was known in the old United States Army as ' Baldy ' Smith. " 

The battle of Gettysburg was fought. In a few days, demand was made 
by the authorities for medical aid to be sent to wait upon the Union and rebel 
wounded at that terrible field of death and suffering. The claims of humanity 
prevailed, and Cumberland County responded generously. In addition to the 
aid sent much was given at home; for the maimed soldiery of both armies had 
to be cared for in the adjoining villages and cities. The college chapel and 
recitation rooms of Dickinson and one of the central churches were converted 
into regular hospitals, the latter being thus used for a considerable time. 


Subsequent to the close of the war, the erection of a suitable monument 
to pepetuate the memory of the country's fallen heroes was agitated. The ef- 
fort to do justice to the soldier had been made by several towns. This stim- 
ulated the desire to have a common monument centrally located. In lhbb a 
meeting of citizens was called, and a committee appointed to formulate a feas- 
ible plan for securing such a result. Subscriptions were taken and it was de- 
cided that the shaft should be located on the Public Square in Carlisle. The 
dimensions were, height thirty feet; base to stand on a mound four feet high, 
ten and one-half feet square. The base was to be of Gettysburg granite, three 
feet high and ten feet square, surmounted by a marble pedestal containing tablets 



tothenames of fallen heroes. Tl,, w,„-k waa done b, Richard Owens Baa 
of Car ■ ,>l... and cost aboul S5.000. The ahaff was areoted FeSuary f 18 

and the ,r„n fence which surrounds U is a pi* f much SSs to pe2 

oestrums, rhe inscription ia p 

[» EoHOB 0] TBI SoLBUBS OB ( h M l,H;i an,, ( ', 
^ 'I" 1' i II IN I'm i RBI OB Tin: Union 
Dihin'o the Great Rebellion. 
This Monwm ni ia erected by those who rev, re the Patriotism 
andwtsh to perpetuate the Memory, of the Brave Men 
u-ho aided ,„ saving the Nation and securing tin Blessings of Liberty to all. 
The" battle wreath" which encircles the shaft oontains the names of the 
WUowmg ^g«g«menta: Meehauicsville, Drainsville, Gainesvm£ w Mar 
k " ( ™" ' ■" l I! " 11 R«*, South Mountain, Betheada Church Spott 

ajjyama - Wihierness Gettysburg, Vicksburg. Evidently the artS musthave 
omitted Ant.etam and probably some other engagements 


Cam' w 1 ^ I r' ?""n' ''"'"l' ; " ,v "■ Kir -< Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Cur,,. 

I . ' «'• u-" : , ' ( ;""1 ,: '.">' "• Fi '-' Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corns 

L 1 • : : A0«Tfc?3o£SSv7 ?!, "17"'"," Pen T4^ a H — ™ul 'Corps. 

t v '■'"',- - M .""" I/ - Nn " 1 ' Pennsylvania Cavalry. ° 

L \V „ b WnTV Uy 1 , : , Sv '""""l' Pennsylyania Cavalry. 
i.ieut. \\m. B. Blaney, Second Iowa Cavalry 
Sub John I\-.fjo"ver si XI |, Pennsylvania Cavalry. 
Asst. Eng. William E. Law. rjnited States Navy ' 


I oMI'ANT n. 

Prank Hunt. 
Joseph Ewing. 
Wm Watson. 
John Bheafer. 
John Black. 
SamI Baker. 
John Clooser. 
V. Morrison. 

David Askew. 
Wm Donnelley. 
Curtis Qriffln. 
Q. EaufEman. 

ti own. 



John Luak. Frank Wil 

Win. Baxter. Wm. Dnnlap. 

John Baker. \v„, - 

•'7 H : , I l,n , rf - Chaa. F. Gould. 

John Mai uas. Levi Kennedy 

John Bbuler. 


O. W. Savaire. 



Wm. Gulp. 
Wm. R. Holmes. 
G. W. Brechbill. 
John ' allio 
Pred K Rieffi 
Henry T. Green, 

R. II. Spottawood. 
1 " o I Wililers. 
Jbj on Landis. 
John T. Cuddy. 

U. Steele. 

J. Harvej Bby. 
Patrick Brannon. 
Wm B - 
•I. A. Bchlosaer. 

Wm. M. Henderson. 
Geo. AS w isi 

Wm. A. Low. 
John T Adama. 

Ed. T. Walker. 

I). Haverstick. 
Wm. Nevil. 
Baml. E. Smith. 
W m. Zimmerman. 
John B. Kenyon. 

S. HeffeUnger. 
Van Buren Eby. 
Wm. ftfcCleaf ' 
Leo W i 
Davkl n. Spahr. 

Michael J. Fouelit. 




Michael Hess. 
Levi A. Bowen. 
Jac. A. Welty. 
Daniel M. Hoover. 
John Lininger. 
John Anthony. 
Jonas Blosser. 
Frank A. Smith. 
Jos. B. Mooney. 
John Devlin. 
G. Beaverson. 

Isaiah Siders. 
Saml. S. Gooms. 
Wm. H. Kline. 
J. Richey Clark. 
Saml. Wesley. 
Thos. J. Acker. 
D. W. Conrad. 
Milton Warner. 
Geo. W. Smith. 
Max. Barshal. 
Benj. Baker. 


Moses Boss. Geo. L. Reighter. 

Thos. Morgan. J. Christman. 

Wm. Fielding. James Warden. 

Wilson Vanard. Thomas Conway. 
John Spong. 


Thos. Lyne. 


S. Kriner. 


H. Strough. 


Jas. Tyson. 


Wm. H. Vance. 


J. C. Filey. Samuel Bear. 


Geo. Sanno. Fred Sanno. 



Geo. Grove. Geo. H. Coover. 



Samuel T. Kunkle Reuben Line. 

Richard Lilly. Benj. H. Getz. 

John Ritson. Benj. Hippie. 

Adam Sheaffcr. Thos. Snoddy. 



Michael Ritta. Charles Huber. 

E. Beaverson. Henry Snyder. 

Thomas Neely. 


Wm. H. Chapman. 


Levi Kutz. 
Chris. Rothe. 



J. Fahnestock. 


P. R. Pislee. 



J. F. McMath. 


E. Crandle. 
Benj. Hoover. 



P. Faber. Wm. E. Greason. 

Joseph P. Weaver. A. Bronswell. 
Geo. W. Green. 


N. Lenhard. W. B. Grabill. 

Henry Miller. Geo. Brenizer. 

Joseph Matthews. Geo. J. McLean. 
M. S. Carbaugh. 


J. W. Crull. Wm. A. McCune. 

Wm. P. Woods. David L. Miller. 

Jesse K. Allen. Wm. Lockery. 

J. A. Stickler. Jos. Connery. 
Thad. McKeehan. 


Geo. White. B. Barshinger. 

P. Y. Kniseley. John Fetzer. 

Thos. English. Theo. R. Zinn. 

H. F. Lambert. Keller Bobb. 


J. Barkley. Jas. Withrow. 

S. McMaughton. 




J. n. s. 

I). 15. Kauffman. 

ONE Ml MiKl li AM) forty -rimm I 

\ AM V Mil I M I I ■ 


J. Beiser 




\ AMA (III l Mil 08 

I ■ >M I- 1\V \. 

Levi Hupp. 
Geo, Elisor. 

ya.MA Mil. I Nil 


H. Oatman. David Barnhill. 

J. Cunningham. Jacob Bricker. 

Abraham Myers. 

nM III Mi Kill A Nil MM I", ! I UK I II I'l \\- 
Bl l.\ AMV Mil 1 \ I 


h Moon 

I'M 111 MH;l 11 WD M\lil V 1111 II I 
7ANIA N I I i 



i OMP WY B. 

George Wolf. 
James Exall, 
I). Lenker. 
Michael Smith. 

John Askew. 
Lewie 1?. Fink. 
Henry Tost. 


Win. 97. Beacy. 


AOIA -N i i 


R. C. Moon 


John S Wm. Wetzel. 

J. a. McNaskey. 


Eli Ford D A. Ziegler. 

Zach. Kuril Andrew Fiekes. 

Samuel Mizell. Joseph Stine. 
Hugh Campbell. 



J. C. Grant. 

one ncNDRF.n AND riniri v-ii:vr.xTn Penn- 
sylvania VOLUNTEERS. 


F. Eschcnbaugh. 


Samuel I,nt/. Theo. K Boyles. 

Joseph A. Shaw. Hi E. Fani b 

• milker. [Jriab 

David Sheriff. William P. Gensler. 

.MA vol. UN l 


William Sipe. 
Joseph Millard. 



William Webb. 
J. Cockenauer. 
Joseph ' 

I>. 1 1 i ppensteel. 

Robert Gracy. 
S. J. Cockenauer. 
Jesse Bwartz. 


Alex. Fagan. 

J. Burkhart. 
J. Fahnestock. 

B. J. Orris. 
Daniel Stum. 

James McGaw. 


M.I I S 

T. Hoerner. 

John P. Leib. 

i OMPANY \. 



B. Hoi! i 


\ III. I \ 


L, Matchett. 


i UMI'ANY li. 

A. Bucher. 




William Myers. William Ewing. 

C. A. Holtzman. Abdil Trone.j 

Alex. Koser. Cul'n Koser. 

Edward Tarman. C. Vanderbilt. 

George W. Trout. Z. McLaughlin. 

Josh "McCoy. J- Nicholson. 

Samuel Golden. Frank Cramer. 
Henry A. Martin. 

company M. 

James Gilbert 


Arch. Mullen. 
Hiram Gleaver. 

George W. Heck. 
J. Livingston. 
John Givler. 


H. Irvine. 

E. Speece. 


Jacob Agle. 

J. Bishop. 
Jacob Day. 


J C Creps Joshua Dunan. 

C.Liszman. Wm. Bricker. 

Robt. T. Laughlin. Jos. A. shannon. 

Henry Shriver. Chris. Felsinger 

L. Keefauver. ^amuelA Welsh. 

S. McCullough. g°bt T. Kelley. 

H. L. Sennet. David Woods. 
Elijah Bittinger. 


S. Bowman. 


A. Y. Kniseley. 


Joseph Rudy. Geo W.Graham. 

Anson Smith. D. * • £oerner. 

D W. McKenny. Wm. H Miller. 

Jas. A. Kelso. Beni. D. Hehn. 

Tohn Snvder. P. Huntsherger. 

JohnFGettys. J. F. Eigenower. 

Wm. D. Kauffman. Geo. Forney. 
Jas. Y. Stuart. 


Jacob Myers. 
C. W. Nailor. 


J. W. Buttorf. 



J. Conley. 


David Kutz. J- W. Kauffman. 

?hos d Speece. Geo W McGaw. 

M F. Shoemaker. E. Stouffer 

AbnerW Zug. Geo. W. Whitmore. 

SCWeaklinl Wilson Beavers 

Wm H. Weaver. Lewis Ringwalt. 

D E. Hollinger. Eman. Smith. 

Solomon Sow. Robt Kelley. 

John G. Burget. David Car e. 

Samuel Deardorf. C. Evilhock. 
A. Herschberger. 


Samuel Grier. 


W. F. Miller. 


M. A Griffith. JohnM. Kunkle. 

F. F. Steese. 


J. H. Christ. 
Wm. Sheeley. 


Wm. Balsley. Geo. W. Matthews. 

Andrew Bear. 


J. Palm. 


W. T. Fanus. 


Geo. W. Welsh. J- H. Baughman. 

"R. M. Houston. 


Fred Faber. 


Peter Paul. Wm.Hawkes. 

J W. Christ. Wm. H. Albright. 

Samuel Bortel. 


A. Webbert. 


W. B. Flinchbaugh. 



One of the permanent organizations resulting from the late war is that of the 
Grand Army of the Republic. It is a patriotic institution, whose primary ob- 
ject is to watoh carefully Sherighteand privileges of those who imperilled their 
lives and fortunes in behalf of their country, and to assure the widows and 
orphans of such fallen comrades that they shall not be forgotten. It is the 
organized society of America to see that the sacrifices of life and blood and 
treasure during the war shall not have been made in vain. Nearly every town 
of importance has such an organization named in honor of some fallen com- 
rade. \\ e give the list in Cumberland County. 

Capt. ColweU Post, No. 201, at Carlisle — This post was organized in 1881, 
its charter bearing date February 24 of that year. Its charter members 
consisted of the following persons: J. T. Zug, Win. E. Miller, Isaac El- 
liott. Win. Vance. A. C. Ensminger, John S. Humor, J. B. Haverstick John 
Albright, P. D. Beckford, Peter Monger, M. A. Hnfner, John G. Bobb, J. L 
MaLoj, .lame-. Campbell, D. A. Sawyer. R. P. Henderson, J. P. Brindle ' Smith 
McDonald, H. Linnehul. H. G. Carr, J. G. Vale and Wm. Bottengenbach. 

The original corps of officers embraced W. E. Miller, 0. ; J. L Meloy 
S. V ('. ; 1\ D. Beckford, J. V. C. ; Jacob T. Zug, Q. M. ; J. B. Haverstick, 
Adj. ; J. S. Bender, Surg. ; Joseph G. Vale, 0. D. ; J. P. Brindle, 0. G • a' 
C. Ensminger, S. M. ; John S. Humor, Chaplain. 

The present corps (1886) consists of J. P. Brindle, C. ; Wm. Lippert, S. V 
C; H. G. Carr, J. V. C. ; Wm. E. Carnes, Chaplain; B. K. Goodyear Adi • 
Wm. E. Miller. Q, M. ; J. S. Bender, Surg. ; Joseph Lider, 0. D. ; Lazarus 
Minnich, O. G ; J. M. Goodyear. Q. M. S. ; D. A. Carbaugh, S. M. The post 
has an active membership of 105. and is in a prosperous condition. 

Capt. James S. Colwell, after whom the post was named, was born near 
Shippenslmre;. p,. mi .. August I'.), 1813. His education in elementary subjects 
was received at home and at Chambersburg. He graduated finally from 
Princeton College. New Jersey, in 1839. Returning to his native county he 
read law in the office of Wm. Biddle, Esq., at Carlisle, where he practiced 
after being admitted to the bar, till he entered the Army. He was mustered as 
first lieutenant in Seventh Pennsylvania Reserves (Thirty-sixth Pennsylvania 
Volunteers) April 21. 1861, and as captain July 4, 1862# He engaged in the 
Peninsular campaign in L862; was in the second battle of Bull Run of same 
year; the battle of South Mountain and finally in the battle of Antietam, where 
he was killed, September 17, 1S62, by the explosion of a shell of the enemy 
He was a brave soldier, a worthy citizen and a faithful husband and father 
His widow still resides in Carlisle. 

There is also a colored post at Carlisle, having a small membership, concern- 
ing which, however, no facts could be obtained. 

-,oQ C ° 1 ' H > L Z '""' P °'^ A °' 41 ' Jt Mecu anicsburg, was organized March 4 
1884, by Asst. Adj. -Gen. T. J. Stewart, aided by Post No. 58, of Harrisbur^' 
It had forty- four charter members. Its first corps of officers embraced the fol- 
lowing comrades: Col. Wm. Penn Lloyd, Com'dr; H. S. Mohler SVC- 
A C. Koser, J. V. C. ; S. B. King, Q. M. ; L. F. Zollinger, Adj.; F K 
Plover. Chap. ; E. N. Mosser, Q. M. S. ; A. Hauck, O. D. ; A. F. Stahl, O. G. 
The post is a live one, and has a membership at present of 132, and com- 
mands the confidence of the public. It was named in honor of Col H I 
Zmn, who was born in Dover Township, York Co., Penn., December 8 1834 
He was the son of John and Anna Mary Zinn. On the 15th of September' 
18oo, he was married, by the Rev. J. C. Bucher, to Miss Mary Ann Clark the 
ceremony being performed at Carlisle. As the result of this union three chil- 


dren were born, viz. : Elsie Myra, James Henry and George Arthur. The 
first two died in 1862, of measles and diphtheria, respectively. Col. Zinn was 
killed December 13, 1862, in the desperate battle of Fredericksburg, Va. 

Corp. McLean Post, 423, at Shippensburg, was organized by Capt. Hav- 
erstick April 7, 1884, with thirty-nine charter members. In its first corps 
of officers were the following comrades: M. G. Hale, C. ; Wm. Baughman, S. 
V. C. ; John S. Shugars, J. V. C. ; M. S. Taylor, Adj. ; J. K. C. Mackey, Q. 
M. Since its organization Wm. Baughman and John Shugars have also held 
the position of commander. The membership has increased to seventy one, 
rendering the post a flourishing one. 

George Johnston McLean, whose name the post wears and reveres, was 
born at Shippensburg March 7, 1842. He was a member of Company D, 
One Hundred and Thirtieth Pennsylvania Volunteers, and was wounded in 
front of Marye's Hill, Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. From this 
wound he died nine days afterward in the hospital at Washington, D. C. He 
was unmarried at the time of his death. 

Kennedy Post, 490, at Mount Holly Springs, was organized August 15, 
1885. First members were Henry Wollet, C. A. Burkholder, Moses Wag- 
goner, Philip Harman, Samuel Sadler, Silas Tower, N. J. Class, Joseph S. 
Early, B. F. Wollet, A. Adams, W. H. Brinn, James Cuddy, David A. Corn- 
man, John Goodyear, Augustus Miller, David Taylor, Joseph Swords, Christ 
Harmon, Joseph Wise, David Newman, William Kennedy, William Hummel- 
bough, J. N. Allen, John Snyder, J. E. Mandorf, Alex Noffsinger, David 
Noggle, A. T. Bichwine, William Bicker, George Slosser, W. M. Still, Philip 
Snyder, Joseph K. Snyder, Eli B. Tower, John Ward, A. J. McGonnigal, G. 
"W. Kinter, John Kauffman, William H. Hartz, Jacob Hoffert, John Bennett, 
Frank Stoner, A. P. Bichwine, David Withrow and George Fair; present 
membership, sixty-eight. First officers were Henry Wollet, Commander; C. 
A. Burkholder, S. V. C. ; Moses Wagner, J. V. C. ; Joseph Early, Adj. ; Alec 
Adams, Q, M. Present officers are Bev. J. G. Shannon, Commander; Samuel 
Sadler, S. V, C. ; A. Miller, J. V. C. ; Phil. Harman, Q. M. ; William Goodyear, 
Adjt. The society meets every Saturday night in the hall of the I. O. O. F. 

Private B. F. Eisenberger Post, at New Cumberland, organized in the early 
part of 1885. The original members were Henry and B. H. Eisenberger. John 
Bobinson, Henry Drager, Capt. J. W. Fight, A. D. Bepman, Henry Goriger, 
Frank Mathias, M. K. Brubaker, Frank Hager, Sr., Frank Hager, Jr., Wash. 
Shipe and Harry Free. Officers: John Kirk, Commander; B. F. Hager, 
Secy. ; Jesse Oren, Adjutant. 


Courts— County Officials— Members of Congress, Senators and Assembly- 

DURING nearly 100 years succeeding the settlement of Pennsylvania," 
says a writer in 1879, ' ' few of our judges understood the principles of 
the law, or knew anything about its practice before their appointment. Our 
county courts were presided over by the justices of the peace of the respective 
counties, all of whom were ex officio judges of the courts of common pleas and 
quarter sessions of the peace, any three of whom were a quorum to transact 

BI8T0R1 0* CI MBERLAND 001 M I 131 

business. At the same time the provinoial oonnoi] and the high court of 
error- and appeals, which was presided over bj the governor of the province 
for the time being, very frequentl] had not a lawyer in it. And yei tin- busi 
aeas of that daj was done, and well done, too. The judges were generally 
selected because of their well known integrity of character, extended business 
experience and -omul common Bense, and bj close observation and long ex 
perienoe became well acquainted with the duties of their positions and ii 1 1 < ■< 1 to 
adjudicate the important interests committed to their oharge. Nor was the bar 
inferior. Gentlemen, eminent Eor their legal abilities and oratorical powers, 
practiced before them, and bj the gravity of their demeanor and respectful 
behavior ahed lustre upon the proceedings and gave weight and influence to 
the decision- rend i regard was had Eor the dignitj of the court, 

and great reverence felt for form-- and ceremonies; and woe to the unlucky 

wight who was caught in a 'contempt,' or convicted of speaking disres] t 

fulU of the magistrate or of his sovereign lord — the king." 

The usual form of record at the opening of court may In • seen in the fol 

At i Oonrl "i Common pleaa held at Carlisle, for Cumberland County, the Twenty- 
third day of July, in the fifth yearof the Reign ol our Sovi reign Lord, < leorge the Third, by 
the Grace of God ol Great Britain Prance and Ireland, Bang, Defender of the Faith, &c., 
ami in the Year of our Lord t Thousand Seven hundred s Bixty-flve, before John Ann- 
strong. Esq., and his Associate Justices, &c., of the Same Court 

A- a matter of necessity the first courts in Cumberland Count) were held at 
Shippensburg, it being then the only town in the valley (1750) and therefore 
the only place which could accomodate those who gathered at court. By a 
commission dated March It'. 1750, the following persons were appointed jus 
tices of the peace and of common pleas in < lumberland Count] : Samuel Smith, 
of Carlisle: William Maxwell, of Peters; George Croghan, of Bast Penns 
borough; Robert Dunning, of Wesl Pennsborough; Matthew Dill and Benj. 
Chambers, of Antrim; Win. Trent, of Middleton; \\ m. Allison, of Antrim; 
Hermanus Alricks, of Carlisle; John Miller, of West Pennsborough; Robert 
Chambers, of Hopewell; John Finley, of Lurgan; and Thomas A\ ilson, of 
Middleton. Samuel Smith was president of the court. He had previously 
been a member of the Assembly, sheriff and justice of the peace in Lancaster 
Count v. He was succeeded by Francis W est in L797. 

The date of the first court held at Shippensburg was "the twenty- fourth 

day of July, in the twentieth j ear of the reign of his Majesty King < ret irge the 

I Annoque Domini L750." The last at that place was held in April, 

l~."il. John Potter, who hail come to America in 1711 and settled "in the 

neighbor! 1 of Shippen's farm."' now Shippensburg, as early as 17 Id or 

earlier, had been appointed sheriff, * and on the original organization of the 
county returned the writ of venire which had been directed to him with the 
panel annexed, and the following persons were sworn as grand jurors: Win. 
Magaw, John Pott.-r. John Mitchell. John Davison, EzeMel Dunning, John 
Holliday. James Lindley. Adam Hoops. John Forsyth. Thomas Brown, George 
Brown, John Reynolds, Robert Harris. Thos. brie. Charles Murray, James 

Brown and Robert Meek. The record of this first session of th >urt shows 

also that " Hi rmanus Alricks. Esq., produced to the court a commission tinder 
the hand of the Hon. -lame-- Hamilton. Esq., governor, and the great seal of 
die province, appointing him clerk of the peace of the count] of Cumberland, 
and the same was read and allowed and ordered to be recorded." The beaut i- 

•Mr. rotter was twice sheriff, his commissions bearing date October 6, 1760, and October, 17r,4. 
Jame-. was a lieutenant in tbe militia, anil a eapl B lUannlBg, expired In ' 

removed to what Is now Centre County in 1"T_, ami became distinguished both in military and civil circles. 


ful penmanship of Mr. Alricks is as plain to-day on the old records as it was 
when written. 

The first court of common pleas and the criminal courts were, by order of 
the Governor, first held at Carlisle, July 23, 1751, and under the above named 
justices, and were held at that place regularly afterward. ' ' The orphans' 
court, however, for four or five years remained unfixed to any one place, and is 
said to have followed the persons of the j udges. " The justices were intended to be 
appointed at least one from each township, and out of the number some one 
was commissioned to act as president. 

On account of some existing vacancies in the county, the Governor, in Octo- 
ber, 1764, appointed a new board of justices, consisting of John Armstrong, 
James Galbreath, John Byers, Wm. Smith (superseded January 15, 1766, for 
participation in the affair at Fort Loudon), John McKnight, James Carothers, 
Hermanus Alricks, Adam Hoop, Francis Campbell, John Reynolds, Jonathan 
Hoge, Robt. Miller, Wm. Lyon, Robt. Callender, Andrew Calhoun, James 
Maxwell, Samuel Perry, John Holmes and John Allison. These were reap- 
pointed in 1769, together with some others outside the present limits of the 
county, except, perhaps, John Agnew and Turbutt Francis. John Holmes was 
appointed sheriff, and James Jack, coroner, in 1765, and in October, 1768, 
David Hoge was appointed sheriff, and William Denny, coroner (these appoint- 
ments made by the Governor upon returns of election to him). 

August 16, 1765, at a court of oyer and terminer, before Alex. Steadman, 
of the supreme court, and John Armstrong and James Galbreath, Esqs., 
John Money was tried and convicted of felony and the murder of Archibald 
Gray in March previous, and was not long after executed for his crime. One 
Warner was very early tried and executed for the robbery and murder of a 
man named Musselman, near New Kingston. The courts of the county have 
been called upon to try a number of murder cases, and several legal executions 
for murder have occurred in the county. A case in the first court held at 
Shvppensburg was recorded as follows: 

Dominus Hex j Sur Indictmt. for Larceny, not guilty & now ye deft ret her pi and 
vs. >■ submits to ye Ct. and thereupon it is considered by the Court and 

Bridget Hagen. ) adjudged that ye sd Bridget Hagen restore the sum of Six pounds 
seventeen shillings & six pence lawful money of Penna. unto Jacob Long ye owner and 
make fine to ye Governor in ye like sum and pay ye costs of prosecution & receive fifteen 
lashes on her bare back at ye Public Whipping prist & stand committed till ye fine & fees 
are paid. 

The whipping post was, with the stocks and pillory, on the square near the 
court house. Generally in the sentence where a culprit was to receive lashes 
they were to be ' ' well laid on, " as in the case of Wm. Anderson, convicted of 
felony at the January term in 1751. Whipping was the ordinary mode of 
punishment, and probably the executioner used his lash with telling effect. 

In the court of quarter sessions for July, 1753, sixteen bills were presented 
to the grand jury against a number of persons ' ' for conveying spurious liquor 
to the .Indians out of the inhabited portion of this province." The jury 
ignored most of them. As a writer says: "To the noble red man civilization 
had already become a failure. ' ' 

Cases of imprisonment for debt occupied the time and attention of the 
early courts and lawyers, as page after page of the common pleas record testi- 
fies. Entries like the following are by no means uncommon: 

Upon reading the petition of A. B., a prisoner under execution in the public gaol of 
this county, to the court, it is therefore ordered by the Court that the petitioner notify 

his creditors to appear the day of next, and now (same date) the Court order the 

above petitioner to be brought into court; and now, being brought into court, the Court 
do thereupon remand him, the said A. B., to the public gaol. 

By the Court. 


Sometimes it waa bo arranged thai the prisoner was discharged, 01 

aionally Bold OT bonnd to Bom le to work out the amouni of his indebted 

in--, the person baring advanced the same t<> the creditors. 

n oFFia lls. 

Clerks of Qua ■ L789, Samuel Postlethwaite; L794, John 

I . . L798, I i Haller; 1809, CJharles Bovard. 

Clerks Orphans' Court, Registers of Wills and Recorders of Deeds, — John 
Oreigh, appointed April 7. 1777: resigned February 9, 1779, and succeeded 

February 13, bj William Lyon, who was also appointed to r ive subscriptions 

tor the State loan. Mr. Lyon was also in L777-79 Clerk of oyer and terminer, 
and prothom 

Clerks <h-j>/,a,is' Courts, Oyer and Terminer, <tn<i Prothonotaries. — L798, 
William Lyon; 1809, William Ramsey; L816, Robert McCoy. 

Prothonotaries. 17-"><> 7". Eermanns Alricks, Turbutt Francis, John 
Agnew; 1777, We Lyon; L820, B. Lughinbaugh; 1823, John P. Helfenstein; 
1826, 1!. McCoy; 1828, Willis Fonlke; 1829, John Harper; ls:;.\ ( ;,,„-,■ 
Fleming: 1839, George Sanderson; 1842, Thomas 11. Oriswellj L845, William 
M Beetem; ls|s. James F. Lamberton; 1851, c 1.-. n j_c»< Zinn, Jr.; L854, 
Daniel K. Noell; ls:>7. Philip Quigley; I860, Benjamin Duke; 1863, Samuel 
Shireman; 1886, John P. Brindle 1869, Wm V. Cavanaugh; IS7'2, David 
W. Worst; 1^ ."•. John M. Walla.-.; ls7s. Robert M. Graham; 1881, James 

A. Sibbet; lss;, l.ewi- Masonheituer. 

Begistera and Recorders. — 1798, George Kline; 1804, Francis Gibson; 1809, 
Kline; 1816, William Line: 1820, F. Sharretts: 1823-28, J. Hendell ; 
1829, John Irvine. 

/■'',/ 14, James G. Oliver; 1835, Wm. Line; 1839, Isaac Ang- 

ney; 1842, Jacob Bretz; L845, James McCulloch; is|s, Wm. Gould; 1851, A 
aler; 1854, Wm. Lytle; 1857, Samuel M. Emminger; I860, Ernest N. 
Brady; 1863, George W. North; 1866, Jacob Dorsheimer; 1869, Joseph Neely; 
l^.'J. John Reep; 1875, Martin Guswiler; 1878, J. M. Drawbangh; 1881, C. 
Jaooby; 1884, Lemuel R. Spong. 

Coroners. -1765-67, James Jack: 1768-70, William Denny; 1771-73, 
Samuel Laird; 1774-76, James Pollock; 1777. John Martin; 177s. William 
Rippey; 1779, William Holmes 1781, William Rippey; 17s:;. John Kea. 

Clerks of Court. -1820, John McGinnis : Wl:\ •_'•';. John Irvine: lsi's. \\ 
Sharrett-: 1829, 1.'. Angney. 

Clerks and Recorders. 1832, Reinneck Angney; 1834, John Irvine; 1836, 
Thos. Craighead; L839. Willis Fonlke; L842, Robt. Wilson; L845, John 

(i lyear; 1848, John Hyer; 1851, Samuel Martin; 1854, John M. Gregg; 

1857, Daniel s. Cr.»ft: 1860, John B. Floyd ; 1863, Ephraim Cornman; 1868, 
Samuel Bixler; 1869, George C. Sheaffer; ls7'_'. George S. Emig; ls7."., D. 

B. Stevick: 1878, John Sheaffer; L881, D. B. Saiton; 1884, John Zinn. 
Sheriffs.- 1 , in. John Potter; 1 750, Ezekiel Dunning; 1756, Wm. Parker; 

1759, Ezekiel Smith: 1762, Ezekiel Dunning; L765, John Holmes; L768, 
David Hoge; 1771, Ephraim Blaine; 1771. Robt. Semple; 1777. James 
Johnson; L780, John Hoge; L783, Sam'] Postlethwaite; 1786, Ohas. L 
1789, Thos. Buchanan; 1792, Jam.-- Wallace; I ','- , '<. Jacob Crever; 17'.ts, 
John Carothers; 1801, Robt Greyson; lsut. George Stroup; 1807, John 
Carothers; 1810, John Boden; 1813, John Rupley; 1816, Andrew Mitchell; 
1819, Peter Ritney; ls-_>-_>. James Neal; 1825, John Clippinger; ls-js. .Martin 
Dnnlap; 1831, George Beetem; 1834, Michael Holcomb; ls;;7. John Myers; ism. 
Paul Martin: 1843, Adam Longsdorf: 1N46, James Hotter: 1849, David Smith; 


1852, Joseph McDarmond; 1855, Jacob Bowman; 1858, Robert McCartney; 
1861, J. Thompson Rippey; 1864, John Jacobs; 1867, Joseph C. Thompson; 
1870, James K Foreman; 1873, Joseph Totten; 1876, David H. Gill; 1879, 
A. A. Thomson; 1882, George B. Eyster; 1885, James B. Dixon. 

Treasurers. — 1787, Stephen Duncan; 1789, Alex McKeehan; 1795, Robt. 
Miller; 1800, James Duncan; 1805, Hugh Boden; 1807, John Boden; 1810, 
Robert McCoy; 1813, John McGinnis; 1815, Andrew Boden; 1817, George 
McFeely; 1820, Jas. Thompson; 1824, Geo. McFeely; 1826, Alex. Nesbitt; 
1829, Hendricks Weise; 1832, John Phillips; 1835, Jason W.Eby; 1838, Wm. 
S. Ramsey; 1839, Robt. Snodgrass; 1841, Wm. M. Mateer; 1843, Robt. Moore, 
Jr. ; 1845, David N. Mahon; 1847, Robt. Moore, Jr. ; 1849, Wm. M. Porter; 
1851, William S. Cobean; 1853, N. Wilson Woods; 1855, Adam Senseman; 

1857, Moses Bricker; 1859, Alfred L. Sponsler; 1861, John Gutshall; 1863, 
Henry S. Ritter; 1865, Levi Zeigler; 1867, Christian Mellinger; 1869, George 
Wetzel; 1871, George Bobb: 1873, Levan H. Orris; 1875, A. Agnew Thom- 
son; 1878, JohnC. Eckels; 1881, W. H. Longsdorff; 1884, Jacob Hemminger. 

District Attorneijs.—18oQ, Wm. H. Miller; 1853 and 1858, Wm. J. Sbearer; 
1859 and 1864, J. W. D. Gillelen; 1865 and 1870, C. E. Maglaughlin; 1871, 
W. F. Sadler; 1874, F. E. Beltzhoover; 1877, George S. Ewing; 1880, John 
M. Wetzel; 1883, John T. Stuart. 

County Commissioners.— 1839, Alex. M. Kerr; 1840, Michael Mishler; 1841, 
Jacob Rehrar; 1842, Robt. Laird; 1843, Christian Titzel; 1844, Jefferson 
Worthington; 1845, David Sterrett; 1846, Daniel Coble; 1847, John Mell; 
1848, James Kelso; 1849, John Sprout; 1850, Wm. H. Trout; 1851, James 
G. Cressler; 1852, John Bobb; 1853, James Armstrong; 1854, George M. Gra- 
ham; 1855, Wm. M. Henderson; 1856, Andrew Kerr; 1857, Sam'l Magaw; 

1858, Nath'l H. Eckels; 1859, James H. Waggoner; 1860, George Miller; 
1861, Michael Kast; 1862, George Scobey; 1863, John McCoy, three years; 
Mitchell McClellan, two years; 1864, Henry Karns, John HatTis; 1S65, Alex. 
F. Meek; 1866, Michael G. Hale; 1867, Allen Floyd; 1869, Jacob Rhoads; 
1870, David Deitz; 1871. J. C. Sample; 1872, Samuel Ernst; 1873, Jacob 
Barber; 1874, Joseph Bautz; 1875, Jacob Barber; 1878, Jacob Barber, Hugh 
Boyd; 1881, Hugh Boyd, Alfred B. Strock; 1884, James B. Brown, George 

President Judges. — 1750-57, Samuel Smith; 1757, Francis West; 1791, 
Thos. Smith; 1794, Jas. Riddle; 1800, John Joseph Henry; 1806, James 
Hamilton; 1819, Chas. Smith; 1820, John Beed; 1838, Sam'l Hepburn; 1848, 
Fred'k Watts; 1851, James H. Graham; 1871, Benj. F. Junkin; 1875, Mar- 
tin C. Herman; 1884, Wilbur F. Sadler. 

Associate Judges. — 1791, James Dunlap, John Jordan, Jonathan Hoge, 
Sam'l Laird; 1794, John Montgomery; 1800, Wm. Moore, JohnCreigh; 1813, 
Ephraim Steel; 1814, Jacob Hendel; 1818, Isaiah Graham: 1819, James Arm- 
strong; 1828, Wm. Line; 1835, James Stewart, John LeFevre; 1842, T. C. 
Miller; 1847, John Clendenin; 1851, Sam'l Woodburn, John Rupp; 1856, 
Sam'l Woodburn, Michael Cochlin; 1861, Robt. Bryson; 1862, Hugh Stuart; 
1866, Thos. P. Blair; 1871, John Clendenin, Robt. Montgomery; 1872, Hen- 
ry G. Moser, Abram Witmer. 


Representatives in Congress. — 1775-77, Col. James Wilson; 1778-80, Gen. 
John Armstrong; 1783 (to July 4), John Montgomerv; 1797-1805, John A. 
Hanna; 1805-13, Robt. Whitehill; 1813-14, Wm. Crawford; 1815-21, Wm. 
P. Maclay; 1827-33, Wm. Ramsey; 1833 (unexpired term), C. T. H. Craw- 


ford; L885 37, Jesse Miller; L888 H), Wm, Sterretl Ramsey; L841- 18, Amos 
Gustine; 1843 I,. James Blaok; 1847 19, Jasper E. Brady; L849 53, J. X. 
ahan; L853 55, W m. H. Kurtz; L855 57, Lemuel Todd; 1857 59, 
John A. Alii: L859 61, Benj. P. Junkin; L861 65, Joseph Bailey; L865 <'.'•'' 
Adam J. Gloasbrenner; L869 78, Riohard J. Haldeman; L873 75, John L 
I Todd at large; L875 7'.'. Levi Maiah; L879 81, Frank E. 
Beltahoover; L888, W. A Duncan (died in office, and Dr. John A. Swo 
Gettysburg, elected to fill vaoancj December 23, L884; also re-elected in No- 
vember, 1885). 

8taU Senators.- 1841-43, J. X McLanahan; 1844 UJ, Wm. B. Ander- 
Bon; L847 19, Robi C. Sterrett; L850 52, Joseph Baily; is.".:: 55, 
Wherry; 1856 58, Eenrj Fetter; l^.'.'.' 61, Wm. B. Erwine; L862 64, George 
H. Buohex; 1865 67, A. Heistand Glatz; 1868 To. Andrew G. Miller; L871- 
, I. James M. Weakley; 1875 78, .1 ames Chestnut ; 1878, Isaac Hereter; 1882, 
Bamuel 0. Wagner. 

Representatives in Assembly. — 1779 80, Abraham Smith, Sam'l Cuthbert- 
Bon, Fredk. Watts, Jona. Hoge, John Harris, Wm. McDowell, Ephraim Steel; 
L780-81, S. Cuthbertson, Stephen Duncan. Wm. Brown, J. Hoge, John An- 
drew, John Harris. John Allison ; L781 82, James McLean, John Allison, Jas. 
Johnston, Wm. Brown, Robi Magaw, John Montgomery, Stephen Duncan: 
L782 B3, s. Duncan, John Carothers, J. Johnston, Wm. Brown, Jas. McLene, 
J. Hoge, Patrick Maxwell; 1783 84, Win. Brown, of Carlisle. F. Watts, Jas. 
Johnston, John Carothers. Abraham Smith. Win. Brown, Robt. Whitehill; 
L81 l. Jacob Alter. Samuel Fenton. Jas. Lowry, Andrew Boden and Wm. An- 
derson; 1815, Philip Peffer, Wm. Wallace and Solomon Gorgas: 1824, James 
Dunlap; 1829, Wm. Alexander. Peter Lobach; 1833, Michael Cochlin, Sam'l 
McKeehan; L834, David Emmert; 1835, William Runsha (died suddenly in 

office), ('has. MoClure; 1836-38, Wm. R. Gorgas, .las. \\ Iburn; L840, 

Abraham Smith McKinney, John Zimmerman; 1841, Wm. Barr, Joseph Cul- 
ver; 1842, James Kennedy, Geo. Brindle; L843, Francis Eckels; 1843 II. 
Jacob Hack; 1844, Geo. Brindle; L845, Augustus H. Van Hoff, Joseph M. 
L846, James Mackey, Armstrong Noble; 1847, Jacob LeFevre; 1847 18, 
Abraham Lamberton; 1848, Geo. Rupley; 1849 50, Henry Church, Thos. E. 
Scouller; 1851, Elba J. Bonham; 1851-52, Robt. M. Henderson; 1852-53^ 
David J. McKee; 1853, Henry J. Moser; L854, Montgomery Donaldson, Geo. 
swell; is."..", .".!',, William Harper, .lam.- Anderson; 1857, ('has. C. 
Brandt; 1857-58, Hugh Stuart; 1858-59, John McCurdy; L859, John Power; 
I860, Wm B. Irvine, Wm. Louther; 1861. ■!.--.. • Kennedv; 1st 11 -62, John P.' 
Bhoads; L863 64, JohnD. Bowman; 1st',.", c,c,. Philip Long; 1867-08, Theo- 
dore Cornman: 1869 70, John P.. Leidig; 1871 72, Jacob Bomberger; L873 
74. Wm. B. Butler; L874 7.".. G .M. Mumper; 1876 77. Sam'l W. Means; 
1877-78, Samuel A. Bowers; lsTs so, Alfred M Rhoads, Robt, M. Co 
Jr.; 1882, Geo. M. D. Eckels, John Graham. 

Representatives in Sup 1 %tive Council. March I. 1777. Jonathan 

Hoge; Xovmber 9, 177s (from what is now Franklin County), Jami 
Lean; December 28, 1779, Robert Whitehill. of Fast Pennsborough; L781 
s I. John Bj era 

In the committ .f safety John Montgomery was representative from 

Cumberland County during the life of the committee. William Lyon was a 
member of the Council of Safety until its close. December 4, 1777. 

Commiaawi embly, etc. Prom November, 1777. and later. Will- 

iam Duflield, James .McLean. William (lark. James Brown, Robert Whitehill, 
John Harris. In 1 1 i i John Andrew was commissioner of the county, while 


James Lyon, William McClure, William Finley, James McKee, James Laird 
and George Kobinson were assessors. William Piper was collector of excise 
in 1778, and Matthew Henderson in 1779, William Irvine in 1781, and John 
Buchanan in 1782. James Poe became commissioner of taxes October 22, 
1783, and Stephen Duncan county treasurer. J. Agnew was at the same time 
clerk of the quarter sessions, over which court John Rannells, Esq. , presided 
for some time subsequent to January 20, 1778, on which date the ' ' Grand In- 
quest for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the body of the County of 
Cumberland" presented the following: "That the public Court House of the 
County of Cumberland is now occupied by Capt. Coran and his men, who are 
employed in the service of the "United States, as a laboratory and store- 
house, and has been occupied by the people in the service of the United States 
for a considerable time past, so that the County of Cumberland can not have 
the use of the said Court House, but are obliged to hire other places for the 
county's use — they are of opinion that the United States ought to pay to the 
treasurer of the County of Cumberland, after the rate of £10 per month, 
monthly and every month Capt. Coran hath been possessed of said Court House, 
and for every month he or they may continue to occupy it, not exceeding the 
20th day of April next; and of this they desire that Capt. Coran, or the com- 
manding officer of the laboratory company, may have notice. Per Wm. 
Moore, foreman. ' ' 


Bench and Bar— Provincial Period— From the Revolution Until the 
Adoption or the Constitution of 1790 — Constitutional Period. 



THE bar of Cumberland County had its birth in the colonial period of our 
history — in the days when Pennsylvania was a province, and when 
George II was the reigning king. Courts of justice had been established by the 
proprietaries in the settled portions of the province, at first under the laws of 
the Duke of York, and subsequently under the rides of the common law ; but 
the necessity for them became greater as the population increased, as new sec- 
tions were settled, and it was this necessity for the establishment of courts of 
justice nearer than Lancaster, in this newly settled portion of Pennsylvania, 
which was the principal reason for the formation of Cumberland County in 

From this period begins the history of our bar. For nearly one hundred 
years succeeding the settlement of Pennsylvania, few of the justices knew 
anything of the theory or practice of law, until after they had received their 
commissions from the King. Even the ' ' Provincial Council. ' ' which was the high 
court of appeal, and which was presided over by the governor of the province, 
had frequently no lawyer in it ; but by the time of the formation of our coun- 
ty a race of lawyers had arisen in Pennsylvania, who ' ' traveled upon the 
circuit" — many of whom became eminent in the State and nation — whose 
names will be found in the early annals of our bar. 



The iir-t courts in the Cumberland Valley were held at Shippenflburg; (our 
terms, dating from the 24th of July, 1750, to and including April. 17-M. But 
when Carlisle (Letort's Spring, as it had I I was Laid oui and chosen 

by the proprietaries as the county scat, they were removed to that place, 

At the first term of court in Shippensburg Samuel Smith, who had been a 
member "f the Colonial Assembly, and his associate justices presided ; John 
Potter had been appointed the first sheriff, and Eermanus Uricks, of Carlisle, 
a grands or Alricks, who came from Holland in 1682 with dispatches 

t.. the Dutch on the Delaware and who was himself, at this time (1749 50), the 
first representative of Cumberland County in the assembly, produced his eom- 
from the governor of the province, under the great seal, as clerk of the 
peace for the said county, which was read and recorded. 

FIRST I OUBT9 \ r C LEI i - 

The first court held at Carlisle was in the year immediately succeeding the 
formation of the county, and was "a court of general quarter sessions, held at 
Carlisle, for the county of Cumberland, the twenty third day of July, 1 751, 
in the twenty-fifth year of our Sovereign Lord. Bong George II. ovet 
Britain, etc B Fore Samuel Smith, Esq., and his associate justi 

■ first courts were probably held in "a temporary log building on the 
northeast corner of the public square." The court house was used during the 
Revolution, and as late as January, 177 s -. by (apt. Coran and a compi 
United States troops as a laboratory, so that the justices were compelled to 
hold courts at temporary places elsewhere. 


The justice- who presided were commissioned, through the governor of the 
province, by the King. The Dumber of ;■ ces varied from t 

time. The court- of quarter sessions and common pleas were held four times 
each year, and private sessions, presided over often by the associate justices, 
irregularly, a- asion called for. 

At the beginning of our history the public prosecutor was the Crow 
aU criminal cases are entered accordingly in the name of the King, as: The 
King 08. John Smith. This is until the Revolution, when, about 177 s -. the 

form is changed t.> " Pennsylvania us. ," which is used until August, 

fter which the form " Bespublica vs. " is used until August, 

1832, when the word "Commonwealth," which is now in use, appears. 

The form of the pleadings at this early period may he considered curious: 

The King ) 

v Sur Indictment for Assault find Battery. Mdbrat. ) 

Being charged with avers he is not guilty as in tin' indictment is supposed, and upon 
this he pu I and upon thi 

But now the defendant comes into court and ing willing to 

contend with our So the King. Protests his inn 

mitted to a small tine. Whereupon <1 by the court that lie pay the sum of two 

shillings, six pence. Octoberterm, 1751. 

Besides the ordinary actions of trespass, debt, slander, assault and I 

and the like, there were actions in the early courts against persons for -ettline; 
on land unpurchased from the Indians, and quite a dumber "for selling liquor 
to the Indians without license.' 1 For the lighl there were fit 

imprisonments, and for I the ignominious punishment of the whip- 

1 pillory. 


This was then the ordinary method of punishment and the form of the 
sentence was, to take one of many instances, ' ' that he [the culprit] receive 
twenty-one lashes well laid on his bare back, at the public whipping-post in 
Carlisle, to-morrow morning, between the hours of eleven and twelve o'clock, 
that he make restitution to Wm. Anderson in the sum of £18, 14 shillings 
and 6 pence. That he make fine to the Governor in the like sum, and stand 
committed until fine and fees be paid. " — [January term, 1751.] " Twenty-one 
lashes ' ' was the usual number, although in some few cases they were less. 
The whipping-post seems to have been abandoned during the Revolution, as we 
find the last m'ention of it in the records of our court in April, 1779. These 
records also show that the justices of the courts, who seem to have been ex 
officio justices of the peace, superintended the laying out of roads, granted 
licences, took acknowledgments of deeds and registered the private marks or 
brands of cattle. They exercised a paternal supervision over bond servants, 
regulated the length of their terms of service, and sometimes, at the request 
probably of the prisoners, sold them out of goal as servants for a term of 
years, in order that they might be able to pay the fines imposed. In 
short the cases in these early courts, which had distinct equity powers, seem 
to have been determined according to the suggestions of right reason, as well 
as by the fixed principles of law. 


In order that we may get some idea of the foundation of the courts in Cum- 
berland County — of the authority, in the days of kings, from which their power 
was derived — it may be interesting to turn to the old commissions, in which 
the power of the early justices was more or less defined. 

A commission issued in October, 1755, appointing Edward Shippen, Sr. , 
George Stevenson and John Armstrong, justices, is as follows: 

§eorije II, ^ ^ -SB«. */ =^f ./ =^W .gft.?..^ ^m*~ 

GREETING: Know ye that reposing special Trust and Confidence in your Loyalty, 
Integrity, Prudence and Ability, TPV have assigned you or any two of you our Justices to En- 
quire by The Oaths or affirmation of honest and Lawful men of the said Counties of York 
and Cumberland * * of all Treasons, Murders and such other Crimes as are by the 
Laws of our said Province made Capital or felonies of death * * * to have 
and determine the said Treasons, Murders, etc., according to Law, and upon Conviction of 
any person or persons. Judgment or sentence to pronounce and execution thereupon to 
award as The Law doth or shall direct. And we have also appointed you, the said Edward 
Shippen, George Stevenson and Jolin Armstrong, or any two of you, our justices, to de- 
liver the Goals of York and Cumberland aforesaid of the prisoners in the same being for 
any crime or crimes, Capital or Felonies aforesaid, and therefore we command you that at 
certaint imes, which you or any two of you shall consider of, you meet together at the Court 
Houses of the said Counties of Y T ork and Cumberland, to deliver the said goals and Make 
diligent inquiry of and upon the premises, and hear and Determine all and singular the 
said premises, and do and accomplish these things in the form aforesaid, acting always 
therein as to Justice according to Law shall appertain. Saving to us the Amerceiments 
and other things to us thereof Belonging, for we have commanded the Sheriffs of the said 
Counties of York and Cumberland that at certain days, which you shall make known to 
them, to cause to come before you all of the prisoners of the Goals and their attachments, 
and also so many and such honest and Lawful men of their several Bailiwicks as may be 
necessary by whom the truth of the matters concearning may be the better known and en- 
quired. In' testimony whereof we have caused the Great Seal of our Province to be here- 


unto affixed Witness, Robert Turner Morris, Esq. (bj rirtui jlon from 

Thomas Penn and Richard Penn. Bsqs . true and absolute p 

with our Royal approbatlon.Lieutenant Qovernorandl el ofthe Provroci 

m'U.iu"...! couAties ol New Castel, Threnl and Bui a , Phlkdelphia, 

the ninth. lav of October, in the year oi our Lord one thousam dred and nttv- 

liv.- and in the twenty-ninth year of our reign Iobhki I. Kobbis. 

Another commission was issued April 5, 1757, to John Armstrong, appoint 
ing him a justice of the oonrl of common pleasforthe oounty of Cumberland. 
The powere of these provinoial justices were much more extensive then than 
those which belong to the office of a justice now. and for some time the ooun- 
t\ of Cumberland, over which their jurisdiction extended, included nearly all 
of Pennsylvania west ofthe Susquehanna. 

Many of the justices who were appointed never appear upon the bench. 
Not lees than three presided at each term of court, one as the presiding justice 
and the others as associates. Sometimes only tin' name ofthe presiding jus- 
tice is given; sometimes all are mentioned. Thej Beem to have held various 
term-, and to have rotated without any discoverable rule of regularity. The 
justices who. with their associates, presided during the provincial period, until 
the breaking out of the revolution, were as follows: 


Samuel Smith, from July, 1750, to October, 17r>7; Francis West, fxomOc- 
tober L757 to 1759; John Armstrong, Francis Wesi and Hermanns AMcks, 
January. 1760; Francis West, July, 1760; John McKnight, October, 1760; 
John Armstrong, April, 1781; James Galbreath, October, 1761; John Ann- 
strong. January? L762; James Galbreath, April. I 762; John Armstrong, July, 
L782; Thomas Wilson, April, 1763; John Armstrong, from October, 1703, to 
April. 1776. . , , . ,, 

The above embraces the names of all the justices who presided prior to the 
Revolution, with the exception possibly of a few, who held but a single term of 
curt. It will be Been thai from October, I 757, the judges rotated irregularly 
at brief intervals until October. 1 763, when John Armstrong occupied the bench 
for a period of nearly thirteen years. 

Of these justices John fiffcEnighi was afterward a captain in the Revolution; 
Francis West was an Englishman who went to Ireland and then immigrated to 
America and settled in Carlisle in or before 1753. He was an educated man 
and a loyalist His sister Ann became the wife of his friend and co-justice, 
Hermanns Alricks, and his daughter, ofthe same name, married Col. George 
Gibson, the father of John Bannister Gibson, who was afterward to become 
the chief justice of Pennsylvania. Francis Wesi sometime prior to the Revo- 
lution moved to Sherman'- Valley, where he died in 1 783. 

Thomas Wilson lived near Carlisle. 

James Galbreath. another of these justices, was born in 1 703, in the 
of Ireland. He was a man of note on the frontier, and the early provincial 
records of Pennsylvania contain frequent reference to him. He had been sher- 
iff, - in 1742, andfor many years a justice of thai county. He had 
served in the Indian wars of 1755 63, and some time previous to L762 had 
I to Cumberland County. He died June 11, 1786, in what was then 
I. st Pennsborongh Township. 

Hermanns Alricks was the first clerk of the courts, from 1 750 to 1 i 70, and 
the tii -t representative of Cumberland County in the Provinoial Assembly. 
He was 1 L730 in Philadelphia. He settled in Carlisle aboui 1749 

or 1750, and brought with him his bride, a young lady lately from Ireland, 
with her brother, Francis West, then about to settle in the same place. He 


was a man of mark and influence in the valley west of the Susquehanna. He 
died in Carlisle December 14, 1772. 

But the greatest of these, and " the noblest Roman of them all, " was Col. 
John Armstrong. He first appears as a surveyor under the proprietary gov- 
ernment, and made the second survey of Carlisle in 1761. In 1755 we find 
him commissioned a justice of the courts by George II, and from 1703 until his 
duties as a major-general in the Revolution called him from the bench, we 
find him, for a period of nearly thirteen years, presiding over our courts. 
He was at this time already a colonel, and had already distinguished himself 
in the Indian war. In 1755 he had cleaned out the nest of savages at Kittan- 
ning, and had received a medal from the corporation of Philadelphia. When, 
later the Revolution broke out, we find him, in 1776, a brigadier-general of 
the Continental Army (commissioned March 1, 1776), and in the succeeding 
year a major-general in command of the Pennsylvania troops. He was a warm, 
personal friend of Washington. He was a member of Congress in 1778-80, 
and 1787-88. It was, probably, owing to his influence, in a great measure, 
that the earliest voice of indignant protest was raised in Carlisle against the 
action of Great Britain against the colonies. " He was a man of intelligence, 
integrity, resolute and brave, and, though living habitually in the fear of the 
Lord, he feared not the face of man."* He died March 9, 1795, aged seventy- 
five years. He was buried in the old grave-yard at Carlisle. 


In this provincial period these were our judges: George Ross, afterward 
a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was the public prosecutor for the 
Crown from 1751 to 1764; Robert Magaw follows in 1765-66, and Jasper 
Yeates in 1770; Benjamin Chew, who was a member of the Provincial Coun- 
cil, and afterward, during the Revolution, a Loyalist, was, at this time, 1759- 
68, attorney-general, and prosecuted many of the criminal cases, from 1759 to 
1769, in our courts. He was, in 1777, with some others, received by the 
sheriff of this county, and held at Staunton, Va. , till the conclusion of the war. 


The earliest practitioners at our bar, from 1759 to 1764. were George Ross, 
James Smith (afterward a signer of the Declaration of Independence), James 
Campbell, Samuel Johnston, Jasper Yeates and Robert Magaw. 

From 1764 to 1770, George Stevenson, James Wilson (also a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence), James Hamilton (afterward judge), David 
Sample, David Grier, Wetzel, Morris, and Samuel Johnston, were the leading 
attorneys. Up to this time Magaw, Stevenson and Wilson had the largest 
practice. During this period, in 1770, Col. Turbutt Francis becomes clerk of 
the court, as successor of Hermanus Alricks; and from 1771 to 1774. Ephraim 
Blaine, afterward commissary in the Revolution, and the grandfather of the 
Hon. James G . Blaine, of Maine, was sheriff of the county. 

THE BAR IN 1776. 

During this first year of our independence the practitioners at the bar were 
John Steel (already in large practice), James Campbell, George Stevenson, 
James Wilson, Samuel Johnston, David Grier, Col. Thomas Hartley (of York). 
Jasper Yeates, James Smith, Edward Burd and Robert Galbreath. It is a 
noteworthy fact that two of the men who practiced in our courts in this mem- 
orable year were signers of the Declaration of Independence. 

♦Chamber's tribute to the Scotch-Irish settlers, p. 88. 


lion. George Ross, who, at the age of twenty-two, was the firs! public 
itor tor the Crown in oua courts in Cumberland County, was the boo of 
Ross, an Episcopal minister, and was born in New Castle, Del., in 
IT::" Be began the practice of law in Lancaster in L751. He acted as prose 
outing attorney for the Crown in our count] from 17M to 17(11. and practiced 
in our courts until Ootober, 1772. He was a member of the Colonial \ em 
bly of Pennsylvania from L768 to ITT<>. and when this bodj ceased, or was 
continued in the Legislature, he \\a- a member of thai bodj also. In 1771 he 

was one of the committ f seven wl ated Pennsylvania intfa 

tinental Congress, and remained a member until January. 1777. He was a 
signer o laration of Independence. He died at Lancaster in .lulv. 

ppearanoe George Ross was a verj handsome man. with a high 
forehead, regular features, oval face, long hair, worn in the fashion of the day, 
ami pleasing countenance. 

Col. James Smith is one of the earliest names found as a practici oner, in this 
provincial period, a! thi ounty. There is a brief notice 

of him in Day's Historical Collections. He was an [rishman b} birth, but 

came to this country when quite young. In Graydon - W< re il is stated 

that he was educated at the college in Philadelphia, was admitted to the bar, 
and afterward removed to the vicinity of Shippensburg, and there established 
himself as a lawyer. From there he removed to York, where he continued to 
reside until hi- death, July 11, L806, at the age of about ninety three years. 
He was a member of Congress in L775 78. He was one of the signers of the 
Deolarati f Independence. For b period of sixty years he had a large an. 1 lu- 
crative practice in the eastern counties, from which lie withdrew inabout 1800. 
During the Revolution he commanded, as colonel, a regiment in the Penn 
sylvania line. A. more extended notice of him can he found in Saunderson's 
■ I - . ' Lives of the sign Declaration of Independence. 

James Wilson LL.D. is another of these earliesl practitioners at the bar. His 
name occurs on the records as earlj as 17i'..;. 11, ■ was a Scotchman h 
born in 1742, and had received a finished education at St. Andrews, EJdin 
burgh and Glasgow, under Dr. Blair in rhetoric, and Dr. Watt- in logic. In 
1766 he had come to reside in Philadelphia, where he studied law with 
John Dickinson, the colonial governor, and founder of D ollege. 

Whenl admitted to], ran;. n|, hi- residence in Carlisle, and at once 

to the foremost of our bar. At tin meeting at Carlisle, in July. 1771, 

which protested against the action oi I the colonies, he. 

with Irvine and Magaw, was appointed a delegate to meei those of other 
counties of th< - the initiatory step 

from the different colonies, lie was subsequently a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, and when the motion for independence was finally 
upon in Congress, the vol ,- carried in it- favor by the 

casting vote of James Wilson, of Cumberland County. '-He had." saye Ban 
croft, in his History of the United Mat--. " at an earl] daj foreseen independ- 
- the probable, though not the intended result of the contest," ami al 
though he was not. at first, avowedly in favor of ;, severance from the d 
country, he desired it when he had received definite instructions from bi 

Btituents, and when he -aw that nearly tile whole ma-- of the | pie were in 

favor of it In 1776 he was a colonel in the Revolution I rom L779 to 17"-:; 
he held the position of advocate general for tic French nation, whose business 
it wa- to draw up plans for regulating the intercourse tntry with the 

United State-, for which services he received a reward, from the French 
of 1,000 livres. He wa- at this time director of the Bank of North Ami 


He was one of the most prominent members in the convention of 1787 which 
formed the constitution of the United States. "Of the fifty-five dele- 
gates," says McMaster, in' his History of the People of the United States, " he 
was undoubtedly the best prepared by deep and systematic study of the his- 
tory and science of government, for the work that lay before him. The Mar- 
quis de Chastellux, himself a no mean student, had been struck with the wide 
ranwe of his erudition, and had spoken in high terms of his library. ' There,' 
said he, 'are all our best writers on law and jurisprudence. The works of 
President Montesquieu and of Chancellor D'Aguesseau hold the first rank 
among them, and he makes them his daily study.' (Travels of Marquis de 
Chastellux in North America p. 109. ) This learning Wilson had in times past 
turned to excellent use, and he now became one of the most active members of 
the convention. None, with the exception of Gouverneur Morris, was so often 
on his feet during the debates or spoke more to the purpose."* [McMaster' s 
History Vol. I, p. 421.] By this time Wilson had removed from Carlisle and 
lived in Philadelphia. He was appointed, under the Federal Constitution, 
one of the first judges of the Supreme Court of the United States, by President 
Washington, in which office he continued until his death. In 1/90 he was 
appointed professor of law in the legal college at Philadelphia, which, during 
his incumbency, was united with the university. He received the degree 
of L.L.D., and delivered a course of lectures on jurisprudence which were 
published. He died August 26. 1798, aged fifty-six. 

Col. Robert Magaw, was another practitioner at this early period. He was an 
Irishman by birth', and resided in Cumberland County, prior to the Revolu- 
tion, in which war he served as colonel of the Fifth Pennsylvania Battalion. 
In 1774 be was one of the delegates from this county to a convention at Phila- 
delphia for the purpose of concerting measures to call a general congress of 
delegates from all the colonies. He was a prominent member of the bar, a 
brave officer, and a trustee of Dickinson College from 1783 until his death He 
had a very large practice prior to the Revolution. He died January 7^ 1790. 

The name of Jasper Yeates appears upon our records as early as 1763, and 
for a period of twenty-one years (1784) his name appears as a practitioner at 
our bar. He resided in Lancaster. He was an excellent lawyer and practiced 
over a large territory in the eastern counties of the State. On March 21, 1 /91, 
he was appointed by Gov. Mifflin one of the associate justices of the su- 
preme court, which position he filled until the time of his death m 1817. In 
appearance he was tall, portly, with handsome countenance, florid complexion 
and blue eyes. He was the compiler of the early Pennsylvania reports which 
bear his name. . _ 
George Stevenson, LL.D., was a prominent member of the barm 1/(0. 
His name appears upon the records as early as 1770. He was born in Dublin m 
1718, educated at Trinity College, and emigrated to America about the middle 
of the century. He was appointed deputy surveyor-general under Nicholas 
Scull for the three lower counties on the Delaware, known as the ' ' territories 
of Pennsylvania," which William Penn obtained from the Duke of York in 
1682. He afterward removed to York and was appointed a justice under 
George II in 1755. [See commission, page 7.] In 1769 he moved to 
Carlisle and became a leading member of the bar. He died at this place in 
1783. Some of his correspondence may be seen in the Colonial Records, 
and the Pennsylvania Archives. He married the widow of Thomas Cookson, 
a distinguished lawyer of Lancaster, who was instructed, in connection with 
Nicholas Scull, to lay out th e town of Carlisle in 1751. 

*As a matter of curiosity we may mention-, number of speeches were Morris, 173; Wilson, 168; Madison , 161 ; 
Sherman, 138; Mason, 136; Elbridge Gerry, 119. 


t apt . John Steel was a prominent member of our bar in L776. He had l o 

admitted, on motion of Col. Magaw, only three years previously, April term, 

:.l Beems immediately to have oome into a large practice. We find him 

having a large practice again from 1782 to L785,8harily after which date hia name 

disappears from the records. Oapi John Bteel was the Bon of Rev. John Steel, 

known as the "fighting parson," and was born at Carlisle, July L5, 1.11. 

Parson Steel led a oompanj of men from Carlisle and acted as a chaplain in 

rolutionary Army, while In- Bon, John Steel, the subject ofour Bketoh, 

led, as a captain, a company of men from the same place, ami joined the army 

..f Washington after he had crossed the Delaware. He was the father of 

Amelia Steel, the mother of the late Robert Given, of Carlisle. He married 

Moore, a sister of Mrs, Jane Thompson, who was the mother of Eliza 

beth Bennett, the maternal grandmother of the writer. He died about 1812. 

Col Thomas Hartley, who appeared as a pra/ our bar in 1770. 

mi in Berks County in 17 is. Her ivedthe rudiments of a classical 

education at Reading, when he went to fork at the age of eighteen, and stud 
ied law under Samuel Johnston He commenced practice in 1789. Heap 
ii. 'i- at our bar from April. 1771. to L797. Col. Hartley be- 
came distinguished both in the cabinet and the field In 1771 he was elected 
member of the Provincial Meeting of deputies, which met in Philadelphia 

in .Inly of that year. In the sin eding year he was a member of the 

Provincial Convention In the beginning of the war he became a colonel 
in the Revolution He served in 177S in the Indian war on the west 
branch of the Susquehanna, and in the same year was elected a member of the 
Legislature from York County. In 17S3 he was a member of the council of 
In 17^7 he was 8 member of the State Convention, which adopteil 
the Federal Constitution. In L788 he was elected to Congress and served for 
a period of twelveyears. In I s1 " 1 he was commissioned by Gov. MoKean 
major-general of the Fifth Division of Pennsylvania Militia. He was an ex- 
cellent lawyer, a pleasant speaker, and had a large practice. He died in York 
December "J 1. 1 si n i. aged fifty -two yei 

These were some of the men who practiced atour bar in the memorable 
year 177'i. men who by their services in the forum and the field helped to lay 
broad and deep the foundations of the government which we enjoy. 



OF 1790. 

From the period of the Revolution, until the adoption of the constitution 
of 1790, the court-, were presided over by the following justices: 

John Bannalls and associates, from L776 to January, 17s.".; Samuel Laird 
and associates, from January, 17s."., to January, L786; Thomas Beals and 
associates. April. 17si'>; John Jordan and associates, from July. 1786, till 
October, L791. 

Owing to the adoption of the Declaration, and the a asityof taking anew 

fch, most of the attorneys were re-admitted in 177s. Among these were 
Jasper YeateB, James Smith, James Wilson, Edward Burd and David Grier. 
Thomas Hartley was re admitted in July of the sua ling year. 

James Hamilton, who afterward became the fourth judge under the Consti- 

' p. 335-6. Also 


tution was admitted to practice upon the motion of Col. Thomas Hartly in 
April, 1781. 

Among the names of those who practiced during this period between the 
Eevolution and the adoption of the Constitution of 1790, are the following: 

Hon. Edward Shippen was admitted to our bar in October, 1778. He was 
the son of Edward Shippen, Sr., the founder of Shippensburg, and was born 
February 16, 1729. In 1748 he was sent to England to be educated at the 
Inns of Court. In 1771 he was a member of the "Proprietary and Governors' 
Council." He afterward rose rapidly and became chief justice of Pennsyl- 
vania. He was the father of the wife of Gen. Benedict Arnold. During the 
Eevolution his sympathies were with England, but owing to the purity of his 
character and the impartiality with which he discharged his official duties, the 
new government restored him to the bench. His name appears upon our 
records as late as 1800. 

James Hamilton was admitted in April, 1781. He afterward became the 
fourth president judge of our judicial district. He was an Irishman by birth, 
and was admitted to the bar in his native country, but immigrated to America 
before the Revolution, and first settled for a short time in Pittsburgh, then a 
small frontier settlement, but soon afterward removed to Carlisle, where he 
acquired a large practice. 

Hon. Thomas Duncan's name is found as a practitioner as early as 1781;* 
The date of his admission to the bar is not known to us. He was of Scutch 
ancestry, and a native of Carlisle. He was educated, it is said, under Dr. 
Ramsey, the historian, and studied law in Lancaster, under Hon. Jasper 
Yeates, then one of the judges of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. On 
his admission to the bar he retiuned to his native place and began the practice 
of law; his rise was rapid, and in less than ten years from his admission he 
was the acknowledged leader of his profession in the midland counties of the 
State, and for nearly thirty years he continued to hold this eminent position. 
He had, during this period, perhaps, the largest practice of any lawyer in 
Pennsylvania outside of Philadelphia. 

In 1817 he was appointed by Gov. Snyder to the bench of the supreme 
court, in place of Judge Yeates, deceased. He shortly after removed to Phila- 
delphia where he resided until his death, which occurred on the 16th of 
November, 1827. 

During the ten years he sat upon the bench, associated with Tilghman and 
Gibson, he contributed largely to our stock of judicial opinions, and the re- 
ports contain abundant memorials of his industry and learning. These opin- 
ions begin with the third volume of "Sergeant & Rawle," and end with the 
seventeenth volume of the same series. 

For years preceding the beginning of the present century and under five 
of the judges after the adoption of the first constitution, namely: Smith, Rid- 
dle, Henry, Hamilton and Charles Smith, Thomas Duncan practiced at our 
bar. As a lawyer he was distinguished by acuteness of discernment, prompt- 
ness of decision, an accurate knowledge of character and a ready recourse to 
the rich stores of his own mind and memory. He was an excellent land and 
criminal lawyer, ' ' although, ' ' says one, ' ' I think it could be shown by citations 
from his opinions that his taste inclined more strongly to special pleading than 
to real estate, and that his accuracy in that department was greater than in 
the law of property. ' ' f 

*In Dr. Nevin's '-Men of Mark" it is stated that lie was educated at Dickinson College, which is evidently 
an error, as that institution was not founded until two years later, 
t Porter, in speaking of Duncan, in his essay on Gibson. 


He waa enthusiastioalrj devoted to his profession, "His habits of investi 
gation," says Porter, in speaking of him as a judge, "were patienl andsys 
tematio; his powers of discrimination cultivated In study and In 
with the acutesl minds of his day; his style, both in speaking and writing, 
easy, natural, graceful and clear, and his acquirements .piito equal to those of 
hi- predecessors on the bench." 

[n appearance Mr. Duncan was aboul five feel >i\ inches high, of small. 

(1. -Urate frame, rather reserved in manners, had rather a shrill voice, wore pow- 
der in his hair, knee breeches and buckles, and was neat in dress. 

Upon a small, unobtrusive looking monument in the old grave-yard in 
lisle, is the following inscription: 

' Var this Bpot is deposited all that was mortal of Thomas Duncan. Esq., 
1.1. |> . horn at Carlisle. - Ji>th of November, 1760; died 10th of November, 
lv_'7. Called to the bar at an early age, he was rapidly borne bj genius, per 
severance and integrity to the pinnacle of his profession, and in the fulness of 
hi> fame was elevated to the bench of the supreme court of his native state, for 
which a sound judgment, boundless stores of legal science, and a profound 
reverence for the common law. had peculiarly tit ted him. Of his judicial labors 
the reported cases of the period are the best eulogy. As a husband, indulgent; 
as a father, kind: as a friend, sincere; as a magistrate, incorruptible, and as a 
citizen, inestimable, he was honored by the wise and good, and wept by a large 
circle of relatives ami friends. Honeata quam splendida." A panegyric 
which leaves nothing to be said. 

Stephen Chambers, who appears upon the records of the court occasionally 
about lTSo. although re-admitted later, was from Lancaster, and was a broth- 
er-in law of John Joseph Henry, who was afterward appointed president judge 
of our judicial district in 1 81 i( I. 

James Armstrong Wilson, whose name appears occasionally after the Revo- 
lution as a practitioner at our bar. was the son of Thomas Wilson, who resided 
near Carlisle, and whom we have mentioned as a provincial justice. He was 
educated at Princeton, where he graduated about 1771. He studied law with 
Richard Stockton, and was admitted to the bar at Kaston. He was a major in 
the Revolution. The earliest mention of his name in the records of our court 
is about 177v 

John Clark, who was from York. Penn., appears occasionally as a practitioner 
about 17S4. He was a major in the Revolution, of large frame, tine personal 
appearance, witty, so that his society was much courted by many of the 
lawyers who rode the circuit with him in those days. 

I; iss Thompson, who had practiced in other court-, was admitted to our bar- 
in 1784 He lived some time in Chambersburg, but removed toCarlisle, where 
he died at an early age. 

John Wilkes Kittera. admitted in 1783, was from Philadelphia, but settle,! 
in Lancaster. He was admitted to the tirst term of court two years later. 
May, 1785, in Dauphin County. 

John Andrew Hanna (1785), settled in Harrisburg at about the time 
of the organization of Dauphin County. He is noticed favorably in the narra- 
tive of the Duke de Kochefoucault. who visited the State capital in 1795. He 
Bays that Gen. Hanna was then "about thirty-six or thirty-eight year- of age, 
and was brigadier-general of militia." He was ■■> brother-in-law of Robert 
Harris, the father of George W. Harris, the compiler of the Pennsylvania 
-. and was an executor of the will of -John Harris, the founder of Har- 
risbnrg. He was elected to Congress from his district in 17'.i7. and served 
till 1st i."i. in which year he died. 


Ralph Bowie, from York, was admitted to our bar at October term, 
1785, and practiced considerably in our courts from 1798 till after 1800. He 
was a Scotchman by birth and had probably been admitted to the bar .in his 
native country. He was a well-read lawyer and much sought after in important 
cases of ejectment. He was of fine personal appearance, courtly and dignified 
in manner, and, neat and particular in dress. He powdered his hair, wore 
short clothes in the fashion of the day, and had social qualities of the most 
attractive character. 

Of James Riddle, Charles Smith, John Joseph Henry and Thomas Smith, 
all of whom became judges, we will speak later. 

Thomas Creigh, who was admitted in 1790, was the son of Hon. 
John Creigh, who emigrated from Ireland and settled in Carlisle in 1761. 
John Creigh was an early justice, and one of the nine representatives who 
signed the first Declaration, June 24, 1776, for the colony of Pennsylvania. 
Thomas Creigh was born in Carlisle August 16, 1769. He graduated in the 
second class which left Dickinson College in 1788. He probably studied law 
under Thomas Duncan, upon whose motion he was admitted. He died in Car- 
lisle October, 1809. One sister, Isabel, married Samuel Alexander, Esq., of 
Carlisle ; Mary married Hon. John Kennedy, of the Supreme Court of Penn- 
sylvania, and Elizabeth, Samuel Duncan, Esq. , of Carlisle. 

David Watts (1790), a son of Frederick Watts, who was a member of 
the early Provincial Council, was born in Cumberland County October 29, 
1764. He graduated in the first class which left the then unpretentious halls of 
Dickinson College in 1787. He afterward read law in Philadelphia under the 
eminent jurist and advocate, William Lewis, LL.D., and was admitted to 
our bar in October, 1790. He soon acquired an immense practice, and became 
the acknowledged rival of Thomas Duncan, who had been for years the recog- 
nized leader on this circuit. He died September 25, 1819. 

We have now given a brief sketch of our bar, from the earliest times down 
to the adoption of the constitution of 1790, when, in the following year, 
Thomas Smith, the first president judge of our judicial district, appears upon 
the bench. 


From the adoption of this first constitution until the present, the judges 
who have presided over our courts are as follows: 


Thomas Smith, 1791; James Riddle, 1794; John Joseph Henry, 1800; 
James Hamilton, 1S06; Charles Smith, 1819; John Reed. 1820; Samuel Hep- 
burn, 1838; Frederick Watts, 1848; James H. Graham, 1851; Benjamin F. 
Junkin, 1871; Martin C. Herman, 1875; Wilbur F. Sadler, 1885. 

Hon. Thomas Smith first appeared upon the bench in the October term. 
1791. He resided at Carlisle. He had been a deputy surveyor under the 
government in early life, and thus became well acquainted with the land sys- 
tem in Pennsylvania, then in process of formation. He was accounted _ a good 
common law lawyer and did a considerable business. He was commissioned 
president judge by Gov. Mifflin on the 20th of August, 1791. He con- 
tinued in that position until his appointment as an associate judge of the su- 
preme court, on the 31st of January, 1794. He was a small man, rather re- 
served in his manner, and of not very social proclivities. He died at an ad- 
vanced age in the year 1809. 


Owing t.p the necessity of being resworn, according to the provisions of the 
new constitution, the following attorneys "having taken the oath prescribed bj 
law." were readmitted at this term of court: James Riddle, Andrew Dunlap, 
».f Franklin; Thomas Hartley, of fork; David Watts, Thomas Nesbitt, Ralph 
Bowie, Thomas Duncan. Thomas Creigh, Roberl Duncan, James Hamilton 
and others. 

Hon. James Riddle first appears upon the bench at the April term, 1794 
He was born in Adams County, graduated with distinction at Princeton Col 
lege, and subsequently read law at York. Ho was about thirty years of ago 
when ho was admitted to the bar. He had a large practice until his appoint 
meat as president judge of this judicial district. 1>y Gov. Mifflin, in February, 
His legal abilities were very respectable, though he was not considered 
a great lawyer. He was well read in science, literature and the law; was a 
good advocate and verj successful with the jury. He was a tall man. broad 
shouldered and lu-ty. with a noble face and profile and pleasing manlier. 
Some time in 1804 he resigned his position of judge, because of the strong 
partisan feeling existing against him — he being an ardent Federalist and re 
turned to the practit f the law. He died iii Chambersburg about ls::7. 

Hon. John Joseph Henry, of Lancaster, wasborn about the year 1 o>N. He 
wa- tlie third president judge of our judicial district and the predecessor of 

Judge Hamilton. He was appointed in 1800. Ho had previously bt the 

first president judge of Dauphin County in L793. In 1776 young Henry, then 
a lad of about seventeen or eighteen years of age, entered the Revolutionary 
Army and joined the expedition against Quebec. He was in the company un 
dor ('apt. Matthew Smith, of Lancaster. The whole command, amounting to 
about 1, 000 men, was under the command of den. Benedict Arnold. SToung 
Henry fought at the battle of Quebec and was taken prisoner. Ho subse 
quentiy published an account of the expedition. Judge Henry was a largo 
man. probably over six feet in height. He died in Lancaster in 1810. 

TITE bar in 1800. 

And now we have arrived at the dawn of a new century. Judge Henry 

■was upon the bench. Watts and Duncan were unquestionably the leading 

lawyers. They were engaged in probably more than one-half the cases which 

were tried, and always on opposite sides. Hamilton came next, six years later. 

to be upon the bench. There also were Charles Smith, who was to succ I 

Hamilton: Bowie, of York, and Shippen. of Lancaster, with their queues 
and Continental dress, and the Duncan brothers, James and Samuel, and Thorns 
Creigh, all of them engaged in active practice at our bar at the beginning of 

tury. At this time the lawyers still traveled upon the circuit, and cir 
cuit courts were held also as will be seen by the following entry: '•Circuit 
Court held at Carlisle for the County of Cumberland tin- Ith day of May. 
1801, before the Hon. Jasper 7eates, ami Hon. Hugh Henry Brackenridge, jus 
tioee "f the Supreme Court." 

Anions the prominent attorneys admitted to the bar during the time I 
Henry was upon the bench, were John Bannister Gibson, afterward chief jus 
tice <>f Pennsylvania, George Metzgar and Andrew Carothers. Gibson was 
admitted in March. I s ' 13. 

On the motion of Thomas Duncan, Esq., and tic usual certificates filed 
stating that Alexander 1'. Lyon, John B. M. s. Gibson and .lane-. Carothers 
had studied law under his direction for the Bpace of two years after they had 
respectively arrived at tic age of twenty-one. Com. Ralph Bowie, Charles 
Smith and William Brown. 


George Metzgar was born in 1782, and graduated at Dickinson College in 
1798. He studied law with David Watts after he had arrived at the age of twenty- 
one, and was admitted in March, 1805. Afterward he served as prosecuting 
attorney, and was a member of the Legislature in 1813-14, and held a respect- 
able position at the bar. He died in Carlisle June 10, 1879. He was the 
founder of the Metzgar Female Institute in Carlisle. 

Andrew Carothers was born in Silver Spring, Cumberland County, about 
1778. He learned the trade of a cabinet-maker, but when about nine- 
teen years of age his father's family was poisoned, and Andrew, who sur- 
vived, was crippled by its effects in his hands and limbs to such an extent 
that he was incapacitated for the trade which he had chosen. He had received 
but the education of the country school, and it was not until he had become 
unfitted for an occupation which required bodily labor, that he turned his at- 
tention to the law. He entered the office of David Watts, in Carlisle, and after 
three years' study, was admitted to the bar December, 1805. In the language 
of Judge Watts ' ' He became an excellent practical and learned lawyer, and 
very soon took a high place at the bar of Cumberland County, which at that 
time ranked amongst its numbers some of the best lawyers of the State, Watts, 
Duncan, Alexander and Mahan were at different times his competitors, and 
amongst these he acquired a large and lucrative practice, which continued 
through his whole life. Mr. Carothers was remarkable for his amiability of 
temper, his purity of character, his unlimited disposition of charity and his 
love of justice. ' ' 

On all public occasions and in courts of justice his addresses were delivered, 
by reason of his bodily infirmity, in a sitting posture. He was active in pro- 
moting the general interests of the community, and was for years one of the 
trustees of Dickinson College. He died July 26, 1836, aged fifty-eight years. 


Of James Hamilton, who appears upon the bench in 1806, we have before 
spoken. Watts and Duncan were still leaders of the bar under Judge Hamilton. 
Mr. Watts came to the bar some years later than Thomas Duncan, but both 
were admitted and the latter had practiced under the judges prior to the con- 
stitution; but froin that time, 1790, both practiced, generally as opponents, 
and were leaders at the bar under the first five judges who presided after the 
constitution, until the appointment of Duncan to the supreme bench in 1S17. 
David Watts died two years later. 

Judge Hamilton was a student, but lacked self-confidence, and was more 
inclined, it is said, to take what he was told ruled the case than to trust to his 
own judgment, and there is a legend to the effect that a certain act, which can 
be found in the pamphlet laws of Pennsylvania, 1810, p. 136, forbidding the 
reading of English precedents subsequent to 1776, was passed at his instance 
to get rid of the multitudinous authorities with which Mr. Duncan was wont 
to confuse his judgment. 

Mr. Watts was an impassioned, forcible and fluent speaker. He was a 
strong, powerful man. Mr. Duncan was a small and delicate looking man. 
The voice of Mr. Watts was strong and rather rough, that of Mr. Duncan was 
weak and sometimes shrill in pleading. In Mr. Brackenridge' s "Recollec- 
tions," he speaks of attending the courts in Carlisle, in about 1807, where 
there were two very able lawyers, Messrs. Watts and Duncan. ' ' The former, ' ' 
says he, ' ' was possessed of a powerful mind and was the most vehement speaker 
I ever heard. He seized his subject with a herculean grasp, at the same time 
throwing his herculean body and limbs into attitudes which would have de- 


lighted a painter or a sculptor. Ele WB8 8 singular instance of the un 
• strength of mind with bodily powers equally wonderful. 
"Mr. Duncan was one of the best lawyer-, ami advocates I have ever seen 
at a bar, and he was, perhaps, the besl judge thai ever sat on the si 
bench of the state. He was a verj small man. with a large but well-formed 
head. There aever was a lover more devoted to Ins mistress than Mr. Duncan 
was t" the studj of law. He perused Coke upon Littleton as a recreation, and 
read more books' of reports than a young lady reads new novels. His educa 

tion had not |> i verj good, ami his general reading was not remarkable. I 

was informed that he read frequently the plays "f Shakespeare, ami from that 
Bouroe derived that uncommon richness and variety of diction by which he was 
enabled to embellish the most abstruse subjects, although his i 
occasionally marked bj inacuracies, even violation of common grammar rules. 
Mr. Duncan reasoned with admirable clearness and method on all legal sub- 
ject-, and at the same time displayed great knowledge of human nature in 63 

animation of witnesses and. in his addresses to the jury. Mr. Watts selected 
merely the strong points of his case, and labored them with an earnestness and 
zeal approaching to fury; and perhaps his forcible manner sometimes produced 
a more oertain effect than that of the subtle and wilej advocate opposed to 

Amone; the attorneys admitted under Hamilton was Isaac Brown Parker, 
March. 1806, on motion of Charles Smith, Esq. Mr. Parker had read law un 
der -lames Hamilton, just previous to the time of his appointment to the I 
His committee was Ralph Bowie. Charles Smith and James Duncan, Esqrs. 
, Alexander Mahan, graduated at Dickinson Colleire in lsn."i; August, lSt)8,read 
under Thomas Duncan: committee David Watts. John B. Gibson and Andrew 
Carothers, Bsqrs ...William Ramsey same date, instructor and committee. 

In 1809 William Ramsey, Democrat, ran for sheriff of Cumberland 
County. The opposing candidate was John Carothers, Federalist. At this 
time, under the old constitution the governor appointed one of the two having 
the highest number of votes. Ramsey had the highest number of votes 
l>ut Carothers was appointed Gov. Snyder afterward appointed William Ram- 
ithonotary, which office he held for many years. He had great influence 
in the Democratic party. About IM7 he began to practice his profession and 
enquired a very large practice. He died in 1831. 

James Hamilton. Jr., was the son of Judge Hamilton. He was born in 
Carlisle. October lb. IT'.r.i. He graduated at Dickinson College in 1812. He 
read law with Isaac B. Parker, who was an uncle by marriage, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar while his father was upon the bench in April. 1816. He 
was, from 1824 to is;:;:, a trustee "f Dickinson College. For several years Mr. 
Hamilton followed his profession, but being in affluent circumstances he 
gradually retired from active practice. He died in Carlisle June '_':',, lsTo. 

on, was for many years a member of our bar. Ho was 
th.> brother-in-law of Hon. Samuel Hepburn, with whom he was for a long 
time associated lb- was born in Mifflin Township. Cumberland County, Sep 
tember 14, 1789, and graduated at Dickinson College, Carlisle, in 1809. He 

was admitted to OUT bar at the AugUsi term. 1811. He previously read law 
with Luther Martin, of Baltimore, Md.. who was one of the counsel for Aaron 
Bun-, in his trial for high treason, at Richmond Va. Luther Martin, the "Fed- 
eral Bull d >_'." a- he wa- called, was a character altogether 8Ut gem rig, with an 
unlimited capacity both for legal lore and liquor. In the former respect only 
his pupil -omewhat (although in a less degree) resembled his preceptor. Mr. 
M illiamson seems to have edingly well versed in law. with an intimate 


knowledge of all the cases and distinctions, but the very depth or extensiveness 
of his learning seemed at times to confuse his judgment. He saw the case in every 
possible aspect in which it could be presented; but then which particular phase 
should, in the wise dispensation of an all-ruling Providence, happen to be the 
law, as afterward determined by the court, was a question often too difficult to 
decide. His aid as a counselor was valuable, and as such he was frequently 
employed. He died in Philadelphia, September 10, 1870. 

John Duncan Mahan was admitted under Hamilton in April, 1817. He 
was born November 5, 1796; graduated at Dickinson College in 1814, and im- 
mediately began the study of law under the instruction of his uncle, Thomas 
Duncan. He became a leader of the bar of Carlisle at a brilliant period, un- 
til in 1833, when he removed to Pittsburgh and became a prominent member of 
the bar of that city, where he resided until his death July 3, 1861. When 
Mr. Mahan was admitted to the bar Watts and Duncan were at the zenith of 
their fame, and were retained in all great cases within the circuit of their prac- 
tice. But this was near the end of their career, as competitors, for at that 
very time Duncan was appointed to the supreme bench, which he adorned 
during his life, and Watts died two years later. Judge Duncan transferred 
his whole practice to his then young student and nephew, John D. Mahan and 
his eminent success justified his preceptor's confidence. His first step was into 
the front rank of the profession. 

Mr. Mahan was a man of rare endowments. What many learned by study 
and painful investigation he seemed to grasp intuitively. He had the gift, the 
power and the grace of the orator, and in addressing the passions, the sympa- 
thies, or the peculiarities of men he seldom made mistakes. ' ' His every ges- 
ture," it has been said of him, "was graceful, his style of eloquence was the 
proper word in the proper place for the occasion, and his voice was music," 
He was affable in temper, brilliant in conversation and was among the leaders 
of our bar, under Hamilton, Smith and Keed, at a time when it had strong 
men, by whom his strength was tested and his talents tried. 

A writer speaking from his recollections of the bar at about this period, 
says: "John D. Mahan was its bright, particular star; young, graceful, elo- 
quent, and with a jury irresistible. Equal to him in general ability, and su- 
perior, perhaps, in legal acumen, was his contemporary and rival, Samuel 
Alexander. Then there was the vehement Andrew Carothers and young Fred- 
erick W T atts, just admitted in time to reap the advantages of his father' s repu- 
tation and create an enduring one of his own. And George Metzgar, with his 
treble voice and hand on his side, amusing the court and spectators with his 
not overly delicate facetiae. And there was " Billy Ramsey with his queue," 
a man of many clients, and the sine qua non of the Democratic party. 

Hon. Charles Smith was appointed to succeed Hamilton as the fifth presi- 
dent judge of our judicial district, in the year 1819. Mr. Charles Smith 
was born at Philadelphia, March 4, 1765. He received his degree B. A. at 
the first commencement of Washington College, Charleston, Md., March 14, 
1783. His father, William Smith, D. D., was the founder, and at that time 
the provost of that institution. Charles Smith commenced the study of the 
law with his elder brother, William Moore Smith, who then resided at Easton, 
Penn. After his admission to the bar he opened his office in Sunbury, North- 
umberland County, where his industry and rising talents soon procured for 
him a large practice. He was elected delegate, with his colleague, Simon 
Snyder, to the convention which framed the first constitution for the State of 
Pennsylvania, and was looked on as a very distinguished member of that tal- 
ented body of men. Although differing in the politics of that day from his- 


oolleague, yet Mr. Snyder for more than thirty years afterward remained the 
firm Eriend of Mr. Smith, and when the former became the governor of the 
State for three successive terms it i- well known thai Mr. Smith w;is his i 

tidential adviser in many important matters. Mr. Smith was married in 1719 

to a daughter of Jasper S of the supreme courl judges of the State, 

and bood removed from Sunburj to Lancaster, where Judge xeatea resided. 
Under the old circuit oouii system it was customary for most of the die 
tinguished country lawyers to travel over the northern and western parts of 

the State with tin' judges, ami henee Mr. Smith, in pursuing this practice, 

soon became associated with such eminent men as Thomas Duncan, David 
Watts. Charles Ball, John Woods, -lames Hamilton, ami a host of luminaries 

of the middle 'The settlement of land titles, at that period, became of 
vast importance to the people of the State, and the foundation of the law with 

regard to settlement rights, the rights of warrantees, the doctrine of surveys, 

ami the proper construction of lines ami cornels, hail to lie laid. In the trial 
of ejectment cases the learning of the was best displayed, and Mr. Smith 
was soon looked on a-- an eminent land lawyer. In after years, when called 
on to revise the old publications of the laws of the State, and under the au- 
thority of the Legislature to frame a new compilation of the same (generally 
known as Smith's Laws of Pennsylvania) hi' gave to the public the result of 
his knowledge and experience on the subject of land law. in the ver\ copious 
that subject, which may well lie termed a treatise on the land laws of 
Pennsylvania In the same work his note on the criminal law of the State is 
elaborate and instructive. Mr. Smith was, in 1819, appointed president judge 
of the district, comprising the counties of Cumberland and Franklin, where 
his official learning ami judgment, and his habitual industry, rendered him a 
Useful and highly popular judge. 

On the erection of the District Court of Lancaster he became the first pre 
siding judge, which office he held for several years. He finally removed to 
Philadelphia, where he -pent the last years of his life, and died in that city in 
L840, in the seventy- fifth year of his age. 

Hon. John Reed. LL.D.. appeared upon the bench in 1820. Judge Heed 
en in what was then York, now Adams County, in 1786. He was the 
son of Gen. "William Reed, of Revolutionary fame. He read law under Will- 
iam Maxwell, of Gettysburg. In 1809 he was admitted to the bar and com- 
ineticed the practice of law in Westmoreland County. In the two last years 
of hi- pi r he performed the duties of deputy attorney-general. 

In L815 Mr. Reed was elected to the State Senate, and on the loth of July 

I s '-.' 11 . he was commissi d bj Gov. Finley president judge of the Ninth 

Judicial District, then composed of the counties of Cumberland, Adams and 

Perry. When, in 1839, DJ a change in the constitution, his commission expired, 
he resumed hi- practice at the bar, and continued it until his death which 
occurred in Carlisle, on the 19th of January, 1850, when he was in the six- 
ty-fourth year of his age. h, 1839 the decree of LL.D. was conferred upon 
him by Washington College, Pennsylvania In 1^'.:'. the new board of trustees 
of Dickinson College formed a professorship of law. and Judge Reed was 
elected professor of that department. The instructions consisted of lectures, 
and of a moot court of law, where legal questions wen- discussed, cases tried, 
and where the [.leadings were drawn up in full — Reed being the stiprem. 
After a full course of study, this department conferred the decree of LL.B. 
Many were admitted to the bar during this period, most of whom practiced 
elsewhere, and many of whom afterward became eminent in then pro 



At this period, and later, the bar was particularly strong. Of the old 
veterans, David Watts was dead, and Duncan was upon the supreme bench. 
But among the practitioners of the time were such men as Carothers, Alexander, 
Mahan, Ramsey, Williamson, Metzgar, Lyon, William Irvine, William H. 
Brackenridge and Isaac Brown Parker; while among those admitted, and who 
were afterward to attain eminence on the bench or at the bar, were such men 
as Charles B. Penrose, Hugh Gaullagher, Frederick Watts, William M. Biddle, 
James H. Graham, Samuel Hepburn, William Sterritt Ramsey, S. Dunlap Adair 
and John Brown Parker — a galaxy of names such as has not since been equaled. 
Gen. Samuel Alexander was practicing at our bar in 1820, when Judge 
Reed took the bench. He was the youngest son of Col. John Alexander, a 
Revolutionary officer, and was born in Carlisle September 20, 1792. He 
graduated at Dickinson College in 1812, after which he read law in Greens- 
buro' with his brother, Maj. John B. Alexander, and became a prominent law- 
yer in that part of the State. He afterward returned to Carlisle, and by the 
advice of Judge Duncan and David Watts was induced to become a member of 
our bar, at which he soon acquired a prominent position. In 1820 he married 
a daughter of Col. Ephraim Blaine, but left no sons to perpetuate his name. 

As an advocate Mr. Alexander had but few, if any, superiors at the bar. 
In the early part of his career he was a diligent student and was in the habit 
of carefully digesting most of the reported cases. In addition to this he was 
possessed of a tenacious memory and seemed never to forget a case he had 
once read. He was always fully identified with the cause of his client, and 
possessed that thorough onesidedness so necessary to the successful advocate. 
He possessed also great tact and an intuitive quickness of perception. In 
the management of a case he was apt, watchful and ingenious. If driven 
from one position, like a skillful general he was always quick to seize another. 
In this respect his talents, it is said, only brightened amid difficulties, and 
shone forth only the more resplendent as the battle became more hopeless. 
Nor was oratory, the crowning grace and the most necessary accomplishment 
of the advocate, wanting. He was a forcible speaker, with a large command 
of language, and with the happy faculty of nearly always finding the right 
•word for the right place. His diction was choice, and in his matter, although 
sometimes diffusive, in his manner he was always bold, vigorous and aggres- 
sive. He had the power of sarcasm, was often ironical, and was a master in 
personal invective. In this he had no equal at the bar. In the examination 
of witnesses, also, he had no superior. 

Mr. Alexander had a natural inclination for mechanics, and was passion- 
ately fond of anything pertaining to military life. He was for years at the 
head of a volunteer regiment of the county. He cared for this, strange as it 
may, appear, more than for his profession, which, toward the close of his life, 
seems to have become distasteful to him; at least with his abilities unim- 
paired, he appeared but seldom in the trial of a cause. He died in Carlisle 
in July, 1845, aged fifty-two. 

Hu°h Gaullagher, a practitioner at the bar under Reed, studied law with 
Hon Richard Coulter of Greensburg, and shortly after his admission com- 
menced the practice of law in Carlisle. This was about 1824, from which time 
he continued to practice until about the middle of the century. 

He was eccentric, long limbed, awkward in his gait, and in his delivery 
with an Irish brogue, but he was well-read, particularly in history and in the 
elements of his profession. He was an affable man, an instructive companion, 
fond of conversation, with inherent humor and a love of fun, and was popular 


La the oirole of his friends, of whom he had many. He was among the onm 
ber of tli" old lawyers of our bar who were fond of a dinner and a Bong, how- 
ravely they appear apon the page of history. 

At the bar his position was more thai of a counselor than of an advc 
He was fond of the old cases and would rather read an opinion of mj Lord 
Mansfield, or Hair, or Coke, than the latest delivered by our own judges, "not 
that he disregarded the latter, but because be reverenced the former." 

He is well remembered, often in connection with anecdotes, and 
quently spoken of bj survivors as any man who practiced at our bar so long 
ago. He died April 1 I. 1856. 

llmi. Charles B. Penrose wa iladelphia October 6, 1798. He 

read law with Samuel Ewing, Esq., in Philadelphia, ami immediately moved 
to Carlisle. He bood acquired a prominent position at tin 1 bar. He was 

to the State Senate in L833, ami at the expiration of his term . 
elected. In this capacity be achieved distinct] ven among tin- men of abil- 
ity who were then chosen for this office, In IM1 he was appointed by Presi- 
dent Harrison, solicitor of the treasury, which position he held until the close 
dent Tyler's administration. After practicing in Carlisle he 

first to Lancaster, then to Philadelphia, in both places successfully | ° 

his profession In 1856 he was again elected as a reform candidate to the 
State Senate, during which term he died of pneumonia at Harrisburg, April 
8, 1857. 

William M. Biddle wa- admitted under Reed in 1826. He was born in- 
Philadelphia July :i. 1801, and died of heart disease in that city, where he had 
gone to place himself under the care of physicians, on the 28th of Febru- 
ary, 1855. lie was the great great-grandson of Nicholas Scull, surveyor gen- 
eral of Pennsylvania from 1748 to 1761, who, bj direction of Gov. Hamilton, 
hud out the borough of C rlisle in L751. Mr. Biddle was originally destined 
for mercantile pursuits, but the death of his cousin, Henry Sergeant, an Bast 
India trader, who had promised him a partnership in business, put an end to 
these plans and hi- attention was turned to the law. He went to 1 trading. l'enn., 
and studied with his brother-in-law, Samuel Baird, Esq. In L826, shortly af- 
ter his admission to the bar, he moved to Carlisle, induced fco do bo bj the ad 
vice of his brother-in-law, Charles B. Penrose, Esq., who had recently opened 
a law office there, ai nl was then rising into a good practice, Loi ated in Carlisle he 
soon acquired a large business and soon took a high position at the bar, which 
he retained to the daj of his death, a period of twentj ah 

Mr. Biddle was an able lawyer and had a Keen perception of the principles 
of law, which, when understood, reduce ii Hewas endowed with 

a large fund of wit, in addition to which I I mimic, and 

often indulged in these power.-, in his addresses to the jury. He was n 
large man. of fine personal presence, great affability, endowed with quick wit 
and high moral and intellectual qualities which made him a leader at I 
at a time when many brilliant men were among its members. 

Edward M. Biddle was born in Philadelphia: I at Princeton 

College, and then removed to Carlisle, where he studied law under hi- broth- 
er-in-law, Hon. Chas B. Penrose, and in 1830 was admitted to practice in the 
:1 courts of Cumberland County. 

Hon. Charles McClurewas admitted to the barundi 1826. 

He was born in Carlisle, graduated at Dickinson College, and afterward he- 
came a member of Congress, and -till later. 1843 l\ secretary of state of 
Pennsylvania. He was a son-in-law of Chief Justice Gibson. He did w 
Idee extensively at the bar. Hm removed I lied in 1846. 


Hon. William Sterritt Ramsey, one of the most promising members of the 
bar admitted under Reed, was bom in Carlisle June 16, 1810. He entered 
Dickinson College in the autumn of 1826, where he remained three years. 
In the summer of 1829 he was sent to Europe to complete his education and to 
restore, by active travel and change of scene, health to an already debilitated 
constitution. The same year he was appointed (by our minister to the court of 
St. James, Hon. Lewis McClane) an attache to the American Legation. He 
pursued his legal studies, visited the courts of Westminister, and the author 
of Waverly at Abbottsford, to whom he bore letters from Washington Irving. 
After the Revolution of three days in July, 1830, he was sent with dispatches to 
France, and spent much of his time, while there, at the hotel of Gen. Lafayette. 
In 1831 he returned to America and began the study of law under his father. 
In the month of September of this year his father died. He continued to study 
under Andrew Carothers, and in 1833 was admitted to the bar of Cumberland 

In 1838 he was elected a member of Congress by the Democratic party, 
and at the expiration of his term was re-elected. He was at this time the 
youngest member of Congress in the House. He died, before being qualified 
a second time, by his own hand in Barnum's Hotel, Baltimore, October 22, 
1840, aged only thirty years. An eloquent obituary notice was written on the 
occasion of his death by his friend, Hon. James Buchanan, afterward Presi- 
dent of the United States, from which some of the above facts are taken. 

S. Dunlap Adair was admitted under Reed in January, 1835. For fifteen 
years he was a practitioner at the bar. He was born March 26, 1810. While 
a youth he attended the classical school of Joseph Casey, Sr. , the father of 
Hon. Joseph Casey, in Newville, and was among the brightest of his pupils. 
He was apt in acquiring knowledge and particularly in the facility of acquiring 
languages. He became a good Latin scholar, and, after his admission to the 
bar, made himself acquainted with the German, French and Italian languages. 
He was well read in English literature, and although not a graduate of any 
college, his attainments were as varied as those of any member of the bar. 
He studied law under Hon. Frederick Watts , and soon after his admission was 
appointed deputy attorney- general for the county. He was a candidate of 
his party in the district for Congress when William Ramsey, the younger, was 
elected. He had a chaste, clear style, and was a pleasant speaker. In stature 
he was below the medium height, delicately formed, near-sighted, and whether 
sitting or standing had a tendency to lean forward. He was of sanguine 
temperament, had auburn hair and a high forehead. He died of bronchial 
consumption in Carlisle, September 23, 1850. 

John Brown Parker, Esq., was born in Carlisle October 5, 1816. He grad- 
uated at the University of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, in 1S3-4. He read 
law with Hon. Frederick Watts for the period of one year, completing his 
course of study in the law school under Judge Reed, and was admitted to prac- 
tice in April, 1838. He was for a time associated with his preceptor, Hon. 
Frederick Watts. He retired from practice in 1865, and moved to Philadel- 
phia, where he resided for some years. 

Capt. William M. Porter was" born in Carlisle, this county, in 1808; read 
law under Samuel A. McCoskry, and was admitted to the Carlisle bar in 1835. 
He died in 1873. 

In 1827 John Bannister Gibson, LL.D., was appointed chief justice of 

He was born on the Sth of November, 1780, in Sherman's Valley, then 
Cumberland, now Perry, County, Pennsylvania. He was of Scotch-Irish de- 


Bosnt, and the son of Col. George Gibson, who was killed at the defeat of St. 

Clair in 1791. In 1795 young Gibson studied in the preparatory school < 

aeeted with D allege, and subsequently in the collegiate department, 

when that institution was undet Dr, Nesbitt, graduating al the age of eighl 
een, in the class of L798. 

During this period he was in the habil of fn»ijm.»iitiiij^ the office of Dr. Mo- 
Ooekry -one of the oldest practitioners of medicine in the place and there 
acquired a taste for the stud) of physio, which he cover lost. 

On the completion of his collegiate course, he entered on the study of law 
in Carlisle in the office of hi- kinsman. Thomas Duncan, with whom he was af 
terward to occupy a scat on the bench of the Bupreme court. He was admit- 
ted to the bar of Cumberland County in March, L803. 

Ho iirst opened liis office in Carlisle, thru removed to Beaver, then to 
town, but shortly afterward returned to Carlisle. This was in lso,~>, 
and at this poinl is the beginning of a remarkable career. 

Prom Lo05 to L812 Mr. Gibson seems to have had a reasonable share i>f 
the legal practice in Cumberland County, particularly when we consider that 
the field was occupied by such men as Duncan. Watts, Bowie of York, and 
Smith of Lancaster, who. at the time of which we speak, had l>ut few equals 
in tlie State. Nevertheless it may well be doubted whether his qualifications 
were of such a character a- would ever have fitted him to attain high eminence 
at the bar, His reputation, at this period, was not that of diligence in his pro 
. ami it is quite probable that, at this time, he had no great liking for 
it. In fact, at this period, of his life Mr. Gibson seems to have been known 
rather as aline musical connoisseur and art critic than as a successful lawyer. 
He was a good draughtsman. a judge of fine paintings, and a votary of the violin. 

La 1810 Mr. Gibson was elected liy the Democratic party of Cumberland 
County to the House of Representatives, and after the expiration of his term, 
in L812, he was appointed president judge of the court of common pleas for 
the Eleventh Judicial District, composed of the counties of Tioga. Bradford, 
Susquehanna and Luzerne. 

Justice Gibson's personal appearance at this time is within the recollection 

of men who are still living. He was a man of large proportions, a giant both 

in physique and intellect. He was considerably over six feet in height, with 

ilar. well proportioned frame, indicative of strength and energy, and 

a countenance expressing Btrong character and manly beauty. 

"His face." says David Paul Brown, ''was full of intellect and bet 
lence, and. of course, eminently handsome: his manners were remarkable for 
their simplicity, warmth, frankness and generosity. There never was a man 
more free from affectation or pretension of everj -oil." 

Until the day of his death, says Porter, "although his bearing was mild 
and unostentatious, so striking was his personal appearance that few p 
to whom he was unknown could have passed him In- in tin- street without re 

Upon the death of Judge Brackenridge in 1816, Judge Gibson was ap- 
pointed by Gov. Snyder \ tice of the Supreme Court, where, 
as it has been said, if Tilghman was the Nestor, Gibson became the Ulysses of 
the bench. 

This appointment of Gibson to the bench of the supreme court seems first 
to have awakened his intellect and stimulated his ambition, lb' partly with- 
drew himself from his former associates, and was thus delivered from 
on- temptations to indolence and dissipation He became more devoted to 
study, and for the lir»t time perhaps in his life he seems to have formed a 


resolution to make himself master of the law as a science. Coke particularly 
seems to have been his favorite author, and his quaint, forcible and condensed 
style, together with the severity of his logic seem to have had no small in- 
fluence in the development of Gibson's mind, and in implanting there the 
seeds of that love for the English common law, which was afterward every- 
where so conspicuous in his writings. 

It is pertinent here to remark that Judge Gibson, like Coke and Blackstone, 
seems never to have had any fondness for the civil law. Whether this 
was on account of the purely Anglo-Saxon of his mind, or on account of a want 
of opportunity in the means through which to become thoroughly acquainted 
with the most beautiful and symmetrical system of law which the world has 
ever known, we can not say, but certain it is that he seems to have cast ever 
and anon a suspicious glance at the efforts of a judge story, and writers of that 
school to infuse its principles in a still greater degree into our common law. 
"We need but refer to the opinions delivered in Dyle vs. Richards, 9 Sergeant 
and Itawle, 322, and in Logan vs. Mason, 6 Watts and Sergeant 9, in proof of 
the existence of these views in the mind of their author. 

In an old number of the ' ' American Law Register ' ' there is a review of 
Mr. Troubat's work on limited partnership by Gibson. It was the last essay 
he ever wrote, and in it he says : ' ' The writer of this article is not a champion 
of the civil law; nor does he profess to have more than a superficial knowledge 
of it. He was bred in the school of Littleton and Coke, and he would be 
sorry to see any but common law doctrines taught in it. " But here Gibson is 
speaking of the English law of real property, and he afterward says ' ' The 
English law merchant, an imperishable monument to Lord Mansfield's fame, 
shows what a magnificent structure may be raised upon it where the ground is 
not preoccupied. 

Hitherto the bench of the supreme court had consisted of but three judges, 
but under the act of April 8, 1S26, the number was increased to five. But little 
more than one year elapsed before the death of Chief Justice Tilghman. Gib- 
son was his successor. He received his commission on the 18th of May, L827, 
and from this time forward the gradual and uniform progress of his mind, 
says Col. Porter, " may be traced in his opinions with a certainty and satisfac- 
tion which are perhaps not offered in the case of any other judge known to our 
annals. His original style, compared to that in which he now began to write, 
was like the sinews of a growing lad compared to the well-knit muscles of a 
man. No one who has carefully studied his opinions can have failed to re- 
mark the increased power and pith which distinguished them from this time 
forward. ' ' In the language of Hon. Thaddeus Stevens ' ' he lived to an advanced 
age, his knowledge increasing with increasing years, while his great intellect 
remained unimpaired. ' ' 

From 1827 he remained as the chief upon the bench, until 1851, when 
by a change in the constitution the judiciary became elective, and was elected 
the same year an associate justice of the court, being the only one of the for- 
mer incumbents returned. But although ' : nominally superseded by another 
as the head of the court, his great learning, venerable character and over shad- 
owing reputation still made him," in the language of his successor, Judge 
Black, ' ' the only chief whom the hearts of the people would know. 

' ' His accomplishments were very extraordinary. He was born a musician, 
and the natural talent was highly cultivated. He was a connoisseur in paint- 
ing and sculpture. The whole round of English literature was familiar to 
him.* He was at home among the ancient classics. He 

l it stilted, in the British classics, fcmd of English drama, and familiar with 


ha<l studied medioine in hi^ youth and understood it well. His mind absorbed 
all kiiuls .if knowledge with scarcely an effort"* 

In regard to his mental habits, be was a deep -indent, but nol a close 

stu.l. 'lit : he worked mosi effectively, bul he worked reluctantly. The t mr 

rent teetimonj of all who knew him is thai he Beldom or never wrote, except 
when under die pressure of necessity, but when he once brought the powers 
of his mind to a focus and took up the pen, he tnuouslj and 

out erasure. When he once began to write an opinion he verj rarely laid it' until it was completed This, with the broad grasp with which he took 
liol.l of his subject, ha- given to his opinions ,-i consistency and unity otherwise 
difficult to have attained He bsw a case in all it- varied relations, and the 
principles bj which it was rather bj the intuitive insight of genius, 

than as the result of labor. 

These opinions very Beldom give a history of decided cases, but invariably 
put the decision upon some leading principle of law referring to but few 
oases, by way of illustration, or to show- exception- to the rule He was emi- 
nently self-reliant. He appeared at a time when the law of our common- 
wealth was in process of formation, and in its development hi- formulating 
power has been felt. 

Of his style much has been -ai.l. Said Stevens " I do not know by whom 
it has been surpassed." It i- a judicial style, at once compact, technical 
and exact His writing can be made to convej just what he means to express 
and nothing more. His meaning is not always upon the surface, but when 
it is perceived it i- certain and without ambiguity. fit ma\ be interesting to 
state that Chief Justice Gibson often thought out his opinion- while he was 
playing upon the violin. Whi ;ht came to him he would laj down 

Li- instrument and write. A- to hi- accuracy of language, he was in the habit 
of carrying with him a book of synonyms. These facts havi d to the 

writer by his son, Col. George Gibson, of the I oited States Army.] 

It has been said that one "could pick out his opinions from others like gold 
coin from among copper." He was, for more than half his life, a chief or 
associate justice on the bench, and hi- opinion- extend through no less than 
seventy volume- of our reports"}"— an imperishable monument to his memory. 

Chief Justice Gibson died in Philadelphia Ma;. 3, 1853, in the -.■ 
third year of his age. He was burii afterward in Carlisle. 

In the old graveyard, upon the tall marble -haft which wa- erected over 
hi.- tomb, we read the following aiption from the pen of Chief 

Justice Jeremiah S. Black : 

In the variou- knowledge 
Which forms the pi rfecl B< BOLAR 
lie had an superior. 
it, upright and 
Be had all the highest qualities of a great M DGE. 
In tin- .liili 

II.- mastered ever] 1 1 

-id almost ''mtv question, and 
Touched no subject which he iii.l not adorn. 
d iii early manhood, 
And retained to the close of a long life, 

Tile AFFECTION of his Drel 

Th- i lie Bat 

And iii. , otn 1 1 > i ■ ople. 

II : John Kennedy, who had studied under the elder Hrimili 
been admitted to our bar under Kiddle in L798, was appointed to thi 

Ue Black's Eulogy °n < iibson. 

- serge»ut and Kawlc to 7 Harris. 


of the supreme court in 1830. He was bom in Cumberland County in June, 
1774; graduated at Dickinson College in 1795, and after his admission to the 
bar, removed to a northern circuit, where he became the compeer of men like 
James Ross, John Lyon, Parker Campbell, and others scarcely less dis- 
tinguished. He afterward removed to Pittsburgh, where his high reputation 
as a lawyer at once introduced him to a lucrative practice. From 1830 he 
remained upon the bench until his death, August 26, 1840. His opinions, 
extending through twenty-seven volumes of reports, are distinguished by lucid 
argumentation and laborious research. Judge Gibson, who had known him 
from boyhood, and who sat with him upon the bench for a period of over fifteen 
years, said: "His judicial labors were his recreations. He clung to the com- 
mon law as a child to its nurse, and how much he drew from it may be seen in 
his opinions, which, by their elaborate minuteness, remind us of the over- 
fullness of Lord Coke. Patient in investigation and slow in judgment, he 
seldom changed his opinion. A cooler head and a warmer heart never met 
together in the same person; and it is barely just to say that he has not left 
behind a more learned lawyer or a more upright man." In David Paul 
Brown's "Forum" we find the following: "It is recorded that Sergeant 
Maynard had such a relish for the old Year Books, that he carried one in his 
coach to divert his time in travel, and said he preferred it to a comedy. The 
late Judge Kennedy, of the supreme court, who was the most enthusiastic 
lover of the law we ever new, used to say that his greatest amusement consisted 
in reading the law; and indeed, he seemed to take almost equal pleasure in 
writing his legal opinions, in some of which. Reed vs. Patterson, for instance, 
he certainly combined the attractions of law and romance. ' ' He is buried in 
the old grave-yard at Carlisle. 

Hon. Samuel Hepburn (seventh president judge), the successor of Judge 
Reed, first appears upon the bench in April, 1839. Judge Hepburn 
was born in 1807 in Williamsport, Penn., at which place he began 
the study of law under James Armstrong, who was afterward a judge on 
the supreme bench. He completed his legal studies at Dickinson College 
under Reed, and was admitted to the bar of Cumberland County in November, 
1834. He was, at the time of his admission appointed adjunct professor of 
law in the Moot court of Dickinson College by Judge Reed. Before he had 
been at the bar five years, he was appointed by Gov. Porter, president 
judge of the Ninth Judicial District, then embracing Cumberland, Perry and 
Juniata, and he presided at times also, during his term in the civil courts of 
Dauphin. He was at this time the youngest judge in Pennsylvania to whom 
a president judge's commission had been ever offered. Among the important 
cases the McClintock trial took place while he was upon the bench. After 
the expiration of his term he resumed the practice of law in Carlisle, where he 
still resides. The degree of LL. D. was conferred upon Judge Hepburn by 
"Washington College, Penn. 

The most prominent practitioners admitted under Judge Hepburn were J. 
Ellis Bonham, Lemuel Todd, William H. Miller, Benjamin F. Junkin, Will- 
iam M. Penrose and Alexander Brady Sharpe. 

J. Ellis Bonham, Esq., was among the ablest lawyers admitted under 
Judge Hepburn. He was born in Hunterdon County, N. J., March 31, 
1816, graduated at Jefferson College, Penn., studied law in Dickinson College 
under Reed, and was admitted to the bar in August, 1839. 

' ' He had no kindred here nor family influence. His pecuniary gains were 
small during the first few years of his professional career, and he had little or 
no aid outside of them, as his father was in moderate circumstances. " He 


had not been long, however, at the bar before he was appointed depulj attor 
teral for the count] a position winch he filled « ith oonapioiona ability. 
He had a taste for literature and hislibraxj was large and choice, H 
little fondness tor the drudgery of his profession, but he had political ambition, 
and his political reading and knowledge were extensive. He wrote for the 
leading political journals of his party articles on man] of the prominent 
tions of the day. "During his term in the Legislature he was the aoknowl 
edged leader of the House, as the Hon. Charles Et. Buokalew was of the Sen 
ate; and thej were not unlike in mental characteristics, and Bomewhai alike in 
J appearance. They were decidedly the weakest men physically and 
the strongest mentally in either House. 

After the expiration of his term he was nominated for Congress, and 
although he was in a district largely Democratic eminently fitted for the posi 
tion. and had, himself, greal influence in the political organization, hewasde- 
Iden birth Of a new party. He died shortly afterward of 
stion of the lungs, March L9, 1855. 

In personal appearance Mr. Bonham was rather under than above the me- 
dium h. !. with light hair and complexion. He was of 
nervous temperament. His countenance was handsome and refined. As an 
advocate he was eminently a graceful and polished speaker, attractive in his 
manner, with a poetic imagination and chaste and polished diction. His 
«, although they at times bor< laborious preparation, were ef 
fective. and on one occasion, we are told, many persons in the court were moved 
to tears. 

He died before his talents had reached their prime, after having been at 
the bar for fifteen years and before he had attained the age of forty. 

Hon. Lemuel Todd was horn in Carlisle July '-"•», 181 I. He graduated at 
Dickinson College in 1839, read law under Gen Samuel Alexander and was 
admitted to practice in August, 1841. He was a partner of Gen. Alexander 
until the time of his death in 1843. He was elected to Congress from the 
Eighteenth District in 1854 on the Know-nothing ticket as against J. Ellis 
Bonham on the Democratic, and was elected congressman at large in 1875. 
He presided over the State conventions of the Republican party at Harrisburg 
that nominated David Wilmot for governor; at Pittsburgh that nominated 
Gov. Cm-tin: and at Philadelphia that advocated for President Gen. Grant. 

Gen. Todd has practiced continuously at the bar except for a period during 
the late war, a portion of which time he acted as ins] teral of Penn- 

sylvania troops under Gov. Curtin. 

William H. Miller, for more than a quarter of a century, was an act- 
litioner at the bar Of Our COUnty. He was a student of Judge Heed, 

and was admitted to the bar in August, 1842; William M. Kiddle, s. Dnnlap 

Adair and J. Ellis Bonham. Esqs., being his oommitt (examination. His 

initiate was difficult, hut by perseverance and talent he succeeded in winning 
a large practice and an honorable position at the bar. As a speaker he was 
deliberate and dignified; as a man refined and amiable; scholarly in both his 
taste and in his appearance. As a lawyer he was cool and self possessed, and 
with deliberate logic and tact he won. as a rule, the implicit confidence of a 
jurv. He died suddenly of congestion of the brain in June. ls< 1. 

"William McFunn Penrose, was admitted under Hepburn. He was born 
in Carlisle March •_".'. 1 vjr, ; graduated with honor at Dickinson College in 1844, 
and was admitted to the bar in November, 1846. He was the eldest son of 

Hon. Charles B. Penrose. As a lawyer he was eminently bu< ssful, learned. 

quick and accurate in his perceptions, cogent in argument, fluent hut terse BS 


a speaker, he seldom failed to convince a jury. He had a keen perception of 
distinctions in the cases, and of the principles which underlie them, and in all 
questions of practice was particularly at home. He served for a time as 
colonel of the Sixth Regiment at the beginning of the war. He died Septem- 
ber 2, 1872, in the prime of life and in the midst of usefulness. 

Hon. Robert M. Henderson, born near Carlisle March 11, 1827. Gradu- 
ated at Dickinson College in 1845. Read law under Judge Reed, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in August. 1847. He was elected, by the "Whig party, to the 
Legislature in 1851 and 1852. He served, by appointment in April, 1874, as 
additional judge of the Twelfth Judicial District, and was elected to that office 
in the same year. He became president judge of this district in January, 1882, 
resigned his position in March of the same year, and returned to his practice 
in Carlisle. He served as a colonel in the late war. 

Alexander Brady Sharpe was born in Newton Township, Cumberland 
County. August 12, 1827. He graduated with honor at Jefferson College, 
Pennsylvania, in 1846. He read law under Robert M. Bard, Esq. , of Chain - 
bersburg, and subsequently with Hon. Frederick Watts, of Carlisle. He was 
admitted to the bar in November 1S4S, since which time he has practiced, ex- 
cept during the period of the war, when he was in the service of his country, 
a portion of the time serving upon the staff of Gen. Ord. 

Hon. Frederick Watts became judge of our courts in 1849. He was the 
son of David Watts, a distinguished member of the early bar, and was born in 
Carlisle May 9, 1801. He graduated at Dickinson College in 1819. Two 
years later he entered the office of Andrew Carothers, and was admitted to 
practice in August, 1824. He remained for a time in partnership with his pre- 
ceptor and acquired a lucrative practice. During a period of forty-two years 
from the October term, 1827, to May term, 1869, in the Supreme Court, there 
is no volume of reports containing cases from the middle district (except for 
the three years when he was upon the bench) in which his name is not found. 
For fifteen vears he was the reporter of the decisions of that court, from 1829; 
three volumes, " W T atts & Penrose," ten volumes "Watts Reports," and nine 
"Watts & Sergeant." On March 9, 1849, he was commissioned by Gov. 
Johnston, president judge of the Ninth Judicial District, containing the 
counties of Cumberland, Perry and Juniata. He retired in 1852, when the 
judiciary became elective, and resumed his practice, from which after a long 
and honorable career, he gradually withdrew in about 1860-69. In August, 
1871, he was appointed and served as commissioner of agriculture under Hayes. 
As a man he had great force of character, sterling integrity, and, as a lawyer, 
ability, dignity and confidence. He had great power with a jury from their 
implicit confidence in him. He was always firm, self-reliant, despised quirks 
and quibbles, and was a model of fairness in the trial of a cause. He is still 
living in honorable retirement in Carlisle at an advanced age, being now the 
oldest surviving member of the bar. 

We have now brought the history of our bar with sketches, some of them 
dealing with living members, down to the time when Judge Graham appears 
upon the bench, which is within the recollection of the youngest lawyer. For 
the future we must for obvious reasons satisfy ourself with briefer mention. 

Hon. James H. Graham, born September 10, 1807, in West Pennsborough 
Township, graduated at Dickinson College in 1827, studied law under Andrew 
Carothers, Esq., admitted to the bar in November, 1829. In 1S39, after the 
election of Gov. Porter, he was appointed deputy attorney-general for Cum- 
berland County, a position which he filled ably for six years. After the amend- 
ment of the Constitution making the judiciary elective, he received the nom- 

II isr.uiv Of 0T7MMRLAND COUNTY. 169 

ination (Demooratio) and was elected in October, 1851, presided judge of the 
Ninth Judicial District, comprising the ooonties of Cumberland, Perry and 
Juniata. At the expiration of his term he was re-elected in 1861, serving 
another full term of ten years. Lfter Ins retirement from the bench he re 
turned again to the practice of law. He died in the fall of 1882. In L862his 
alma mater conferred apon him the degree of L.L.D. Perhaps the highest 
eulogj we can pay is to Bay that tor more than half a century at the bar or on 
the bench, there was never, in the language of Judge Watts, a breath of im 
nutation against his character as a lawyer, or apon his honor as a judge." 

Hon Benjamin F. Junkin was admitted to the bar in August, 1844 
II.. liyed in Bloomfield and became, with the younger Molntyre, a leader 
of the bar of Perry County. In 1871, he was elected the truth president 
judge of the Ninth Judicial District— then including the counties of On 
norland, Perrj and Juniata. He was the last of the perambulatory judges. 
On the redistribution of the district under the constitution of 1874, he 
ohose Perrj and Juniata, and therefore, from that period, ceased to preside 
over the courts in Cumberland County. 

Hon Martin C. Herman, who suc< ded Hon. Benjamin Junkin as the 

eleventh judge of our Judicial District, was born in Silver Spring Township, 
Cumberland County, February 1 I. 1841. He graduated at Dickinson College 
in 1862. He had registered as a student of law previous to this time with B. 
Molntyre & Son, Bloomfield, then with William H. Miller, of Carlisle, under 
wh im he completed his studies. He was admitted to the bar in January. L864. 
He was elected by the Democratic partg president judge of the Ninth Judicial 
District, in 1874, taking the bench on the first Monday of January in the 

eeding year, and serving for full term of ten years, and was nominated by 
acclamation in August, 1884. 

H..M. Wilbur F. Sadler, twelfth and last judge, was born October I 1. 1840; 
read law under Mr. Morrison at W illiamsport, and afterward in Carlisle; was 
admitted to the Carlisle bar in 1864, and acquired a large clientage; was 
elected district attorney in 1871, and. in 1884, president judge of the Ninth 
.Judicial District of Pennsylvania. 

The present members of the bar, with the dates of their admission, are as 


J. E. Barnitz, August, 1S,T: Bennett Bellman, April, 1874; Hon F. 

E. Beltzlioover. April. 1864; Edward W. Biddle, April, L873; Th lore I 

man. 1870; Duncan M. Graham, November, 1876; John-Hays, 1859; Hon. 
Samuel Hepburn, November, 1834; Samuel Hepburn, Jr., January, 1863; Hon. 
can, January, 1864; Christian P. Humrich, November, 1854; 
W. A. Kramer. August, 1883; John B. Landis, 1881; Stewart M. Leidich, 
August. 1872; W. Penn Lloyd, April. 1865; John K. Miller. August. INi<; 
George Miller. January, 1873; Henry New-ham. April. 1859; Richard M. 
Parker. November, 1876; A. Brady Sharpe, November, 1848; William J. 
Shearer. January, 1852; John T. Stuart, November, L876; Silas Stuart, April. 
1881; J. L. Shelley, August, 1875; Alexander Bache Smead; Hon. Lemuel 
Todd. April. 1841; William E.Trickett*, August. 1875; Joseph G. Vale, April. 
1871; Hon Frederick Watts (retired), 1829; Edward B. Watts, August, 1875; 
Hon. J. Mario,, Weakley, January. 1861; John W. Wetzel. April. 1874; Mull- 
lenburg Williams (Newville), November, I860; Robert McOaohran (New- 
Villel. 1857. 

Among the early members of our bench an d bar were men who fought 

•William E. Trickett, formerly professor of metaphysics in Dickinson College, and author of " Liens in 


and were distinguished in the Indian wars and in the Revolution. No less 
than three who practiced in our courts were signers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and two were members of the colonial convention at its inception. 
Three sat upon the supreme bench, one as Chief Justice, who has been justly 
called, in a legal sense, the ' ' great glory of his native State. ' ' Since then many 
have become distinguished, in their day, on the bench, in the halls of legisla- 
tion, or at the bar. In its prestige the bar of Cumberland County has been 
equal to any in the State, and its reputation has been won in many a well con- 
tested battle for a period of now more than a century and a quarter, so that, 
whatever it may be to-day, it may well pride itself upon its past, and stand, 
among the younger bars of our sister commonwealths, like a Douglas bonneted, 
and bow down to none. 


Medical— Biographical— Physicians in Cumberland County Since 1879— 
Physicians in Cumberland County Registered in Office of Protho- 
notary at carlisle— cumberland county medical society. 

THE genesis of medical science, like that of chemistry, astronomy or gov- 
ernment, is necessarily slow, and attended with much of empiricism. 
Observations, even if correctly made, are either imperfectly recorded or not 
recorded at all. The common people are destitute of scientific methods of in- 
vestigation. Even if they were so disposed, they lack both the opportunity 
and the ability to note, scientifically, the nature and symptoms of disease 
together with their proper remedial agents. 

It is not strange, therefore, that mothers and grandmothers of the olden 
time should insist, on applying, externally, skunk oil or goose fat for the curing 
of internal derangements. The day of herbs and salves as panaceas was not 
far removed from the period when special luck was supposed to attach to first 
seeing the moon over the right shoulder; when potatoes planted or shingles 
laid in the dark of the moon would fail to serve their purposes; when water- 
witches were deemed necessary to locate wells properly; and when bleeding 
the arm for the ailments of humanity was considered absolutely essential to 

The superstition which sought cures in miraculous interferences in these 
various tricks of sleight-of-hand performances, and meaningless signs and 
tokens, would readily believe that the hair of the dog will cure his own bite; 
that the carrying, around the neck, of a spider imprisoned in a thimble will 
cause whoojfing-cough to disappear; that washing the face in water formed 
from the first snow of the season will remove freckles; that the weather of the 
first, three days of December will presage the weather of the three following 
months ; that the washing of the hands in stump water will cure warts ; and 
that if the ground hog sees his shadow on the 2d day of February, he will re- 
tire to his den to endure a six weeks' cold siege. 

The transition from these simple superstitions of the olden times to the 
patent medicine cure-all remedies of the present day was an easy one. He 
who imagined that warts could be removed or pain alleviated by the sorcerer' s 
pow-wow, or that skunk fat would cure pleurisy or consumption, would not be 
slow to believe in the curative properties of some thorougly advertised patent nos- 


trum. The statements in patent medicine oironlarB would receive full credenoe bj 
Lflering the ills to which humanity is subject, and unknown and per 
hap- absolute!} worthless remedies would be used assiduously until the system 
was thoroughly deranged. From the ravages of these patent aostrums, at well 
us from the ignorance of the human system prevailing among the masses, the 
medical profession had to save their patients. I',\rnwhnv | pie were per- 
ishing from a lark of knowledge of the physical organization which they were 
expected to preserve, and suffering humanity, racked with the pains of real 
or imaginary ills, was read] to seek relief in any direction. Hence the diffi- 
cult] of placing medical science on a substantia] basis in which its advi 
could practice intelligently and conscientiously, andyei receive a proper reward 
for their labors. No class of pioneer citizens made greater sacrifices for hu- 
manity, or deserve stronger marks of recognition, than the genu 
practitioners of a country. With the impetus given to the eesoulapian art by 
their labors and sacrifices, it is safe to predict that the introduction of rudimen- 
tary soienoe into the public schools, and especially the teaching of anatomy. 
physiology and hygiene, will finally usher in a period when the people shall 
obey the Laws of their being, and physicians, instead of being migratory drug 
stoic-, shall lie. as the term "doctor" literally implies, teachers of health 

In this chapter brief sketches of most of the medical practitioners of Com 
berland County, more or less noted in their fields of labor, are given. 


Among the early physicians who practiced in Carlisle before the Revolution 
was Dr. William Plunkett. but we know nothing more of bim than that he re- 
sided in Carlisle and is spoken of as "a practitioner of physic in 1 766." 

The most noted of" all the pre Revolutionary practitioners of medicine in 
Carlisle was Dr. William Irvine. He was born near Enniskillen, Ireland, in 
174(1; was educated at the University of Dublin, studied medicine and sur- 
gery, and was appointed a surgeon in the British Navy. In 1763, he immigrated 
to America and settled in Carlisle, where he soon acquired a high reputation 
and a lare;e practice as a surgeon and physician. In 1774 he took a oonspicu 
ons part in the politics of Cumberland County and was appointed as a delegate 
to the Provincial Convention. He had a strong leaning toward a military life, 
and was commissioned by Congress colonel of the Sixth Batallion and was or 
dered to Canada, where he was captured He was afterward colonel of the 
Seventh Pennsylvania Batallion. In 1779 he was commissioned a brigadier 
general and Berved under Wayne. In March. 1782, he was ordered to Fori 
Pitt, to which place he marched with a regiment to protect the northwestern 
frontier, then threatened with British and Indian invasion. He was engaged 
in allaying the trouble arising from disputed boundaries between Pennsylvania 
and Virginia. He was a member of the convention to form a constitution for 
the State of Pennsylvania, and was appointed commander-in-chief of the 
Pennsylvania troops to suppress the W hiskey Insurrection, and a commissioner to 
treat with the insurgents. l>r. Irvine married Anne Callender, the daughter 
of Robert Callender, of MiddL le. He removed to Philadel- 

phia in 1801, and died in July. L804, aged -i\t\ three years. He was presi- 
dent of the celebrated society of the Cincinnati until his death. 

Another pioneer physician was Dr. Samuel Allen MoCoskry, who settled 
there in 1774. Other- may have entered the valley in 17"i<'>. while in i 
tion with the army, but we have no record of their having been engaged in a 
regular practice. 


Dr. McCoskry, born in 1751, where or in what month is not known; prac- 
ticed medicine in Carlisle until he had achieved eminence in his profession; 
and died September 4, 1818, and was buried in the old Borough Cemetery in 
Carlisle. From the inscription on a tombstone, we gather that his first wife, 
Ann Susannah McCoskry, died November 12, 1792, being thirty-eight years 
old. Dr. McCoskry was afterward married to Alison Nisbett, daughter of the 
first president of Dickinson College. 

Dr. Lemuel Gustine, was born in Saybrook, Conn., in the year 1749; settled 
in the Wyoming Valley in 1769, or thereabouts; married the daughter of one 
Dr. Wm. Smith, to whom one daughter, Sarah, was born. , 

In the scenes attendant upon the Indian invasion and massacre in the Wyo- 
ming Valley, Dr. G-ustine took a prominent part. He remained on the field of 
that bloody conflict until further resistance became useless, when, on the night 
following the capitulation of the "Forty Fort" to Maj. Butler, the commander 
of the Tory and Indian troops, with his daughter and a few friends as com- 
panions, he drifted down the Susquehanna to John Harris' Ferry (now Harris- 
burg), where he landed, and proceeded to Carlisle. Here he commenced the 
practice of medicine. He married Rebecca Parker soon afterward, and be- 
came the father of six children. He continued the practice of his profession 
to within a short time before his death, which occurred October 7, 1805. He 
was buried in the old cemetery in Carlisle. 

Dr. James Gustine, son of preceding, graduated at Dickinson College in 
1798 ; studied medicine with his father, and afterward received the degree of 
M. D. from the University of Pennsylvania. He commenced practice in Natchez, 
Miss., returned to Carlisle; and again went South, where he remained until 
his death. 

Dr. Samuel Gustine, second son of Lemuel, studied medicine with his fa- 
ther, and went South with his brother James. 

Dr. George Stevenson, son of Geo. Stevenson. LL.D. born in York, Penn., 
in 1759; attended classical academy at Carlisle: entered Patriot army in 1778, 
as first lieutenant of Chambers' regiment; served with distinction at Brandy- 
wine, and resigned commission to return to the aid of his family; studied 
medicine under Dr. McCoskry; re-entered the army as surgeon, and served un- 
til close, when he returned to his practice in Carlisle. He was commissioned 
captain of infantry in 1793; created major in ^following year; aided in sup- 
pression of famous Whiskey Insurrection in 1(94, after settlement of which 
removed to Pittsburgh, where he commenced practice of medicine; commis- 
sioned major in Tenth United States Regiment, during the troubles with France; 
returned to practice in Pittsburgh, where he became distinguished for connection 
with many civil and political enterprises, in which he served in the following 
capacities: Trustee of Dickinson College; member first board of trustees of the 
Western University of Pennsylvania, member first board of directors of Branch 
Bank of Pennsylvania; president of United States Bank, at Pittsburgh; first 
director of United States Bank, at Cincinnati; and for a long time president 
of the city council of Pittsburgh. Dr. S. declined the presidency of the United 
States Bank at Cincinnati, and in 1825 removed to Wilmington, Del., where 
he died in 1829. 

Dr. Samuel Fahnestock, a physician, practiced his profession in Carlisle, 
from 1800 to 1820, when he removed to Pittsbirrgh. 

Dr. George Delap Foulke, born near Carlisle, November 12. 1780; grad- 
uated at Dickinson College in 1S00; studied medicine under Dr. Potter, med- 
ical professor in the University of Maryland: married Mary Steel, daughter of 
Ephraim Steel, of Carlisle; practiced in Bedford, Penn., and afterward in 


Carlisle, where be died Angusl 1 I. 1849, and was buried in the old cemetery. 

Dr. George Willis Foulke, son of preoeding, born in Carlisle, Ootober 8, 

graduated at Diokinson College in 1845; returned to oommenoe prac 

bos in Oarlisle, bul died Bud Lenlj on March 5, 1850; in the springtime of his 


brother of preoeding, born at Oarlisle August 6, 
graduated at Dickinson College in 1829; Btudied medioine with his 

father, afterward r iving degr r M D from University of Maryland; 

oonunenoed practice with his father at Oarlisle, but afterward removed to 
Ohillicothe, Ohio, where he oontinned in his profession. 

I>r. James Armstrong, born at Oarlisle in 1749; completed academic course 
at Nassau Ball, X. J.; studied medioine with Dr. John Morgan, of Philadel- 
phia, aft. Twanl reoeiving the degree oi M. I >. from University of Pennsyl 

vania: commenced praotioe in Winchester, 7a., bul 1 iming discouraged, 

pe, where he prosecuted the study of his profession in Loudon; 
returned to Carlisle, where he married Mary Stevenson, daughter of a promi 
nent settlor; removed to Kishacoquillas Valley, from which place he was 
: tongressman of the Third District of Pennsylvania; held the offices of 

t"''i-t f Dickinson College, trust if the old Presbyterian Churoh at Carlisle, 

associate judge of Cumberland County, and others of trust, which he filled 
with credit. He returned to Oarlisle to reside in the old family mansion, in which 
he had been born, and from which he was called to res! in the year 1828. He 
was buried in the old cemetery at Carlisle. 

Dr. John Armstrong, son of preceding, born in 1799; educated in Dickin- 
son College and University of Pennsylvania; completed a medical course un- 
der his father's tuition; married in L825; practiced in Dillsburg, Penn., and 
later returned to Cumberland; thence removed to Princeton. X J where he 
died in L871. 

Dr. Ephraim M. Blaine, grandson of Col. Ephraim Blaine, of Revolution- 
ary renown, was born in Carlisle, September 24, 1796; graduated at Dickin- 
son Coll, •,'!■ in the da— of 1814; r ived the degr E M. D. from Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania in lM'T; practi 1 in Carlisle for a number of years, and 

tiually entered the army as assistant surgeon, in which service he died March 
13, 1835, 

Dr. Adam Hays, born in Cumberland County, Penn., in 1792; educated at 
Dickinson College; studied medicine with Dr. ofcCoskrj and in the Un 

-ylvauia. where he took the degree of M. D. : practiced as surgeon in 
the army, at Ohillicothe, Ohio, and at Oarlisle; removed to Pittsburgh in 

L829, where he died in lSo i. 

Dr. William Chestnut Chambers, born near Harrisburg in L790; educated 
at Dickinson College; prepared for his profession in the University of Penn- 
sylvania; practi 1 in Carlisle for a numb ir of years, when h igaged in the 

iron and flour business; removed to Philadelphia in 1838, and died in 1857. 

Dr. Alfred Foster, born in Carlisle in 1790; graduated al Dickinson Col- 
lege; prepared for the practi f medicine in th fit I Dr. fifcCoskry; en- 

tered army, where 1 I in hospital work until the close of the war of 

1812; returned to ( larliale, and commenced the duties of practitioner, in which 
labor he continued until his death in 1847. He was buried in the old ceme- 
tery of Carlisle. 

Dr. John Creigh. born in Carlisle September 13, 1773; studied medicine un- 
der Dr. MoCoskryand in the University of Pennsylvania, being also a graduate 
of Dickinson College; located as physician at Pittsburgh, but after changing his 
■ • a number of times, finally settled at Carlisle, where 1, itinued in 


his profession until his death, which occurred November 7, 1848. Dr. C. was 
a prominent citizen, and took great interest in the affairs of his county. He 
was buried in the old cemetery. 

Dr. John Steel Given, born in Carlisle January 3, 1796; educated and took 
degree of M. D. in the University of Pennsylvania; settled at Carlisle, and 
was killed by the bursting of a cannon on July 4, 1825. 

Dr. Theodore Myers, born in Baltimore, Md., May 27, 1802; took degree 
of M. D. at University of Maryland in 1823; settled in Carlisle and engaged 
in the practice of his profession; married Sarah A. Irwin, a lady of distinction. 
Dr. M. died February 20, 1839, being in the prime of life. He was buried in 
the old cemetery. 

Dr. John Myers, brother of preceding, born in Baltimore January 23, 
1806; graduated and received degree of M. D. in the University of Maryland; 
settled at Carlisle as druggist and physician; entered the army hospital service, 
and died in Winchester, Va. 

Dr. John Elliot, born in Carlisle in 1797; educated at Dickinson College; 
studied medicine under Dr. McCoskry and in the University of Pennsylvania, 
taking the degree of M. D. from the latter; settled at Newville; returned to 
Carlisle, where, after practicing a few years, was called by death June 12, 1829. 
Dr. David Nelson Mahon, born in Pittsburgh, Penn. ; graduated at Dick- 
inson College; studied medicine under Dr. Gustine, of Carlisle, and afterward 
was created an M. D. by the University of Pennsylvania; entered the navy- 
service as assistant surgeon in 1821; took leave of the sea after three years' 
experience, and engaged in the practice of his profession at Carlisle, where he 
died and was buried in the Ashland Cemetery in 1876. 

Dr. Jacob Johnston commenced to practice in Carlisle in 1825, and con- 
tinued until his death in 1831. 

Dr. John Paxton, born in 1796; received degree of M. D. from University 

of Pennsylvania, after which he practiced in Carlisle until shortly before his 

death, which took place in 1840, while he was visiting in Adams County, Penn. 

Dr. William Boyd, a physician, settled in Carlisle in 1833, but removed 

after several years' residence. 

Dr Charles Cooper practiced in Carlisle a number of years, but afterward 
went West. . 

Dr. William Irvin, born in Centre County, Penn. ; graduated in the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania with degree of M. D. ; practiced in Carlisle until 1846, 
when he left for China. 

Dr. Stephen B. Kieffer, born in Franklin County, Penn. ; graduated at 
Marshall College in 1848; entered the office of Dr. R. Parker Little, and in 
1851 received the degree of M. D. from the University of Pennsylvania; re- 
ceived the degree of M. A. at the same time from his alma mater, Marshall 
College; married Kate E., daughter of George Keller, Esq., of Carlisle, where 
Dr. K. began the practice of his profession. He is a member of the County 
Medical Society; was at one time president of the State Medical Society, and 
in the centennial year was a member of the International Medical Congress 
which met at Philadelphia. Dr. Kieffer was elected a fellow of the American 
Academy of Medicine in 1877. He still resides at Carlisle, where he has es- 
tablished a large and remunerative practice. 

Dr. R. Lowry Sibbet, now living and practicing medicine in Carlisle, was 
born near Shippensburg, Cumberland County, in the early half of the present 
ceDtury. His ancestry are of Scotch-Irish extraction. His grandfather, Sam- 
uel Sibbet, of Presbyterian and Republican proclivities, was deemed an unsafe 
man in his native country, Ireland, and hence a reward of . 50 guineas was 


placed upon his head. Advised \>\ Masonic friends of this movement, he sei 
sail secretB for the I oited States, landing in Baltimore in May, 1800. Lfter 
the lapse of a fen mi 'nth- he was joined bj his faithful wife and their cl 
James, Robertand Thomas. The Cumberland Valley, with its Scotch-Irish 
settlements, having been heard of, the family proceeded at once to the head 
of Big Spring, where they were heartily welcomed bj warm friends who had 
preceded them. To the family were added Samuel, Margaret, Lowry and 
Hugh kfontgomi 

Thomas, the third child, was born October ■">, 17U7. In dne time he mar 
ried Catherine Ryan, from which union sprang seven children, live of whom 
still remain, viz. : Rachel A., Robert L., Henrj W., William R. and Anna 
M. The parents and the two children are buried in the Spring Hill Cem 
etery of Shippensbnrg. 

The subject of this sketch graduated in 1S.M - , from Pennsylvania College 
with the degree of A. B.. and three years subsequent, obtained from his alma 
mater the degree of A. M After several years teaching in a classical school, 
he studied medicine with His. Stewart and Holland, of Shippensbnrg. He 
attended the osnal course of medical lectures, and graduated from the I'niver- 
sity of Pennsylvania in 1866. Having practiced for a time at Harrisbnrg and 
New Kingston, he visited Europe in 1870, spending some two years in its 
universities and hospitals, distributed as follows: Seven months in Paris dur 
ing the siege: two in Berlin; ten in Vienna; two in London, and the remain- 
der in Spain. Italy and Switzerland. After his return, the Doctor located at 
Carlisle, and began a series of correspondence, which resulted in the organiza- 
tion of the •■ American Academy of Medicine," — an associated corps of men 
who have been regularly graduated from reputable institutions of learning. 
As a member of this association, together with the county and State medical 
societies, hi- labor-, have been given for the advancement of reforms in his 
profession, notably the registration of all practitioners and the necessity of 
medical men having both literary and professional diplomas. He is one of 
those persons who never practically accepted the doctrine that it is not good 
for man to be alone. 

Dr. Alfred J. Herman, born in Montgomery County, lVim.. studied med- 
icine under Dr. Butter. ofPottstown, Perm., and also received the degree of 
M. D. from the University of Pennsylvania, in 1846. Dr. Herman settled in 
the Cumberland Valley soon afterward, and eventually removed to Carlisle, 
where he continued the practice of his chosen profession. 

Dr. William W. Dal.' was born in Lancaster, Penn. ; graduated from Jef- 
ferson Medical College, Philadelphia, in 1838; moved to Carlisle in 1847, 

Dr. "\Vm. H. Longsdorf was born in this county in L834; graduated in 
1856 from Jefferson Medical College, and. in 1857, from the Pennsylvania 
Dental School; first commence,) practice in this county in 1857. 

Dr. William H. Cooke, born near York Sulphur Springs. Perm.; educated 
in Chester County, Penn.; entered the office of Dr. Hiram Metcalfe, and after 
ward took the degree of M. D. from the Jefferson Medical College; engaged in 
public speaking in the Western country; returned in 1859 to Pennsylvania, 
and after marrying Elizabeth Richmond, settled at Carlisle, and comm 
practicing his profession. 

Dr. Eugene A. < trove, born in < lumberland County. Penn.. was a descendant 
• •' 11 - Graf, a noted Switzer. Dr. Grove received an education in the public 
schools of Carlisle-, studied medicine under Dr. S. B. Kieffer, and took the 
f M. D. from the University of Pennsylvania, in 1870. He is en- 
gaged in the practice of his profession in Carlisle. 


Dr. George Hemminger, born in Cumberland County, Penn. ; educated in 
the county schools, a select school at Plainfield, and was a sophomore in Penn- 
sylvania College when the war broke out, and he abandoned his studies to 
defend the Union. In 1862 he entered the One Hundred and Thirty-eighth 
Eegiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers; served with distinction in many severe 
engagements; was captured and confined in Libby prison in 1865; was ex- 
changed and rejoined his regiment, in which he served until the close of the 
war. Dr. Hemminger, after his return, entered the office of Dr. J. J. Gitzer, 
of Carlisle, and after studying some time, entered the Detroit Medical College, 
and graduated there in 1869, with the degree of M. D. He located first at 
Newville, Penn., but afterward returned to Carlisle, where he is engaged in a 
large practice. 

Dr. Jacob S. Bender was born in Bendersville, this county, in 1834; grad- 
uated from Pennsylvania Homoeopathic College of Medicine in 1862; com- 
menced the practice of medicine, after close of the war, between Omaha and 
the Rocky Mountains, and there continued for four years; then came to Car- 

Dr. Wm. F. Eeily, a native of Carlisle, born in 1851, graduated from the 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, in 1875 ; then located in Carlisle, 
where he has practiced ever since. 

Dr. J. Simpson Musgrave was born in Ireland; attended lectures at the 
Toland Medical College, in San Francisco, Cal. ; entered the University of 
Maryland, and finally graduated in the University Pennsylvania, with the 
degree M. D. Dr. Musgrave located in Carlisle in 1877, but remained only a 
short time. 


Dr. Asa Herring, born in New Jersey in 1792; moved to Mechanicsburg in 
1815, where he engaged in the practice of medicine until 1S28, when he re- 
moved to Elizabethtown, Penn. 

Dr. James B. Herring, son of preceding; born at Hamilton, Penn., March 4, 
1829; graduated from University of Pennsylvania, in 1851, receiving the de- 
gree of M. D. ; commenced practice in Mechanicsburg; married Elizabeth 
Riegel; continued to practice, in partnership with Dr. Ira Day until his death, 
November 9, 1871. He was buried in Chestnut Hill Cemetery, near Mechan- 

Dr. Jacob Weaver, practiced in Mechanicsburg between the years 182o and 

Dr. James G. Oliver, born in Cumberland County, December 6, 1801; edu- 
cated at Dickinson College; graduated from Jefferson Medical College in 1828 
with degree of M. D. ; practiced first at Oyster's Point, afterward at Mechan- 
icsburg, where he also owned a drug store; married Jane Carothers, and be- 
came father of three children; continued his practice until his death, May 31, 
1836. He was buried in the Spring Hill Cemetery. 

Dr. Ira Day, born in Royalton, Vt.. in 1799; educated in Royalton 
Academy; taught select school in Harrisburg, at the same time studying medi- 
cine under Dr. Luther; graduated as M. D. from University of Vermont, in 
1823; continued practicing medicine in Mechanicsburg; engaged in State and 
County Medical Associations; was elected trustee of Dickinson College in 1833; 
continued his practice until his death, in November, 1868. He is buried in the 
cemetery near Mechanicsburg. 

Dr. George Fulmer, born in 1829, the oldest practicing physician in Me- 
chanicsburg, °and one of the oldest in the county, is a graduate of Jefferson 
Medical College, Philadelphia. 


I': \ II' Van Boff, W. A. Steigleman ami Philip H. Long were practi- 
tioners of medicine in Meohanicsburg Borne forty years ago. 

Dr. 1' B. Brandt, born in Cnmberland; educated inoonnty Bchools; 
noted b - Medical College in l s ~>~>: practiced in Nen Cnmberland, 

Shiremanstown and Mechaniosburg; married Margaret Mateer in L856; and in 
nt ill engaged in his profession at Mechanicsbnrg. 

l>r. Elobert Graham Kbnng was born in Louther Manor, Perm., Deo 
ti. 1809, and educated at Dickinson College. Ee studied medicine with Dr. 
John Paxton, and graduated at the (Jniversitj of Pennsylvania with the de- 
gree of M 1> Be practiced in Lonther Manor. Shiremanstown and M 
icsburg. He married Annetta Culbertson and became father of five cl 
Dr. Young was one of the public spirited and exemplary citizens of the com 

Dr. Martin B. Mosser was born in Upper Paxton, Dauphu tn. He 

studied medicine in the office of Dr. E. H Coover, in New Cumberland. He 
graduated from Medical College in 1862, and entered the arm] as 
assistanl surgeon of the Fourth United States Artillery: was assigned to duty 
in the United States general hospital at Philadelphia. He resigned in 1865, 
and commenced civil practice at Shiremanstown, He married Rebecca Rupp, 
and became the rather of two children; removed to Mechanicsbnrg, where he 
practices his profession. 

Dr. Robert N. Short was horn in Kentucky in L831; graduated from the 
Southern Medical College in L853, and from Miami Medical College in 1^71; 
moved to Centerville. this county, in 1861, and there practiced medic 
surgery till 1865, when he came to Mechanicsbnrg, where he has eve* since 
been in active practice. 

Dr. L. P. O'Neale was born in Virginia in 1838; came to Mechanics! mr^ 
from York County. Penn. , in 1870, and has here since been actively engaged 
in the practice of his profession. 

Dr. Levi H. Lenher, a native of Lancaster County. Penn.. born in 1822; 
graduated at Pennsylvania College, Philadelphia, in 1843; came to Church- 
town, this county, in 1M7. and there remained till 1872; then moved to Me- 
ohanicsburg; thence to Iowa-, thence to li Penn., and finallj again 

to Mechanicsbnrg. 

Dr Jacob H. Deardorff. born in Washington Township, York Co., ' 
in L846; graduated from Hahnemann Medical College, Philadelphia, in 1876; 
located in Middletown, Penn.. for two years and a half; then came to Mechan- 
icsbnrg, where he has practiced medicine ever since. 


Dr. Charles Harrison Gibson, born in Perry County. Penn., graduated 

from the Miami Medical College, with the usual degr f M. 1>. ; entered a 

Cincinnati hospital a- resident physician; remove.! toChurchtown in 1875, and 
engaged in the duties of his profession. 


Dr. Isaac Wayne Snowden, horn in Harrisburg, Penn.. on the 5th of 
March. 1 794, being descended from an illustrious ancestry. He was educated 
in an academy, prepared for the medical profession in Di Nathan- 

iel Chapman, of Philadelphia: enter,.,! the army as assistanl surgeon in L816; 
served in the Seminole war, being an intimate friend of Gen. .lack-on: n i 

his position in 1823, and commenced the practi* f his profession in Mifllin 

County. Penn.: married M ■ _r r B. Loudon, and removed to the lower part of 


Cumberland Valley in 1832; established a practice here, in which he was en- 
gaged until his death, which took place in 1850. 

°Dr. Joseph Crain, born in Lancaster, Penn., December 25, 1803; educated at 
Dickinson College; studied medicine under Dr. Whiteside, of Harrisburg, and 
also graduated with the degree of M. D. at the University of Maryland; com- 
menced practice in Hogestown in 1S30; married Rebecca Wells, and became 
father of four children; afterward married Ellen Chambers, by whom one son 
was born. Dr. Crain continued in practice until his death, which occurred 
April 18, 1876. He was buried in the Silver Spring Cemetery. 


Dr. Lerew Lemer, born in Harrisburg, October 6, 1806; entered office of Dr. 
Luther Reily, and in 1832 took degree of M. D. from Yale College; com- 
menced practice in New Cumberland; removed to Lisburn, where he lived 
until his death, in 1876. 

Dr. J. W. Trimmer, born in Adams County, Penn., educated at Millersville 
Academy and Dickinson Seminary, studied medicine with Dr. A. D. Dill, of 
York Sulphur Springs; graduated from Rush Medical College in 1875; com- 
pleted third course of lectures at Bellevue Hospital Medical College in 1876; 
commenced practice in Lisburn, where he is still engaged in a large and grow- 
ing practice. 


Dr. John Simpson, a physician, commenced practice in Shippensburg 
about 1778, and continued until February 17, 1826, when he died. 

Ds. Robt. McCall practiced healing in Shippensburg up to 1799, when 
his death is recorded. . 

Dr. Alexander Stewart, born in Lancaster County, Penn. ; practiced medicine 
in Shippensburg from 1795 to 1830, when he died. 

Dr. John Ealy, born in Shippensburg in 1788; commenced practice there 
in 1809, and continued until his death, in 1831. 

Dr. Elijah Ealy, son of preceding, also practiced^ in Shippensburg, but 
afterward moved to Dayton, Ohio, where he died in 1851. 

Dr. William A. Findlay practiced in Shippensburg for a number of years 
after 1815. ■ He afterward moved to Chambersburg. 

Dr. William Rankin, born at Potter's Mills, Centre Co., Penn.. m October, 
1795; oraduated at Washington College in 1814; studied medicine with Dr. 
Dean, oi Chambersburg, Penn., and afterward, in 1819. received the degree 
of M. D. from University of Penn. ; practiced in Campbellstown, but, in 1821, 
removed to Shippensburg; married Caroline Nevin, and became father of five 
children; practiced until his death, July 15, 1872. 

Dr. David Nevin Rankin, son of preceding, born in Shippensburg; 
studied medicine with his father, and graduated with degree of M. D. from 
Jefferson Medical College, in 1854; practiced in partnership with his father 
until the war, when he entered, as assistant surgeon; after long and ardu- 
ous service, settled at Allegheny City, where he still lives. 

Dr. Alexander Stewart was born in Maryland, in 1809; graduated from 
Washington Medical College, Baltimore, Md., in 1831; same year commenced 
practice in Shippensburg, where he has since resided. 

Dr. Thomas Greer and Dr. John N. Duncan practiced medicine m Ship- 
pensburg; the former from 1834 to 1839, when he died; the latter from 1841 
to 1850, when he removed to Chambersburg. 

Dr. William M. Witherspoon, a native of Franklin County, Penn., bornm 
1844; graduated from medical department of the University of Pennsylvama, 
in 1869, and has been in active practice in Shippensburg ever since. 



Dr. \N Scot) Bruckhart, born in Lancaster Co., Penn.; graduated from 
JefferBon Medical College in L870; praotioed in Mountjo] Township, but re- 
moved to Shiremanstown in l s Tl. where he still practices. 

l>r. Jacob Black and Dr. William Mateer praotioed medicine iu Shire- 
manstown sometime near Lc 

I I I. I.E. 

Dr. John Geddes, born in Cumberland County, August L6, 1770, studied 
medicine with Dr, McCoskry, of Carlisle. Ee settled in Newville as a prac- 
titioner in 1797, and died December 5, L840. 

Dr. Join. I'. Geddes, son of the preceding, was born in Newville, October 
in [799. Ee studied under his father, and graduated as M. D. from the 
University of New York; settled at Newville and practiced his profession un- 
til his death in October, 1837. 

Dr. William M. Sharp, born at Green Spring, in I 798; graduated at Dick- 
inson College in L815. Ee Btudied medicine under Dr. McCoskry, and ra- 

oeived the degr d 1£ D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1819; 

praotioed in Newville until his death August 20, L835. 

Dr. Alexander Sharp, son of Wm. M Sharp, born in Newville in 1826; 
graduated from Jefferson Medical College in L850. Ho practiced in New- 
ville until he died December 13, L860. 

Dr. Williams. Rutger was born December 13, L782, in Germany. He 
Btudied medicine and embarked for America, landing at Baltimore in Septem- 
ber, l s " ; '>; married Ann C. Afer in L806, and praotioed medicine in Baltimore, 
but removed to Newville in 1812, being known as the ''Dutch Doctor." He 
removed to Illinois, where he died in 1847. 

1 >■■ .1. C. Olaudy, grandson of the above, born in Cumberland County; stud- 

.Mili Dr. David Ahl, of Newville, and afterward received degree 

Of M 1>. fromBellevue Hospital Medical College: entered army as assistant BUT- 

returned to Newville to practice his profession; married Lucinda Blean, 

and -till continues in his practice. 

l>r. John Ahl. born in Bucks County. Penn.; educated in Baltimore; prac- 
ticed medicine in Rockingham County, Va.; removed to Newville. where he 
died April 9, L844. 

Dr. John Alexander Ahl. son of pr ling, was born in Strasburg. Penn.; 

studied under his father, and took his degree, ML 1).. from Washington Medical 
College, Baltimore; commenced practice in Centerville, Cumberland County; 
removed to Newville, where he engaged in various business enterprises, and 
from which place he was elected to the Thirtj -fifth Congress. Died in L882. 

Dr. David Ahl. born in York County, Penn. ; entered West Poinl as cadet; 
1 in L850, and entered office of Dr. Smith, of York, Penn.; graduated 
from University of Man land as M. D. in 1853; moved to Newville. where, after 
practicing a number of years, he died April 8, 1878. 

Dr. Joseph Hannon, a graduate of Jefferson Medical College, practi 1 in 

Newville from 1MI for about ten years. 

Dr. Mathew F. Robinson, bom near Greencastle, Penn . April 26, L820; 
Btudied medicine under Dr. J. K. Davidson, of Greencastle, and took degree 
of ML D. from Washi igton Medical College, of "Baltimore, in 1847; practiced 
in Mercersburg and later at Newville, where he died January 1, 1^< I- 

Dr. JohnG. Barr, bom in Newville in L830; graduated at Washhi 

1) i . with degr f M. D.. in I80S; practiced in Newville until the war, 

when hi- entered the army a- surg i. and died in L865. 


Dr. Samuel H. Brehm, born in Cumberland County, Penn. ; received com- 
mon and classical education; received degree of M. D. from Jefferson Medical 
College, in 1866 ; commenced and still continues practice in Newville. 

Dr. David Smith was a resident practitioner of medicine in Newburg, 
where he resided about twenty-nine years. He died in 1863, and is buried in 
the cemetery near Newburg. 

Dr. Alexander A. Thomson was born in Franklin County, Penn., in 1841; 
graduated from Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, in 1864; practiced 
several years in Newburg, this county; now resides in Carlisle. 


Dr. John Mosser was born in Lancaster County, June 20, 1777; married 
Elizabeth Neff, with whom he had eight children. He purchased property 
in the vicinity of New Cumberland in 1815, and engaged in the practice of 
medicine until his death, June 10, 1826. He is buried in Mount Olivet Cem- 
etery, near New Cumberland. 


Dr. Israel Betz, born in Lancaster County, Penn. ; studied under Dr. W. 
E. Swiler, of York County, Penn. ; graduated with degree of M. D. from Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania; settled at Oakville, where he still continues in his 


Dr. Jacob Sawyer, born in Wilmington, Mass., December 26, 1794, edu- 
cated in the village schools and also in Phillips Academy, Exeter, N. H. ; 
studied for the practice of medicine in the office of Dr. Hill, and in the medi- 
cal department of Howard University, where he attended lectures given by 
such distinguished physicians as Drs. Channing, Ingalls, and others; com- 
menced the practice of his profession in Dillsburg, Penn. . where he succeeded 
to the practice of his brother, Dr. Asa Sawyer; married Mary Ann McGowan, 
daughter of David McGowan, of Boiling Springs, in 1825; exchanged prac- 
tices with Dr. Thomas Cathcart, of Bloomfield, Perry County, in 1833; pur- 
chased a farm near Boiling Springs, where he soon established a large country 
practice; removed to Carlisle some time in 1857, where he was taken away by 
death two years later. Dr. Sawyer had lived an active and eventful life, hav- 
ing served as surgeon to the fifth division of State militia and as resident prac- 
titioner in various parts of the State. 


Dr. Joshua E. Van Camp, born in Perry County, Penn. : educated in Louis- 
ville Academy and Pennsylvania College; enlisted and served in One Hun- 
dred* and Thirty-third Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, in 1862; served 
until close of the war, having been promoted to sergeant: graduated from 
the University of Michigan in 1870, with degree of M. D. ; practiced in Markels- 
ville, and later in Plainfield, where he still resides. 

oyster's point. 

Dr. Peter Fahnestock practiced at what is now called Oyster's Point about 
the beginning of the nineteenth century. 

tyb/iC0*6un (?{J.J^ 


PHTBia] vm IT mnnnmumi noTTWTT HTNffl \B0XT1 L879. 

Grove, Dr. George, Big Spring, born in Chambersbnrg, Franklin County, 
in L811; graduated from Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, with honors, 
in L886. Ee is to-day the oldest practicing physician in the Cumberland 

Davis, I>r. .1. c. Mount Eollj Springs, was born in this county in L848; 
graduated from Jefferson Medical College, in L875; has here an extensive 

Coons, Philip R., born in Shippensburg; resilience at Allen postomce; 
graduated at Jefferson Medical College, March 12, l s 7'.i. 

Smith. Jacob H., a native of Cumberland County; present residence Diok- 
Downship; graduated at Jefferson Medical College, l s ^'. 

Eieberknight, Dr. 1' B . Newburg; graduated at Jefferson Medical College, 
Philadelphia, about 1873, with honors; also at Bellevue Eospital Medical < '"I 
rk, in 1879, since which date his practice has been uninterrupted 
in Newburg. 

Cramer. David C, born in Xewburg, Cumberland County, where he is lo 
cateil in the practice; received his degree of M. D. from Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege, 1880. 

1. -lames G., a native of Adams County; resides in Carlisle; graduate 
of Hahnemann Medical College, l s 7v 

Koser, John J., burn in Shippensburg, where he resides; graduated in the 
University i if Pennsylvania, 1 S M. 

Marshall, J. Buchanan, a native of Adams County, resides in Shippensburg; 
graduated at Bellevue Hospital Medical College, N. Y.. February, L879. 

Prow ell, Etobert S., a native of Cumberland County; resides in New Cum- 
berland; graduated at College Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore, March '■'>, 

Smith. S. McKee. burn in Perry County; resides in Heberlig; graduated 
at College of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore, Lsso. 

Oonlyn, Edward S., born in Carlisle, where be resides; graduated at Hahne 
mann College, March. 1880; was in Ward's Island Hospital from April, 1880, 
bar, L881. 

Longsdorf, Harold H.. born in Nebraska; resides in Dickinson; graduated 

at College of Physicians and Surg 1-. Baltimore, March 1, L882; 1 ived the 

degree 1 if M. V. from Dickinson College, June 27, L879. 

Bower-. Moses EL, a native of Mifflin, Perm.; resides in Boiling Springs; 
graduate of Jefferson Medical College, March 30, L882. 

1 leshler, Joseph J., born in Armstrong, Centre Count] ; resides at Shippens 
burg; graduated at College Physician- and Surg is, Baltimore, March 3, 1880. 

Polinger, Robert K. a native of Cumberland County; residence Carlisle; 
graduated at Columbus Medical College (Ohio) March I. l ss o. 

Ayres, Wilmot, born in York County; resides in Middlesex; graduated at 
Baltimore Medical College, April 12, 1883. 

Orr, James P., native of TS estmoreland County; residence New Cumberland; 
graduated at Michigan Oniversity, March 6, 1879. 

Eauffman, John E., born in Martinsburg, West Virginia; resident 
burg; graduated at New Xbrk University, March 11. L884. 

McGary, Etobt. M., a native of Shiremanstown, where he resides; gradu- 
ated at Jefferson Medical College, March 29, 1884 

Diven, S. L., born at Mount Holly Springs; residence Carlisle; graduated at 

University Pennsylvania May I, l ss l; received degr< f A. Ed and A. M.. at 

Diekr L878-81 



Hobach, John TJ., a native of Perry County; residence Mechanicsburg; 
graduated at the University of Pennsylvania, May 1, 1884. 

Bowman, Dr. John D., Camp Hill, was born in 1832; graduated from Jef- 
ferson Medical College, Philadelphia, about 1856, then commenced practice in 
Camp Hill, remaining over sixteen years ; then removed to Harrisburg, and in 
1885 returned to Camp Hill. 

Lauck, David A., a native of Cumberland County; residence Mechanics- 
burg; graduated at University, Baltimore, March 3, 1885. 

Rodgers, John R., born at Cumberland County; resides at Sterrett's Gap, 
graduated at Western Reserve University, February 25, 1885. 

Eckels, Geo. M. , born at Mechanicsburg, where he now resides; graduated 
at Pennsylvania University, May 1, 1885. 

Casteel, D. T., of Allen, Cumberland County; born in Garrett County, 
Md. ; graduated at University of Maryland, 1885. 

Stouffer, Alvin, P., of Shippensburg; born Goodville. Lancaster County; 
graduated at Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, March 4, 1885. His diploma 
was endorsed by Hahnemann Medical College. 

Kasten, William J., of Boiling Springs; born in Baltimore; graduated at 
University of Maryland, March 17, 1886. 

Spangler, Jacob B., of Mechanicsburg; born in Greencastle, Perm. ; gradu- 
ated at Jefferson Medical College, April 2, 1886. 



The following is a list of the physicians in Cumberland County, who, in 
compliance with law, have registered in the office of the prothonotary at Car- 
lisle, their names occuring in the order of registration: 

Isaac Young Reed. Leesburg. 

John A. Morrett, New Kingston. 

R. Lowry Sibbet, Carlisle. 

Geo. W. Ziegler, Carlisle. 

John C. Claudy, Newville. 

Charles C. Hamniel, Mechanicsburg. 

L. H. Lenher, Mechanicsburg. 

Bphraim N. Mosser, Mechanicsburg. 

John W. Trimmer, Lisburn. 

John W. Bowman. Camp Hill. 

Levi Fulk, New Kingston. 

Eli B. Brandt. Mechanicsburg. 

Jacob W. Roop, New Cumberland. 

George Grove, Big Spring. 

Philip R. Koons, Allen. 

R. M. Hays, Newville. 

Jno. H. Sherman, Mount Holly Springs. 

Wm. W. Dale, Carlisle. 

Saml. P. Zeigler, Carlisle. 

L. P. O'Neale, Mechanicsburg. 

H. D. Cooper, Newville. 

Adam B. Sechrist, Upper Allen Township. 

Jacob H. Deardorff, Mechanicsburg. 

Thos. J. Stevens, Mechanicsburg. 

Z. D. Hartzell, Newburg. 

C. W. Krise. Carlisle. 

Jesse Laverty, Sr., East Pennsborough Tp. 

A. A. Thomson, Carlisle. 

Jacob H. Smith. Dickinson Township. 

W. F. Reily, Carlisle. 

Michael L. Hoover. Silver Spring Township. 

Wm. H. Lougsdorf. Carlisle. 

A. J. Herman, Carlisle. 

John L. Baeher, Leesburg. 

Robert Graham Young. Mechanicsburg. 

Thomas Stewart, Sr., Carlisle. 

Thomas Stewart, Jr., Carlisle. 

Wm. H. Lauman, Mount Holly Springs. 

David C. Cramer, Newburg. 

Robt. W. Ross, Shepherdstown. 

Matthew B. Rodgers. Middlesex Township. 

Wm. A. English, Shippensburg. 

Mrs. Susie A. English, Shippensburg. 

Austin Best. Shiremanstown. 

Alvin I. Miller, Carlisle. 

Theophilus L. Neff, Carlisle. 

James G. Fickel, Carlisle. 

Robt. N. Short, Mechanicsburg. 

Wm. B. Reynolds, Newville. 

Jno. J. Koser, Shippensburg. 

Henry R. Williams, Hogestown. 

Robt. P. Long. Mechanicsburg. 

George Fulmer. Mechanicsburg. 

ChasT H. Hepburn. Carlisle. 

Geo. Hemminger. Carlisle. 

Robt. C. Stewart, Shippensburg. 

Jas. B. Marshall, Shippensburg. 

Alex. Stewart. Shippensburg. 

Wm. M. Witherspoon, Shippensburg. 

David D. Hayes, Shippensburg. 

Wm. G. Stewart, Newville. 

Joshua E. Van Camp, Plainfield. 

Saml. Myers, West Pennsborough Township. 

Saml. H. Brehtn, Newville. 

Robt. S. Prowell, New Cumberland. 

Saml. M. Smith, Heberlig. 



Bob) c m trenail. Weal Fairview.1 

B il i Birler, Bloaerville. 

M M Ritchie, Carlisle. 

Henry W. Linebaugh, Mew Cumberland. 

I Qouck. IS riling Springs. 
brael BeUs, Oakville. 
P, 15. Leber knight, Ni 
Austin W. Nichols, Camp Hill. 
.1 I. Bctaoch, Bhippi nsburg. 

■ loover, Upper Allen Township. 

l> u Baa w esl Fairview. 

w 8 Bruckart, Bhiremanstown. 
Win. K Cornog, Mount Boll) Springs. 

- Bender, Carlisle. 
Finley K. Rodj i sburg. 

Charfee A. Eowland, Bhippensburg 

B M..vcr. Bfecb inicsburg. 
Edward 8. Conlyn, Carlisle. 

Joseph T 11 r, S luthampton Township. 

Joseph 11 Mowers, Bhippensburg. 
Fred Bartzell, Churchtown. 

S:iml N. Eckee, Jacksonville. 
Joseph C. Da I >Uy Springs. 

11 11 Longsdorf, Dickinson. 
B. Kiefler, Carlisle. 
Levi Clay, Wesl Pensborough Township. 

B P Bai kus, Phil uii 

liling Bprings. 
J. k Bowers, Read 
.1 .i Desbler, Bhippensburg. 
Robt B. Pollinger, Carlisle. 
Wilmol Ai res, Middlesex. 

.1.1' I 'IT \r» I 'Hill! 

M:ix Von Slutterheim, Newvflle. 

: burg. 
c M. Pager, Weal Fairview. 
John Logan, Barrisburg. 
John II. Eauffman. Newburg. 
Koin. M. McQary. Bhiremanstown. 
s I. Diven, Carlisle. 
John r. Bobach, Mechanicaburg. 

Pi irrs. lloim I 
\| .1. Jackson, New York City. 
David A Lauck, Mechanicsburg. 
Jno. R Rodgers, Bterretfa Gap. 
Geo. M i i !• : Mechanicsburg. 
i .i Heckert, Wormleysburg. 
I). T. E. Casteel, Allen. 
Q. 8. ( lomstock, Bloserville. 
A P Btaufler, Bhippensburg. 
W. J. Kaaten, Boiling Springs. 
Jacob IS. Bpangler, Ma b inicsburg. 
■ irlisle. 


On the 17th of July. L866, the Medical Society of Cumberland County was 
organized, by the following gentlemen: .—,«., 

Drs. W. W. Dale, Saml. P. Zeigler, S. B. Keiffer, J. J. Zitner, A. D. Schel- 
lino- \ J Herman, E. K. Demme, Carlisle; James B. Herring, R. N. Short. 
EUB. Mechanicaburg; Joseph ('rain. Richard M. Cram, Hogestown; 
M B. Mosser, Bhiremanstown; John D. Bowman, White Hall: E. H. Coover, 
New Cumberland; D. W. Bashore.Wesi Fairview; R. C. Hays, W.W. Nevin, 
Bhippensburg; W. G. Stewart, Middle Springs; \\". H. Lowman, Mount Holly 
Springs; J. W. C. Cuddy, Mount Rock; David Aid. M. P. Robinson, G. W. 
Haldeman, Newville. 

The temporary officers elected wore Dr. J. Cram, president; Dr. (t. \\ . 
Haldeman. secretary. 

A constitution and by-laws were adopted, consisting of fourteen articles in 
the former and seven in the latter. Article III of the constitution 
"Any gentleman who is a resident of this county, having a good moral char 
aoter, and in regular standing with the profession, shall be eligible to member- 
ship." The membership fee is fixed at $2. Meetings are held on first Tues- 
days of January, May and September of each year. 

\- ahowingthe nature of the topics discussed at regular meetings, the list 
of subjects for the meeting held at the Endian Industrial School on Thursday 
afternoon, June 24, L886, is given: Obstetric Practice. Dr. Hiram Corson; 
Hospital Clinic Dr. 0. G. Given, Uterine Displacements; Dr. M. K. Bowers; 
Early D ind Treatment of Phthisis, Dr. S. H Brehm; Luxations, 

Dr. R. R. Koons: Narcotic-- Their Uses and Abuses, Dr. R. L. Sihbet. 

The present corps of officers embraces the following well-known gentlemen: 

ler, president; Drs. W. F. Reilj and L. H. Lenher, vice- 

presidents; Dr. T. Stewart. Jr., recording secretary; Dr. R. L. Sihbet, cor- 

p. Zeigler, treasurer; Drs. E. V Mosser, J. J. 

Koeer, J. C. Claudy, J. W. Bowman and W. H. Longsdorf, cei 



The Press — Of Carlisle — Or Shippensburg— Of Mechanicsburg — Of New- 
ville— Of Mount Holly. 

THE corner-stones of modern civilization are the family, the school, the 
church and the State. Each of these has its functions to perform and 
its mission to till in the world's progress. In proportion as each one accom- 
plishes its work successfully, will the succeeding organization be better sup- 
plied with competent agents and preparation to move forward to the 
accomplishment of its destined mission. If the preparation — the preparatory 
training — in each be made satisfactory, a race of men and women will ultimately 
be developed that will meet the demands of Holland's " Men for the Hour:" 
" God give us men! a time like this demands 

Strong minds, great hearts, true faith and ready hands; 

Men whom the lust of office does not kill; 

Men whom the spoils of office can not buy; 

Men who possess opinions and a will; 

Men who have honor — men who will not lie; 

Men who can stand before a demagogue 

And damn his treacherous flatteries without winking; 

Tall men, sun-crowned, who live above the fog 

In public duty and in private thinking." 

The public press supplies the mental and moral pabulum for these four 
cardinal organizations. It is a sort of general text-book for this educational 
quartet — an omnium gatherum of this world's sayings and doings — a witches' 
kettle into which are thrown more heterogeneous elements than Shakspeare 
ever dreamed of — a sheet, not always let down from heaven, but containing 
all manner of beasts and birds and creeping things, clean and unclean. Such 
is the modern newspaper — the power greater than the throne. Formerly, the 
public speaker enlightened the people upon the great political and other 
questions of the day. Now he finds that the press has preceded him, and has 
found an audience in every household of the land. It is the source of infor- 
mation^the means of forming public sentiment. He can arouse enthusiasm, 
perhaps, and direct forces, but he can not enlighten as before. 

The press of Cumberland County has exerted an important influence in its 
development. Regret is to be expressed that more complete files have not 
been preserved of the various papers issued, for they, afford, when perfect, the 
fullest local history of a people to be had. Prom Dr. Wing' s excellent history, 
as well as from a variety of other sources, the following facts are gleaned: 


The Carlisle Weekly Gazette, a small four-paged sheet issued in July, 1785, 
on blue paper, by Kline and Reynolds, was the first publication of the kind in 
the county, and probably the first west of the Susquehanna. It continued till 
1815, and files of it, more or less perfect, are still preserved. Its subscription 
price was 15 shillings ($2) per annum, or 6 cents per single copy. It advo- 
cated the doctrines of the Federalists. 

The Carlisle Eagle, according to one account, began in October, 1799, and 
was published by John P. Thompson, deputy postmaster, until 1S02, when he 


was soooeeded by Archibald London, who oontinned in thai oapacitj for about 
two years, George Phillips acting as editor, In L804, Capt Wm. Alexander, 
afterward an officer in the war of L812, assumed editorial management under 
the ownership of Kirs. Ann C. Phillips, and oontinned the same till about 
L828 24, when the paper passed into the hands of Gem E. -M. Biddle and 
Geo. W. Hitnerwho ohanged the nam.' to Carlisle Herald and Expositor. 
I Fleming, George M. Phillips, son of George Phillips, and Robert M. 

tiiddleton were successively its editors. Middleton, who was an able aewa 

paperman, was suooeeded by Capt E. Beatty, who edited the si I from L843 

to L857. After this period it- name was changed again to Carlisle Herald, 
ami it was edited successively by A. U. Kheem and .lames Dunbar. By 
; } of time it passed into the hand- of Weaklej & Wallace; and subse- 

quently was published by a regular organization known as the "Carlisle Her- 
ald Publishing Company." 

In March. L881, B paper known a- the Mirror was merged into into it; and 
lor a time the Herald was issued semi weekly under the name of Herald 

ami Mirror. The editor- under the I tpanj ha\e been J. Marion Weakley, 

Esq . 0. Haddock. Alfred H. Adam-. William E. Tricked. Esq., and John 
Hays, Esq., present editor. It has been rigidly consistent in its political 
principles, being first Federal, then Whig, and ever since Republican. 

The Cumberland Register was a small paper published by Archibald Lou- 
don. The Qumber dated June 22, 1M i. is numbered No. 40, Vol. IX., showing 
that the paper must have been begun about 1804. 

The American Volunteer was started in L81 1. during the progress of the 
war with Great Britain, by Win. B. and James Underwood, brothers, by 
whom it was conducted conjointly till one of them .lied and the other conduct- 
ed it until L836, when George Sanderson bought it for about $300. By San- 
derson it was carried on till L845, when Messrs. Bratton & Boyer purchased 
it. Boyer after a time withdrew and established a new paper, called The 
American Democrat, rival. J. B. Bratton continuing the Volunteer. He edit 
ed it in connection with hi- duties a- postmaster during the administrations of 
Pierce and Buchanan, and up to I si',:., when he associated Wm. B. Kennedy 
with him in the enterprise. Kennedy continued it till 1871, when he -..Id 
back to Bratton. who conducted the paper alone from 1 S , 1 to IS, i. At that 
time i April. I -77) Mr. Bratton -old it to Eon S. M. Wherry, a farmer in South 
ampton Township, near Shippensburg, and an intelligent citizen, graduate of 
Princeton, who owned it twenty months and then sold it I December. ISiS) to 
Jacob Zeamer. the present manager. The paper has been Democratic from 
its origin, and -till maintains it- position 

In ivJ'J. ,-i paper known as the Carlislt Gazette was started by John Mc- 
Cartney. He continued it for three years when John Wightman seized the 
editorial quill, and ran it for a time. It- subsequent career i- wrapped in 

About the same time, religious journalism was represented by a weekly 
known as The Religious Miscellany. It was published on the press of Flem- 
ing &. Geddes. and was announce i ae " containing information relative to the 
Church of Christ, together with interesting literary and political notices of 
event-, which occur in the world." After struggling "with its evil star" for 
several year-, it peacefully departed for tin- "sweet by ami by. 

In August, 1830, the Messenger •■/' Useful Knowledge was issued from the 

same press, in pamphlet form, under tl ditorial control of Prof. Ro( 

Dickii: After one year's existence, it. too, quietlj breathed its 

last and slept with its ancestors. 


The Valley Sentinel (daily and weekly) was started April 22, 1861, in 
Shippensburg. The gathering clouds of the great civil war, the mustering 
squadrons, the response to the country's call to arms of the fathers and sons 
of the country were taking away from home so many of our people, that the 
citizens of this rich -and beautiful valley felt that they must have a newspaper 
to bring them frequent and correct reports from the army of those who had 
gone away and left at home so many aching hearts. A meeting of prominent 
citizens was had, and a stock company organized, and twenty-eight sub- 
scribers to the stock secured $1,100 to purchase the material for the office. 
The material secured, William Kennedy, of Chambersburg, was placed in 
charge. The first issue was April 22, 1861, published weekly, Democratic 
in politics; and in this style was published until 1865, nearly 1,000 subscribers 
being on its books. 

In 1865 Mr. Kennedy retired from the Sentinel, and in partnership with Mr. 
J. B. Bratton commenced the publication of the American Volunteer, in Car- 
lisle, and the Valley Sentinel was put in charge of Joseph T. Rippey, a young 
maD, a practical printer from Baltimore. Mr. Rippey, tired of the enter- 
prise, left it November 3, 1866, closing the office and stopping the publi- 

November 26, 1866, a meeting of the stockholders tendered the editor- 
ial charge to R. J. Coffey, of Cleversburg, who was then teaching school in 
Sidetown. After a suspension of one month Mr. Coffey revived the publica- 
tion December 5, 1866. Within the next year it was twice enlarged, the old 
Washington hand-press replaced by a Cotterell & Babcock power-press, and 
steam-power introduced, new type, and it became a thirty-two column paper 
and flourished greatly. Mr. Coffey had in the meantime become chief owner 
of the stock, so that on and after July 4, 1869, he became sole proprietor and 
editor. President Johnson appointed Mr. Coffey United States revenue asses- 
sor. In April, 1869, the greater portion of the Sentinel office was destroyed 
by fire, and again in 1870 it had another fire visitation, but, phcenix-like, it 
quickly arose from the ashes, each time with equal or greater facilities 

In 1871 Mr. Coffey sold the office and good- will of the Valley Sentinel to 
Mr. T. F. Singiser, of Mechanicsburg, for the sum of $4,372, reserving the 
collection of all outstanding dues to the office. At this time the circulation 
had reached 1, 538 copies. Six months after the sale Mr. Coffey purchased 
back the paper, and published it until March 10, 1872, when the concern was 
forced into the bankrupt courts, and Mr. Coffey's connection with the paper 
ceased. By order of the United States Court it was sold in May, 1872, and 
George Bobb, A. H. Brinks, H. Manning and H. K. Peffer became the pur- 
chasers. Under the new management the publication was resumed May 30, 
1872, Mr. Peffer in editorial charge. January 16, 1873, the firm becam Pef- 
fer, Brinks & Co., Mr. Manning retiring. In January, 1873, the Sentinel 
proprietors purchased the entire material of the Democratic Safeguard, a de- 
funct newspaper that had a brief and troubled career in Shippensburg. 

May 22, 1874, the office of the Valley Sentinel passed to the hands of the 
present owner, H. K. Peffer, and the office at once removed to its present 
home — Carlisle. Only missing one issue it appeared as an eight-page, forty- 
eight columns, and much improved every way. Sparkling, bright and newsy it 
then started upon a new career. Its prosperity was unexampled; in the spring 
of 1881 Rheem's Hall was purchased, and at once converted into a most com- 
modious and elegant home for the newly arrived paper, where it now issues 
daily and weekly editions to its constituency of eager readers. 


Deoember 18, l ss l. the proprietors made the bold venture of issuing a 
il;iil_\ paper, commencing as a t i n < - column folio. It \\a- welcomed bj man; 
fri.Mi.l-. l.ut some feared it could nol Bustain itself. It has. though. Indeed, 
bo popular and prosperous was the daily thai H has nol only sustained itself, 
but has been enlarged three times, the lasi improvemenl occurring August 

17. L886. tt c menced a modesl five column paper, and now it is a Beven 

column, ever; inch of its space crowded with the latesi news, rigorous editor 
ials, choice literary and mi. ■.•Han is matter and paying advertisements. 

It must nol be supposed thai the foregoing h-t exhausts the products of 
the Carlisle press, [n both the temporary and permaneni form, publications 
have issued thick as autumnal leaves in the valley of Vallambrosa." Sum.' 
of th.' K...ks issuo.l were works of considerable merit. 

THE I'll! SB "1 -Hi Ui Nffl 

For a brief period, during the early part of the present century, John life 
Farland, a politician of th.' Jacksonian school, published at Shippensburg a 

small paper, th.' name of which is not recalled 

Apnl in. L833, th.- Shippensburg Free Press made its appearance under 
the watchful car.' of Augustus l'lomm. On the 19th of the ensuing Septem- 
ber David D. Clark and James Culbertsoi mmencedthe publication of a 

rival paper called The Intelligencer. November 1 I. of the Bame year, th.' two 
papers were consolidated under th.' title of Free Press, Fromm having sold 
his Bstabliahmeni to hi- rivals. Aiter a brief existence the Free Press was 
permitted to die for the want of ••the sinews of war." 

I : May, l s; iT. the first number of the Shippensburg Herald was launched by 
John F. Weishampel. ami its existence guaranteed for about two years. After 
\\ ei-hanrpel's exit from the editorial tripod, rlenrj Glaridge revived the Her 
«/./ for a few week-, and then allowed it "to sleep the sleep that knows no 

On the 1st Of April, 1840, the Cumlxrland ami Franklin (airjrllr. under the 
supervision of William M. Baxter, did obeisance to a patronizing public, ami 
continue.) on the stage for more than a year, and then took an affectionate but 
final farewell. 

Toward the close of 1841 The Cumberland Valley, directed by William A. 
Kinsloe. made it- bid for public favor. On the 2d of November. 1842, its 
ownership was transferred by sale to Robert Koontz and John McCurdy. Aftei 
about six month- Mr. Koontz became sole owner. This relation continued for 
a short time, when Mr. Kinsloe secured the paper a second time. By him it 
was permitted to "depart in peace." 

The Weekly News was born April 26, L844, under the parentage of John 
L. Baker, by whom it was sold, in a few years, to Jacob Bomberger. In 1851 
D. K. Wagner formed a partnership with Mr. Bomberger. and in 1856 -old 
out hi- interest Mr. Bomberger -old In- interesl to Edward \\ Gurriden, 
who published it till 1863, when he disposed of it to Daniel W. Thrush. Esq. 
In 1867 rl passed into the hands of D. K.and.I. G. Wagner, its present owners. 
In 1845 16 Messrs. Cooper & Decheri established b Democratic paper 
called The Valley Spirit, which they removed, in a year or two, to Chambei 
burg. It is now the Democratic i ranklin CJounty. 

Tht Shippensburg Chronicle was established on the 1th of February, 1875, 
by B. K i. dyear and Samuel R. Murray; and was conducted bj them until 
January. 1879, when Mr. 1). A. Orr, now' of the Chambersburg Valley Spirit 
became editor and proprietor. It remained in his possession until Ln 
gust, 15, 1 S T'.'. wh.n Messrs. Sanderson & Bro. became proprietor-. Thesi 


gentlemen conducted it until May 9, 1882, when it passed into the hands of 
Wolfe & McClelland, the former assuming editorial charge. Prof. Wolfe had 
been a teacher for several years, and resigned his position in the Cumberland 
Valley State Normal School to take full charge of the Chronicle. It is ably 
managed and circulates among a good, thrifty class of people. 

Valley Sentinel. — [See account of this newspaper under "Press of Car- 


The first newspaper published in Mechanicsburg was called The Microcosm. 
It began in 1835 under the foster-care of Dr. Jacob Weaver, but yielded up 
its small -world spirit in a short time. The Scliool Visitor, published a short 
time afterward by A. F. Cox, soon shared a similar fate. In due course of 
time (1813 or 1814) The Independent Press appeared under the direction of 
Mr. Sprigman. Its spirit was independent but its body was dependent on 
bread and butter, and hence its early decease. 

In 1853 or 1854 the Mechanicsburg Gleaner was founded by John B. Flynn. 
It was issued with considerable regularity till 185(5, when it was sold to Samuel 
Fernall, who, in turn, disposed of it, in 1858, to W. E. McLaughlin. He 
changed the name of the paper to Weekly Gazette. After a time he sold his 
interest to David J. Carmany, foreman of the office, who made some marked 
improvements, and changed the title to The Cumberland Valley Journal. He 
conducted it in the interest of the g. o. p. till January, 1871, when, owing to 
ill health, he sold the establishment to Joseph Ritner, grandson of the old 
governor of like name. 

In March, 1868, a paper was started by a joint-stock company, and called 
The Valley Democrat. Capt. T. F. Singiser was chosen editor and publisher. 
In December, 1870, the Democrat was purchased by R. H. Thomas and E. C. 
Gardner, the latter having a third interest and acting as local editor. By them 
the name was changed to The Valley Independent. In September, 1872, Mr. 
Thomas purchased the Cumberland Valley Journal and consolidated it with 
his paper, naming the product The Independent Journal, by which title it is 
still known, and under which it advocates non-partisan, independent senti- 

In 1873 Mr. Thomas purchased of Mr. Gardner his interest in the news- 
paper business, and then sold an interest to Maj. H. C. Deming, of Harris- 
burg. In January, 1874, Messrs. Thomas and Deming established The Farmer s 
Friend and Grange Advocate, a paper devoted to the interests of the Patrons 
of Husbandly in the Middle States. It soon secured a large circulation, and 
is now the oldest grange paper in the United States. In 1878 Mr. Deming 
sold his interest to Mr. Thomas, who continued to be its editor and publisher. 

The Saturday Journal was established in October, 1878, by R. H. Thomas, 
Jr. It began and has continued as a Republican paper during political cam- 
paigns, but ordinarily is a newsy society paper. 

Journalism in Mechanicsburg has suffered many reverses, newspaper men 
having suffered the following losses, as shown by the books: Mr. Flynn, §3,000; 
Messrs. Fernall and McLaughlin, $2,000; Mr. Singiser, $5,000; Mr. Car- 
many, $4,500; Mz\ Ritner, $3,500; R. H. Thomas, before securing a good foot- 
hold $8,000. 

About 1S73, a paper called The Bepublicari was started, but sis months' ter- 
restrial existence satisfied its desire for life. In June, 1877, J. J. Miller and 
J. N. Young, started the Semi- Weekly Ledger, a Republican journal. After 
the first year A. J. Houck was received as a partner, vice Young retired. The 
paper was changed to a weekly, but finally disappeared from the scene of 
earthly conflict. 



Other ephemeral publications have issued from Rfechaniosburg, but their 
names being legion, oan noi be recalled. At present the entire field is held by 

It. II. rhomas, proprietor of a mammoth publishing house, which has I q 

developed l>y plnokand perseverance. 


The first effort to establish a newspaper in Newville, was made by ;i Mr. 
Baxter in L843, by the transfer of The Central Engine from Newburg. The 
ezperimont proving unsuooessful, the enterprise continued but a few months. 
The next effort was made in 1858, when J. M. Miller began, in company with 
John ('. Wagner, the publication of The stm- of tin- Valley, a non-partisan 
weekly, which January 1. L885, J. ('. Fosnol bought, his sun. George B. McC, 
conducting same for one year, when Mr Fosnol united it with the Enterprise, 
under name <>f star an'l Enterprise, the double paper achieving a ran' success, 

In December, l s Tl. the Fosnol Bros, brought from Oakville, where ithad 
been established in May. lsTl. a paper known as The Enterprise, commenced 
by J. C. Fosnot, which was amalgamated with The Star of the Valley. 

About 1858, Tht Weekly Native was started by J. •). Herron; but its fail- 
ure to secure a proper patronage gave it a permanent leave of absence from 
the field journalism. 

In May, L882, John W. Strohm began the publication of the Plainfleld 
Tones, at Plainfleld, this county, which, in November, L885, he removed to 
Newville. and called The Newville Times, having a large circulation. In Au- 
gust, l ss :;. Mr. Strohm started a matrimonial paper, called Cupid's Corner, 
which has proved a profitable venture. 


Mount Holly has a paper known as the Mountain Echo, R. M. Earley, 
editor, publisher and proprietor.